Chapter 2


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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Public Fire Prevention Organizations and Functions Chapter 2
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of the federal, state and local governments in the prevention of fires and the reduction in fire deaths and injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast the roles between the three levels of government in the prevention of fires </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><ul><li>Name the watershed federal fire programs and describe the events or national conditions that led to their creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the fire prevention functions performed by traditional fire prevention bureaus and describe nontraditional systems for delivery of those services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List federal agencies with fire prevention missions and describe their missions and programs </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fire Prevention - Motives Behind the Cause <ul><li>World War II: massive fire prevention effort </li></ul><ul><li>Fire threatens: jobs, economy, education, health, and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations: profit and non-profit driven </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organizations with the Mission of Fire Prevention <ul><li>Traditional Fire Prevention Bureaus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions performed by fire departments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nontraditional Fire Prevention Bureaus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions performed by other agency/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous: single person doing all types of inspections </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. State Fire Prevention and Protection Programs <ul><li>F ire marshals in 40 states by 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>Provided within the 50 state governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire investigation services </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. State Fire Training Programs <ul><li>Training organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often not associated with fire marshal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are located w ithin state universities or are i ndependent agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training allows to reach full potential of prevention programs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fire Prevention Efforts of the Federal Government <ul><li>For most of our history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geared towards: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of government property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring continuity of government functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public protection an issue for the states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Standards fire research lab, established 1914 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Catalysts for Federal Fire Prevention Programs <ul><li>Hose coupling problem on Bureau of Standards premises, 1904 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire research facility established at the National Institute of Standards and Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Woodrow Wilson, 1920 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First National Fire Prevention Day </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Catalysts for Federal Fire Prevention Programs (cont’d.) <ul><li>President Warren Harding, 1922 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Fire Prevention Week </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection of manufacturing facilities that were preparing for war, 1941 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Bureau for Industrial Protection established </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. President Truman’s Fire Prevention Conference <ul><li>Washington DC, May of 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>34 new committees on fire prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D raft model statute permitting adoption of model codes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conferences by 18 states to build on work begun in Washington </li></ul>
  12. 12. Federal Agencies Involved in Fire Prevention <ul><li>Public Law 93-478, 1974 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First major federal program to reduce fire threat to general public </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control <ul><li>Established by the 1968 Fire Research Safety Act </li></ul><ul><li>America Burning report: significant force for fire prevention/protection in U.S. history </li></ul><ul><li>Called for establishment of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Fire Academy (NFA) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. United States Fire Administration <ul><li>Established by the 1974 Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act </li></ul><ul><li>Basic areas of efforts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire/emergency response personnel training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire safety technology, testing, and research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection, analysis, and dissemination of pertinent data </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. FIGURE 2-7 The focus of the FESHE conferences is higher education, sharing ideas, and addressing new challenges. (Source: U.S. Fire Administration)
  16. 16. National Institute of Standards and Technology <ul><li>Formerly, National Bureau of Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Fire Research at NBS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today, NIST’s Building and Fire Research Laboratory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building materials performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire service technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire loss reduction </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco Firearms, and Explosives <ul><li>Mission: regulation, t ax collection, protection of the public </li></ul><ul><li>National Laboratory complex, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol and Tobacco Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forensic Science Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Research Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assists state and local agencies in investigation of arson and bombings </li></ul>
  18. 18. The National Interagency Fire Center <ul><li>Formed in Boise, Idaho, 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Member of the National Wildfire Coordinating Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>97% - 98% of wildland fires extinguished during first burning period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildfires by recreational campfires 80% reduced if patrols, user contacts, and signage used </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission <ul><li>Created by Congress in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform and educate the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall unsafe products </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Department of Housing and Urban Development <ul><li>Fire safety impact through its Minimum Property Standards (MPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum quality/safety/durability standards on (federally backed mortgages) properties </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Department of Defense <ul><li>Fire prevention programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect U.S. military assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the ability of the branches to carry out their missions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspectors often called on to help fix problems, unlike municipal fire inspectors </li></ul>
  22. 22. Occupational Safety and Health Administration <ul><li>Established by the 1971 Occupational Safety and Health Act </li></ul><ul><li>Mission: work-place safety </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire and explosion hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire brigade staffing, training, and operation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Other Federal Agencies <ul><li>Many agencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in fire research or extensive fire prevention programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) </li></ul><ul><li>Department of State </li></ul><ul><li>Veterans Administration </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Traditionally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire prevention responsibility of the states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F ederal involvement limited to protection of federal government assets, and research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watershed events for federal involvement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1947 Fire Prevention Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1973 America Burning report </li></ul></ul>