M E N U <ul><li>quick facts about apple </li></ul><ul><li>industry analysis </li></ul><ul><li>swot analysis </li></ul><ul><li>pest analysis </li></ul><ul><li>value chain </li></ul><ul><li>value creation activities </li></ul><ul><li>activity system </li></ul><ul><li>perceptual maps (competitors) </li></ul>
QUICK FACTS Year of Founding: Company Type: Ticker Symbol: Stock Exchange: CEO : COO: Fiscal year-end: 2008 Employees: 2008 Revenue ($ mil.): 2007 Income ($ mil.): Primary NAICS code: Primary SIC code: Top Competitors: HHI: Ranking: Brands/Divisions/Affiliate: 1976 Public Company AAPL NASDAQ Steven P. Jobs Timothy D. Cook September 35,100 32,479 3,496 334111 ( Electronic Computer Manufacturing ) 3571 ( Electronic Computers ) Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft 3026 (calculated using sales of closest competitors) #103(Fortune 500) & #39(FT Global 500) Apple Computer Inc, MacBook Pro, Xserve, Mac OS X, Intel, iPod, iPhone, Safari NOTE: For the purpose of this study the “Personal Computer industry” has been the chosen primary focus as it is the largest revenue stream for Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014, United States (408) 996-1010, Fax: (408) 974-2113 www.apple.com
QUICK FACTS – Milestones April 1, 1976 Apple Computer is founded by Jobs and Wozniak July, 1976 Apple launches its first computer April 17, 1977 Apple introduces its first mainstream computer, the Apple II Jan 24, 1984 Apple introduces its first Macintosh Computer 1984 Advertizing campaign for the first Macintosh Computer Sept 17, 1985 Sculley syndrome – Steve Jobs resigns from Apple Mar 2, 1987 Apple’s Macintosh II is introduced March, 1990 Mac II Line expands (IIx, IIcx, IIci & IIcfx) 1991 The emergence of PowerBook 1993 Apple introduces 19 computers; Sculley ousted as chief May, 1995 Apple lets third parties install its OS; huge failure Dec 20, 1996 Steve Jobs returns to Apple as Adviser May 6, 1998 Apple unveils the iMac July 2, 1999 The dawn of the iBook Oct 23, 2001 The March of the iPod – iPods introduced at $399 July 31, 2004 Steve Jobs treated for Cancer Jan 9, 2007 the iPhone (17.4 million sold since 2007) Oct 14, 2008 Jobs jokes about his health concerns Jan 14, 2009 Jobs announces leave of absence for health issues
INDUSTY ANALYSIS – NAICS INDUSTRY DFNITION 2002 NAICS code NAICS Industry Definition 31 – 33 The Manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The assembling of component parts of manufactured products is considered manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified in Sector 23, Construction. 334 Industries in the Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing subsector group establishments that manufacture computers, computer peripherals, communications equipment, and similar electronic products, and establishments that manufacture components for such products. Convergence of technology motivates this NAICS subsector. 3341 This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing and/or assembling electronic computers, such as mainframes, personal computers, workstations, laptops, and computer servers; and computer peripheral equipment, such as storage devices, printers, monitors, input/output devices and terminals. Computers can be analog, digital, or hybrid. 3342 This industry group comprises establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following manufacturing activities: (1) telephone equipment; (2) radio and television broadcasting and wireless communications equipment; and (3) other communications equipment. 51 The Information sector comprises establishments engaged in the following processes: (a) producing and distributing information and cultural products, (b) providing the means to transmit or distribute these products as well as data or communications, and (c) processing data. 511 Industries in the Publishing Industries (except Internet) subsector group establishments engaged in the publishing of newspapers, magazines, other periodicals, and books, as well as directory and mailing list and software publishing. 5112 This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in computer software publishing or publishing and reproduction. Establishments in this industry carry out operations necessary for producing and distributing computer software, such as designing, providing documentation, assisting in installation, and providing support services to software purchasers. These establishments may design, develop, and publish, or publish only.
INDUSTY ANALYSIS - HHI, STOCK; INDUSTYR AND SECTOR MAPS
INDUSTY ANALYSIS - Competitors INDIVIDUAL STENGTHS HIP BUT CAN MAC SUCCESSFULLY MIGRATE TO LOW-PRICED OFFERINGS FOR VOLUME IT’S ALL ABOUT EXECUTION BROADER PRODUCT PORTFOLIO THAN COMPETITORS LOSS LEADER IN PCs
INDUSTY ANALYSIS - Competitors TALK OF THE STOCK This is the last 5 year stock performance between Apple and its competitors. If the stock price of any company can be considered as a proxy of investor/market confidence, Apple definitely is proving a point above.
