In this presentation we will learn - • Different styles of leadership. • Different approaches towards analysis of leadership and leader’s behaviour.
Classification based on theuse of authority -Autocratic leaders –• Are authoritarian.• Gives order ( ideally , without any consultation at all) and expects it to be followed.• Works well if you don’t have much time to accomplish goals or• if employees are well motivated.
Democratic or participative leader - • Participative , consultative and persuasive style. • Encourages subordinates to take more participation in decision making process. • Workers feel like ownership and more participation and contribution in the firm. • The final decision making can be delayed as every decision is consulted alot.
Free rein leader -• Uses his / her power least.• ‘Let it be’ type – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all.• The subordinates are given high degree of freedom in their operations.• Is very useful in bussiness operations where a high degree of creativity is needed.
Analyzing leadership styles. A. The managerial grid. B. Leadership as continuum. C. Situational or contingency approach. D. The path-goal approach. E. Transformational leadership.
The managerial grid.• Very useful technique for analyzing leadership styles and behaviors.• 2 dimensional grid - concern for people and production.• The four corners of the grid -four extreme styles of leadership.
Leadership as continuum• Style of appropriate leadership depends upon- – leader himself/herself . – the followers . – the situation a leader faces.• According to this theory , the leader’s style is mainly influenced by – a) Forces in leader’s personality. b) Forces in subordinates. c) External environment or the situation leader confronts.
Contingency Approach Totally focussed on – study of situations. – leader’s response in the situation.• Recognizes interaction between leader and the group• Gives more strength to belief that leaders are made out of situation.• The leader’s effectiveness determined by how well his/her style fits the given context.• Realizes that leaders are NOT successful in all situations.
Leadership situation determined by 3 factors - Leader-member relations. Task structure. Position power.Fiedler proposed 2 major styles of leadership -a) Task oriented.b) Relations oriented.
LPC scaleAsked to rate coworker on 16 sets ofattributes like being pleasant , boring orinteresting , rejecting or accepting , backbiting or loyal , agreeable or disagreeable.High rating by coworkers indicatesrelationship oriented style.Low rating indicates task orientedleadership style.
Path-goal approach• Gives a lot of importance on situational factors affecting leadership.• Emphasizes relationship between leader’s style and characteristics of subordinates and work setting.• Main task of leader is to-a) Clarify and set goals.b) Help choosing the best path to achieve those goals.c) Remove obstacles from the path defined.
• Leadership Behaviors-• Directive leadership – Leader gives targets , sets instructions, expectations, deadlines, and performance standard.• Supportive Leadership – The leader is approachable and friendly , shows concern for the well being of his/her subordinates , treats everyone equally and avoids favouritism.
• Participative Leadership - Leader invites subordinates to give opinions, share ideas and includes their suggestions in the decision making process.• Achievement-Oriented Leadership - The Leader challenges subordinates to perform at the highest possible level.• Leader sets high standards of performance and excellence ,looks out for continuous improvement , shows confidence that subordinate will achieve high goals.
Transactional and transformational leadership. • Transactional leaders know what needs to be done to achieve goals. • Their main focus is on – 1. Procedures and efficiency. 2. Clarifying roles. 3. Setting up effective organization structure , rewards for performances. 4. Catering to social needs of their followers.
Transformational leaders.• Completely transform an organization by articulating a vision and inspiring followers.• Have a great capacity to motivate and create a favourable environment for organizational change and new organizational culture.• Believe in commanding only those things they themselves are perfect practitioners.• Are generally very selfless.