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Biomass Fuelled Power Plants



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Biomass Fuelled Power Plants

  2. 2. OUTLINES  Introduction  Biomass and its sources  Biomass power plant and its working  Biomass power generation modes  Social benefits  Economic viability  Prospective segments & challenges  Conclusions  References
  3. 3. INTRODUCTI ON Enough Biomass resources in the world to cover the world’s energy demand. Using Biomass sources for power generation is CO2 neutral.
  4. 4. WHAT IS BIOMASS ?  Biomass is a renewable energy source that is derived from living or recently living organisms.  It is produced by metabolic activities of biological systems (plants and animals) and/or products of their decomposition or conversion  The chemical and energetic value of those materials is based on the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bond  Biomass suitable for utilization must have a net heating value
  5. 5. SOURCES OF BIOMASS •Comes from the forest •Can also come from plant and animal waste •Wood and waste can be found virtually anywhere
  6. 6. OVERVIEW  Biomass can be chemically and biochemically treated to convert it to a energy-rich fuel.  Thermal energy is extracted by means of combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification.  Energy derived from biomass is mostly used to generate electricity or to produce heat.
  7. 7. KEY COMPONENTS OF BIOMASS POWER PLANT  Fuel storage and handling equipment  Combustor / furnace  Boiler  Pumps  Fans  Steam turbine  Generator  Condenser  Cooling tower  Exhaust / emissions controls  System controls (automated).
  9. 9. BIOMASS POWER GENERATION MODES  Different types of biomass power generation modes are  Combustion  Gasification combustion  Mixed burning  Gasification mixed burning
  10. 10. BIOMASS POWER GENERATION MODES  COMBUSTION  Biomass burned directly in boiler to produce steam to generate electricity  Main advantage  Mature technology  Low running cost  Simple biomass pretreatment  Disadvantage  Low efficiency at small scale  single biomass fuel  large investment  Application  Large scale power generation
  11. 11. BIOMASS POWER GENERATION MODE  GASIFICATION COMBUSTION  solid biomass breaks down to form a flammable gas.  Biomass gasified first and then fuel gas burned in gas turbine or engine
  12. 12.  Gasification  Advantage  High efficiency at small scale  Flexible in capacity  Low investment  Disadvantage  Complex equipment  High maintenance cost  Applications  Medium and small system  Combined cycles , which combine gas turbines and steam turbines to produce electricity
  13. 13. BIOMASS POWER GENERATION MODE  MIXED BURNING  Biomass mixed with coal and burned in boiler  Main advantage  Simple and convenient operation  Least investment if no reconstruction of existing device  Main disadvantage  Strict biomass pretreatment and quality  Some impact on original system.  Application  Suitable for timber biomass.
  14. 14. BIOMASS POWER GENERATION MODES  Gasification –mixed burning  Biomass gasified first and then fuel gas burned with coal in boiler  Main advantage  Universal application  Low impact on original coal-fired system  Economic benefit  Main disadvantage  Complex management  Certain metal erosion problem  Application  Power generation system for mass biomass.
  15. 15. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES AND OPTIONS AVAILABLE  Biomass liquefaction via pyrolysis  A process similar to Gasification  Heating of Hydrocarbons in zero oxygen condition  Condenses the vapors to obtain Bio-oil (pyrolysis oil)  Bio-oil is easily transportable, store and handle  Can be combusted in boiler for heat or electrical generation
  16. 16. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES AND OPTIONS AVAILABLE  Organic plant based oil(crude palm oil-CPO)  Generation of electricity using CPO.  Biogas anaerobic digestion. a type of fermentation that converts organic material into biogas.  it mainly consists of methane (approximately 60%) and carbon dioxide(approximately 40%).  Power generation using scrubbed methane gas.
  17. 17. SOCIAL BENEFITS OF BIOMASS POWER GENERATION  Biomass power generates electricity that is:  reliable,  domestically produced,  economically competitive and  environmentally sustainable.  Since biomass energy uses domestically- produced fuels, biomass power:  greatly reduces our dependence on foreign energy sources,  increases our national security and  provides greater fuel diversity.
  18. 18. ECONOMIC BENEFITS  Minimizes cost involved with waste disposal  Can generate money for community  It provide job opportunity in rural areas  Power from biomass gasifier based plants are cheap in rural areas  Overall cost of installation, running, transmission, labor etc. per unit cost of electricity is low.
  19. 19. PROSPECTIVE SEGMENTS & CHALLENGES  Biomass Combustion power plant is attractive to:  Industrial Factories owners  Plantation/Mill owners  Sugar cane (Bagasse)  Rice (Rice Husks)  Wood/Paper (Wood Wastes)  Corn (Corn Wastes)  Palm Oil (Empty Fruit Bunches, Shells)  Cassava (Roots, Stems)  Able to supply both Electricity and Heat (steam) for factory use  Main challenges:  securing the long term supply of Biomass fuel source at stable prices  selling price of electricity, if connected to the grid to sell electricity
  20. 20. CONCLUSIONS  Uses low cost waste materials  Recycling waste materials can be a solution to the problems with disposing of waste products  Reduced dependence on foreign oil  Biomass plants operate in a reliable and consistent manner providing crucial base load power generation.
  21. 21. REFERENCES  “Biomass power generation modes.”  B H KHAN, “Non-conventional energy resources” , 3RD edition, pub. year 2006  “Biomass energy”  Pyrolysis and Other Thermal Processing. [U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program] s/pyrolysis.html