Biomass Fuelled Power Plants


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Biomass Fuelled Power Plants

  2. 2. OUTLINES Introduction Biomass and its sources Biomass power plant and its working Biomass power generation modes Social benefits Economic viability Prospective segments & challenges Conclusions References
  3. 3. INTRODUCTI ONEnough Biomassresources in theworld to cover theworld’s energydemand.Using Biomasssources for powergeneration is CO2neutral.
  4. 4. WHAT IS BIOMASS ? Biomass is a renewable energy source that is derived from living or recently living organisms. It is produced by metabolic activities of biological systems (plants and animals) and/or products of their decomposition or conversion The chemical and energetic value of those materials is based on the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bond Biomass suitable for utilization must have a net heating value
  5. 5. SOURCES OF BIOMASS•Comes from theforest•Can also comefrom plant andanimal waste•Wood and wastecan be foundvirtually anywhere
  6. 6. OVERVIEW Biomass can be chemically and biochemically treated to convert it to a energy-rich fuel. Thermal energy is extracted by means of combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Energy derived from biomass is mostly used to generate electricity or to produce heat.
  7. 7. KEY COMPONENTS OFBIOMASS POWER PLANT Fuel storage and handling equipment Combustor / furnace Boiler Pumps Fans Steam turbine Generator Condenser Cooling tower Exhaust / emissions controls System controls (automated).
  9. 9. BIOMASS POWER GENERATIONMODES Different types of biomass power generation modes are  Combustion  Gasification combustion  Mixed burning  Gasification mixed burning
  10. 10. BIOMASS POWER GENERATIONMODES COMBUSTION  Biomass burned directly in boiler to produce steam to generate electricity Main advantage  Mature technology  Low running cost  Simple biomass pretreatment Disadvantage  Low efficiency at small scale  single biomass fuel  large investment Application  Large scale power generation
  11. 11. BIOMASS POWER GENERATIONMODE GASIFICATION COMBUSTION  solid biomass breaks down to form a flammable gas.  Biomass gasified first and then fuel gas burned in gas turbine or engine
  12. 12.  Gasification  Advantage  High efficiency at small scale  Flexible in capacity  Low investment  Disadvantage  Complex equipment  High maintenance cost  Applications  Medium and small system  Combined cycles , which combine gas turbines and steam turbines to produce electricity
  13. 13. BIOMASS POWER GENERATIONMODE MIXED BURNING  Biomass mixed with coal and burned in boiler Main advantage  Simple and convenient operation  Least investment if no reconstruction of existing device Main disadvantage  Strict biomass pretreatment and quality  Some impact on original system. Application  Suitable for timber biomass.
  14. 14. BIOMASS POWER GENERATIONMODES Gasification –mixed burning  Biomass gasified first and then fuel gas burned with coal in boiler Main advantage  Universal application  Low impact on original coal-fired system  Economic benefit Main disadvantage  Complex management  Certain metal erosion problem Application  Power generation system for mass biomass.
  15. 15. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES AND OPTIONS AVAILABLE Biomass liquefaction via pyrolysis  A process similar to Gasification  Heating of Hydrocarbons in zero oxygen condition  Condenses the vapors to obtain Bio-oil (pyrolysis oil)  Bio-oil is easily transportable, store and handle  Can be combusted in boiler for heat or electrical generation
  16. 16. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES ANDOPTIONS AVAILABLE Organic plant based oil(crude palm oil-CPO)  Generation of electricity using CPO. Biogas anaerobic digestion. a type of fermentation that converts organic material into biogas.  it mainly consists of methane (approximately 60%) and carbon dioxide(approximately 40%).  Power generation using scrubbed methane gas.
  17. 17. SOCIAL BENEFITS OF BIOMASSPOWER GENERATION Biomass power generates electricity that is:  reliable,  domestically produced,  economically competitive and  environmentally sustainable. Since biomass energy uses domestically- produced fuels, biomass power:  greatly reduces our dependence on foreign energy sources,  increases our national security and  provides greater fuel diversity.
  18. 18. ECONOMIC BENEFITS Minimizes cost involved with waste disposal Can generate money for community It provide job opportunity in rural areas Power from biomass gasifier based plants are cheap in rural areas Overall cost of installation, running, transmission, labor etc. per unit cost of electricity is low.
  19. 19. PROSPECTIVE SEGMENTS &CHALLENGES Biomass Combustion power plant is attractive to:  Industrial Factories owners  Plantation/Mill owners  Sugar cane (Bagasse)  Rice (Rice Husks)  Wood/Paper (Wood Wastes)  Corn (Corn Wastes)  Palm Oil (Empty Fruit Bunches, Shells)  Cassava (Roots, Stems) Able to supply both Electricity and Heat (steam) for factory use Main challenges:  securing the long term supply of Biomass fuel source at stable prices  selling price of electricity, if connected to the grid to sell electricity
  20. 20. CONCLUSIONS Uses low cost waste materials Recycling waste materials can be a solution to the problems with disposing of waste products Reduced dependence on foreign oil Biomass plants operate in a reliable and consistent manner providing crucial base load power generation.
  21. 21. REFERENCES “Biomass power generation modes.” B H KHAN, “Non-conventional energy resources” , 3RD edition, pub. year 2006 “Biomass energy” Pyrolysis and Other Thermal Processing. [U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program] s/pyrolysis.html