SWOT – STRENGTHS (internal) Steve Jobs’ unparallel leadership and vision for Apple Inc. over the past three decades Apple – not just a brand; it’s a cult The “cool” image that the company has developed over the years Apple’s emphasis on innovation and going back to the drawing board for all the products.
SWOT - STRENGTH Apple’s geographic location gives it a strategic advantage and thus is a strength Only because you have a hammer doesn’t mean every problem is a nail: Apple products typically have a simple and appealing design as against competitor’s overcomplicated solutions
SWOT - WEAKNESS Although a succession is planned, what can be deemed as a potential weakness is the company’s dependence on Steve Jobs’ involvement and vision. His absence has affected company performance and thus investor confidence in the past. Apple’s capital structure is NOT optimized. They are not leveraged and thus their reliance on equity is an innate weakness. Though this is an industry trend, it still makes apple vulnerable to a stock acquisition, despite any poison pills or other defenses they may have developed.
SWOT - OPPORTUNITIES The potential size of the Chinese and Indian markets makes PC growth in these countries very high. Even with their low penetration rates, China and India accounted for 25% of industry growth last year and estimates are that they represented more than 20% of PC unit growth in 2008. A shift in age demographic is an opportunity for Apple. Typically, younger audience prefer Apple’s products due to its simplicity, functionality and design With the industry trend moving towards Ultra Low Cost Computers (ULCC), Apple’s MAC computers if migrated to low price offerings can create higher volume in sales Given the upside potential from low penetration rates (China is at 17% and India is at 9%, strong growth over the next five years is expected, with China growing PC units at 16% per year and India at 18%. Apple has created opportunities based on its innovative products and the trend continues
SWOT - OPPORTUNITIES A shift in age demographic is an opportunity for Apple. Typically, younger audience prefer Apple’s products due to its simplicity, functionality and design. With the industry trend moving towards Ultra Low Cost Computers (ULCC), Apple’s MAC computers if migrated to low price offerings can create higher volume in sales
SWOT - THREATS Apple distinguishes itself based on the simplicity, effectiveness and form factor and uniqueness of its products. It is a price leader but its products justify this price. However, competition is mimicking Apple by attacking the ‘uniqueness’ mentioned previously and due to larger volumes and highly diversified product portfolios, competition can generate more effective pricing, thereby stealing market shares. Despite recent efforts, Apple has been unable to create an image of seriousness about its products (iPhone for pushing emails and higher end MACs for office use) The brand has a perceptual map which associates it with fun, cool and hip but not dependent; thereby unable to cater to the office audience.
PEST ANALYSIS In 2008, the federal budget spent $610 billion on social security, $330 billion on Medicare, $204 billion on medicaid, $607 billion on military, a whopping $244 billion as interest on national debt and a collective $936 billion on everything else; a small fraction of which was stimulus to sectors like education and infrastructure development which would further stimulate demand for computers. POLITICAL – The Bush Era The 911 attack puts US in war mode. The war in Afghanistan follows which costs US hundreds of billion of dollars In 2000, the US federal debt was $5.6 trillion. George W declared as winner of the 200 presidential elections. His priority was pushing tax-cuts right away. Three major tax cuts were passed by 2003 May 1, 2003:federal debt rises to $6.5 trillion Nov 3, 2004: Bush wins re-election May 1, 2003:federal debt rises to $6.5 trillion May 1, 2003:federal debt rises to $6.5 trillion 2004:federal debt rises to $7.5 trillion 2005:federal debt rises to $7.8 trillion 2006:federal debt rises to $8.3 trillion 2007:federal debt rises to $8.7 trillion
PEST ANALYSIS – Political Snapshot 2008 Official Name: United States of America Form of State: Federal Republic Legal System: Based on the constitution of 1787 Federal Legislature: Bicameral Electoral System: Universal direct suffrage from the age of 18 National Elections: November 4 th 2008 (presidential, House of Representatives and one third of senate Head of the State: Executive president elected by popular vote via an electoral college of 538 members, for a maximum of two four-year terms. Barack Obama (Democrat) replaced George W Bush (Republican) as president on January 20th 2009, with Joe Biden as vice-president State Legislatures: Each of the 50 states, except Nebraska (which has a unicameral system), has a legislature that essentially follows the model of the federal legislature. National Government: The administration is appointed by and responsible to the president. Cabinet secretaries: Agriculture Tom Vilsack Commerce To be announced Defense Robert Gates Education Arne Duncan Energy Steven Chu Health & human services Tom Daschle Homeland security Janet Napolitano Housing & urban development Shaun Donovan Interior Ken Salazar Justice Eric Holder Labor Hilda Solis State Hillary Clinton Treasury Timothy Geithner Chairman of the Federal Reserve: Ben Bernanke
PEST ANALYSIS ECONOMIC The National Debt has steadily increased from 2000 to 2008 As can be seen, the unemployment rate through the first half of this decade was steadily declining until the economic meltdown in late 2007.
