Introduction..• Hydrogen is most abundant element in luminous universe• It rarely found in earth as H2• Largest reservoar of hydrogen in the world• Hydrogen as renewable energy with very good prospect• Producing the Hydrogen
Hydrogen isotopes..HydrogenDeuterium : known as heavy water if bounding with OTritium : radioactive matter
Physical Properties..• Second lowest boiling point (-272.78 C)• Density ; 0.08375 kg/m3• Specific volume : 11.940 m3/kg• Follow the ideal gas law behavior• At high pressure, its behaviour added by compressibility factor,measured directly• It can diffuse through material
Chemical property..• It can reacting with almost all organic or chemical elements..
Fuel property..• Burns with air and form H2O• HHV : 285.83 kj/mol• LHV : 241.82 kj/mol• Lowest energy density
Compared with another fuel..• Methane has >3 times energy content than hydrogen..• Gasoline has >3000x energy density than Hydrogen..• That’s why we don’t burn H2 as fuel..
Fuel cell..• What is fuel cell..?
Why fuel cell..• Maximum eficiency 83%• Rest 17% is heat generated• Gasoline engine had efficiency 18-38%• Turbine engine had efficiency 40%
Fuel Cell Vehicles..• Operate two times more efficiency (fuel tank to wheel) than most efficient gasoline cars..• Analyzed as : 7kg Hydrogen Compressed 35 Mpa can travel 700km equal with 300 l gas tank equal with 70 l gasoline tank
Traditional hydrogen application..• Worlds consumption 50 million tonnes/yr• Ammonia production• Petroleum industryhydrodesulfurization, hydrocracking
Apllication hydrogen in vehicle..• The chicken-or-egg problem..• Efficiency comparison between hydrogen power to nuclear power..
Target improvement of fuel cell..
Where the positions of Indonesia..?• Past• Now• Future
HydrogenProduction..• Chemical reforming• Electrolysis• Thermochemical process
Chemical reforming..• Almost always implies steam, so commonly called steam Reforming• Basically, consisit of two steps, high temperature and low temperature• At each steps difference based of catalyst• Low temperature steps, almost used to increase yield and efficiency• Then, separated until 99.98% pure hydrogen
Electrolysis..• Splitting Hydrogen and Oxygen with electricity power• It’s produced 99.99% pure Hydrogen• Conventional electolyzer (AWE)• Polymer electrolyte Membrane (PEM)• Solid Electrolyzer (SOE)
How PEM and SOE works..
Thermochemical Process..• Thermal decomposition, namely thermolysis• Started with heating pure water,reaction start 2000C and finished 5000C• Thermochemical : using cyclic chemical reaction, employs reacting chemicals• Can reduce the temperature• Potential to hybridize with nuclear reactor
Thermochemical Hydrogen Process..
Conclusion..• Hydrogen is very potential future energy• Hydrogen can produced more clean and more efficient now• Nuclear grown and Hydrogen producing can move side by side• Study hard and never ending trial and error make this happen
Thankyou..Waiting for thenext season : Hydrogen Production (detailed)