Hazardous Materials and Warning Systems   Chapter 10
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the U.S. Department of Transportation hazardous materials warning system, including its advant...
Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Explain the types of information available for first responders contained in the 2008  Emerge...
Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Explain the issues that make weapons of mass destruction incidents complex and the reasons fo...
Introduction <ul><li>Overview of systems designed to warn first responders of the dangers of hazardous materials  </li></u...
Hazardous Materials and First Responders <ul><li>In 1940s: emergence of incidents as a result of new products made of cert...
Two Major Warning Systems <ul><li>Have specific purpose or function to provide a heads-up warning for first responders </l...
U.S. Department of Transportation System <ul><li>Responsible for the regulations for the safe transportation of hazardous ...
DOT System Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Does not provide specific information of every hazardous material </li></u...
National Fire Protection Association System <ul><li>NFPA: nonprofit corporation with mission of reducing impact/burden of ...
National Fire Protection Association System (cont’d.) Figure 10-1  Example of a NFPA 704 hazard warning placard used for f...
NFPA 704 System Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Warns first responder to take notice of hazardous materials stored in...
NFPA Placard Identification System
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act <ul><li>EPCRAs designate SERCs which designate LEPCs </li></ul><ul><li>...
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) <ul><li>Made information available to ensure that the latest data are ...
Environmental Protection Agency <ul><li>Mission is to protect and enhance environment </li></ul><ul><li>Lead agency for ca...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the EPA <ul><li>Developed a chemical reactivity worksheet for first re...
U.S. Coast Guard <ul><li>Offers a chemical and hazardous response information system on CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Contains ...
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health <ul><li>Federal agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
Federal Bureau of Investigation and the National Domestic Preparedness Office <ul><li>Clearinghouse for all WMDs </li></ul...
Department of Defense <ul><li>Several sources have interests and expertise in biological and/or chemical terrorism </li></...
Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission <ul><li>In the past, provided training to state and local emerg...
Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (cont’d.) <ul><li>Three forms of radioactivity are of concern t...
Radioactive Materials Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Almost any radioactive material can be used to construct a radi...
Radioactive Materials Advantages and Disadvantages (cont’d.) Figure 10-7  Radiation protective clothing for firefighters
Radioactive Materials Advantages and Disadvantages (cont’d.) <ul><li>Amount of emergency exposure to radiation by first re...
Terrorism <ul><li>Terroristic acts occurring more often in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>WMD attacks have four areas of difficult...
Terrorism (cont’d.) <ul><li>National Incident Management System developed after 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>New ICS Systems dev...
Summary <ul><li>Dramatic increase in the number and variety of hazardous materials since the 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>Warni...
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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

  1. 1. Hazardous Materials and Warning Systems Chapter 10
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the U.S. Department of Transportation hazardous materials warning system, including its advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the National Fire Protection Association standard 704 warning system, including its advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the requirements, purposes, and value of Materials Safety Data Sheets to first responders </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Explain the types of information available for first responders contained in the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the responsibilities and duties of state and local emergency planning committees and how their plans and documents assist first responders with information </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Explain the issues that make weapons of mass destruction incidents complex and the reasons for the development of the National Incident Management System </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Overview of systems designed to warn first responders of the dangers of hazardous materials </li></ul><ul><li>Review of legislative actions designed to control hazardous materials </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of regulations enacted for those who are likely to encounter accidentally or intentionally released hazardous materials </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hazardous Materials and First Responders <ul><li>In 1940s: emergence of incidents as a result of new products made of certain chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials: pose unreasonable risk to safety, health, and property when transported in commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government enacted legislation </li></ul><ul><li>NRT, EPA, and U.S. Coast Guard play major roles </li></ul>
  7. 7. Two Major Warning Systems <ul><li>Have specific purpose or function to provide a heads-up warning for first responders </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous material placard utilized in transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color-coded hazardous warning system for fixed facilities </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. U.S. Department of Transportation System <ul><li>Responsible for the regulations for the safe transportation of hazardous materials in various transportation modes </li></ul><ul><li>Placard system designed and used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles that transport materials over highways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification numbers to categorize chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System divided into nine major classes </li></ul>
  9. 9. DOT System Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Does not provide specific information of every hazardous material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill of lading or MSDS should solve this problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes recommended isolation and evacuation distances and response guidelines with special instructions for specific products </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions to the transportation regulations may allow certain materials to be shipped without labels, placards, or markings </li></ul>
  10. 10. National Fire Protection Association System <ul><li>NFPA: nonprofit corporation with mission of reducing impact/burden of fire and other hazards in communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed consensus-based codes & standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NFPA 704 system: warning method used for materials stored in buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamond-shaped figures divided into four quadrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color coded corresponding to one of three hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbered 0 to 4 regarding hazard greatness </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. National Fire Protection Association System (cont’d.) Figure 10-1 Example of a NFPA 704 hazard warning placard used for fixed facilities Figure 10-2 NFPA placard