PEST ANALYSIS By observing a 12 month moving average of the inflation rate instead of the annual inflation rate, we can observe that inflation has risen from around 2% in 2000 to 3.5% in 2009. The all time high in this time period though was a little over 4%. ECONOMIC Inflation directly affects the operations of any capital intensive company like Apple due to a rise in transportation, raw materials and therefore inbound logistics of the company.
PEST ANALYSIS - ECONOMIC While the Real GDP during the period 2000-2008 has grown, the percentage change in this growth tells another story. 2004 can be marked as the point on the timeline when the GDP growth stopped matching the growth in the country’s national debt described earlier. Unemployment sharply rose towards the end of the decade
PEST ANALYSIS - ECONOMIC The above graph is the Consumer Sentiment Index maintained by the University of Michigan. A discrete look at the timeline in the left graph above (University of Michigan) again points out 2004 as the beginning of an economic end. This index was adjusted to 100 in 1976. The right graph shows consumer sentiment from January 2000 to July 2008 and is seasonally adjusted.
PEST ANALYSIS - ECONOMIC Although declining GDP numbers have a negative impact on the sales of personal computers through 2007-2008, 2009 and onwards is expected to be a year of GDP healing and sales recovery for the industry. This may be attributed to recent economic policies declared by the Obama administration such as stimulus packages
PEST ANALYSIS - SOCIAL 2000 2008 Average Personal Saving have dropped over the past decade. In general, people have become more dependent on credit. In addition to high levels of debt, Americans tend to save very little, with rates of savings actually dipping into negative numbers in recent years for periods of time unseen since the Great Depression. When Apple Inc. launched its online store selling 'applications' for the iPhone device this summer, many people dismissed it as a niche sales channel for technogeeks. But chief executive Steve Jobs recently revealed that in its first month, users downloaded more than 60 million programmes and the business sold in excess of $1m (pound 500m) in applications each day. Jobs told the Wall Street Journal that applications could "crest half a billion soon". Now companies in every sector are tapping into 'application culture' but now things are changing, partly because the industry is maturing, and partly because of the recession. Suddenly there is much more interest in products that apply the flip side of Moore's law: instead of providing ever-increasing performance at a particular price, they provide a particular level of performance at an ever-lower price. The most visible manifestation of this trend is the rise of the netbook, or small, low-cost laptop.
PEST ANALYSIS - SOCIAL Age demographic accepting internet as a medium of life has dramatically increased in the past decade. Tech Savvy Geek Web 2.0 Internet savvy Online Shoppers WORD POOL
PEST ANALYSIS - TECHNOLOGY Exponential increase in availability of Wireless Internet Access Computing taken to a higher level with the invention of nanotechnology Advances in technology gave easier and cheaper access to global positioning systems Commercial use of Biometric Technology made possible measuring of physical characteristics for security and identification Few examples amongst countless Tech advances between 2000-09
VALUECHAIN - INDUSTRY Silicon Manufacturer H/W and Component Manufacturer OS and S/W Manufacturer BRANDED O E M Retailer Wholesaler Customer
VALUECHAIN - APPLE Silicon Manufacturer H/W and Component Manufacturer OS and S/W Manufacturer BRANDED O E M Retailer Wholesaler Customer
VALUE CREATING ACTIVITIES Inbound Logistics: Innovation CEO’s vision and passion Investing in higher quality raw material and components relative to competitors Operations: Superior R&D Developing important strategic alliances (Intel, AT&T) Vertical system Integration Diversification of product portfolio Hiring the right people for the right job Outbound Logistics: Timely market entry of products Price Leader Marketing and Sales: Effective and superior Marketing Campaigns Unparallel shopping experience to end customer Training customer reps for in-store sales Effective Promotion of online sales After sales service: Unparallel and unquestionable service (ex. Genius Bar)
Opportunity : Lack of competition to PCs Value Proposition : Cool, Hip, Simple and yet advanced computers Target : Younger audience (not afraid to try/break stereotypes) Revenue Model : Price leader Capabilities: R&D, Timely Implementation, CEO’s vision Activities: Refer to activity system on next slide Business Processes Resources (Finance: equity, HR – high quality, Technology: state of the art)
APPLE’s ACTIVITY SYSTEM Innovate Timely Market Entry Price Leader Branding – the Cool Cult Strong HR skills: Hire right Product Differentiation: am a Mac, am a PC Innate Vertical Integration Diversification – Complimentary success from iTunes and iPhone Consumer Targeting Global Supply Chain
PERCEPTUAL MAP High Quality Expensive Cheap Low Quality