  12. 12. NFPA 704 System Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Warns first responder to take notice of hazardous materials stored in the building </li></ul><ul><li>Many fixed plant facilities have more than one hazardous product on hand </li></ul><ul><li>Placard located on the exterior of the business summarizes the highest hazard of each categorized chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Not possible to know exact type, amount and location of chemicals present </li></ul>
  13. 13. NFPA Placard Identification System
  14. 14. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act <ul><li>EPCRAs designate SERCs which designate LEPCs </li></ul><ul><li>Four major area requirements to protect the community and first responders from hazardous materials releases are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency release notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous chemical storage reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic chemical release inventory </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC) <ul><li>Made information available to ensure that the latest data are available to first responders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Via Internet through CHEMTREC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updated daily by the chemical manufacturers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guide can be downloaded online </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Environmental Protection Agency <ul><li>Mission is to protect and enhance environment </li></ul><ul><li>Lead agency for carrying out Title III reporting and training requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for hazardous waste site operations and superfund waste site cleanup activities </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as chair for the 14 federal agencies that participate as the National Response Team </li></ul>
  17. 17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the EPA <ul><li>Developed a chemical reactivity worksheet for first responders </li></ul><ul><li>Provides hazardous properties of chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Gives hazards involved with mixing a number of chemicals as specified by the user </li></ul>
  18. 18. U.S. Coast Guard <ul><li>Offers a chemical and hazardous response information system on CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Contains physical data and emergency procedures in searchable format </li></ul><ul><li>Local fire departments have responsibility of notifying the Coast Guard when a hazardous materials release will impact the coastal waters </li></ul><ul><li>EPA has responsibility for inland waters </li></ul>
  19. 19. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health <ul><li>Federal agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for investigating the toxicity of workroom environments and all other matters relating to safe industrial practices </li></ul><ul><li>Provides online hazmat guide </li></ul><ul><li>Tests and certifies respiratory and protective devices and tests air sampling detector tubes </li></ul>
  20. 20. Federal Bureau of Investigation and the National Domestic Preparedness Office <ul><li>Clearinghouse for all WMDs </li></ul><ul><li>Single program and policy coordination office for domestic preparedness programs for state and local communities </li></ul><ul><li>Acts only as coordinating/facilitating point for all efforts in training, information dissemination, and standards and policy development regarding terrorist incidence response </li></ul>
  21. 21. Department of Defense <ul><li>Several sources have interests and expertise in biological and/or chemical terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>SBCCOM at Aberdeen proving ground administers domestic preparedness training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops standards and tests for chemical protective clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some information is classified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotline is provided </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission <ul><li>In the past, provided training to state and local emergency personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted in a response to an incident/emergency at a DOE or an NRC licensed facility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presently starting to provide training to state and local emergency personnel along major U.S. transportation corridors that carry radiological materials </li></ul>
  23. 23. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (cont’d.) <ul><li>Three forms of radioactivity are of concern to firefighters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamma radiation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Radioactive Materials Advantages and Disadvantages <ul><li>Almost any radioactive material can be used to construct a radiological dispersal device (RDD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to have significant impact on target population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to invoke the fear of nuclear war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreads large amounts of radioactive materials greater distances than nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should determine way to safely enter contaminated areas by measuring radiation present and by being able to protect themselves </li></ul>
  25. 25. Radioactive Materials Advantages and Disadvantages (cont’d.) Figure 10-7 Radiation protective clothing for firefighters
  26. 26. Radioactive Materials Advantages and Disadvantages (cont’d.) <ul><li>Amount of emergency exposure to radiation by first responders is usually allowed to exceed those amounts considered tolerable to persons who work continuously with radioactive materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished by raising exposure, within limits for single doses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entry may be permitted as long as the whole body exposure does not exceed 100 rem </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Terrorism <ul><li>Terroristic acts occurring more often in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>WMD attacks have four areas of difficulties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number of persons needing immediate assistance at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multifunctions, some of a technical nature, conducted simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate involvement of federal and state agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelming response of the national media </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Terrorism (cont’d.) <ul><li>National Incident Management System developed after 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>New ICS Systems developed containing following components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command and management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness resource management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications and information management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting technologies and ongoing management and maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Dramatic increase in the number and variety of hazardous materials since the 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>Warning systems developed to assist in the identification of hazardous materials </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid increase in the use of WMDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NIMS has developed system to plan for/coordinate efforts of all agencies concerned w/ incidents of WMD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firefighters should review lessons of the past and build on those experiences </li></ul>

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