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Avanced english cs lab1

  1. 1. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. Department of Humanities & Science MEGHA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY FOR WOMEN Edulabad(V) Ghatkesar(M) HyderabadContents: 1. Functional English 2. Vocabulary building 3. Group discussions 4. Interview skills 5. Resume writing. 6. Reading Comprehension. 7. Technical report writing.
  2. 2. FUNCTIONAL ENGLISHObjective 1To enable students speak effectively in formal and informal situations.General Tips:When starting conversations, people can have a lot of problems which include notknowing what to say or how to keep the conversation going once it has beenstarted.If you recognize this problem and have encountered it in the past, here are someuseful tips: 1The search for a common ground When starting conversations initially with people you do not know, try and structure them around common ground subjects. Some typical common ground subjects include
  3. 3. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. - Work - Where you live - Sports - Music - Travel2Keeping the conversation going Ask open ended questions: why? how? what? Find the ‘hot button’ topics(topics that you both are interested in) Be attentive: Learn to listen actively. Attitude: What can I learn from this person? What is this person really saying? Don’t be afraid to change the subject!3Self Disclosure - Talk about yourself - Tell stories - Share experiences (provide details, use dialogues) - Give opinions - Express feelings - React emotionally - Show enthusiasm4Be in the momentCreate reciprocity: Give feedback, compliments, use namesRefer to the situation: Surroundings, circumstances, people, etc.Be light: Use wit and humour. Try gentle self-deprecation (tongue in cheek) or
  4. 4. teasing. 5Non-verbal Communication Voice: Speak distinctly, slow down if necessary. Body Language: Practise the ‘S-O-F-T-E-N’ approach -Smile -Open arms - Forward lean -Touch -Eye Contact -Nod 6Conversation Tips(Business) o Questions you could ask at work or any business related functions o How did you come up the idea ? o Describe a typical day on the job? o How did you get started in this industry ? o What got you interested in Marketing /IT? o What do you enjoy most about it ? o Describe some of the challenges in your industry? o What are the trends in your business? o What advice would you give for someone just starting in this business? o Any significant changes? o Strangest incident you have experienced in your business? o What is the best job you ever had? o Most difficult part of your job?Instructions Step 1 Stay up to date on what is happening in the world so that you haveplenty of things to talk about. Read the local paper and watch the news so that youcan knowledgeably participate in discussions about current events. Step 2 Prepare yourself before you attend where you will meet people.
  5. 5. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Rehearsewhat you will say in front of a mirror. Step 3 Ask a lot of questions. People like to talk about themselves and theirlives. However, make sure you keep the questions simple – don’t ask anything toopersonal invasive. Step 4 Listen to others. People can sense when you are not really interestedin they have what they have to say. They don’t want to waste time talking tosomeone who doesn’t listen. You must show a sincere interest in others for themto express a sincere interest in you. Step 5 Take note of what is going on around you. Use your surroundings tocome up with a conversation later. Step 6 Smile and look at others in the eye. Everyone enjoys being aroundpositive, confident people. The more confident you act, the more confident youwill become. Relax and stay calm. Step 7 Keep practicing. Force yourself to strike up conversations withstrangers in different situations. The more you practice, the better you will becomeat starting conversations.Practicing conversation skills1.Kick starting conversationsThere is nothing worse, when meeting someone for the first time, than that
  6. 6. awkward silence after the initial greeting.Kick the silence into orbit with these conversation starters. - How was your day? - You look really nice. - How was work? - Have you seen any movies recently? Did you like it/them? - What kind of music do you listen to? - What interesting things did you do this weekend? - Have you ever been to (a local restaurant)? - What kind of food do you like? - Where are you from? - Which college did you go to? - Have you read any good books lately? Was it interesting? - What do you normally do for fun? - Do you like (an interest of yours)? - What is the nearest place you have traveled to? - Which place you haven’t traveled to yet that you really want to go?Starting and keeping conversations going Here are some useful tips to start and keep conversations going: 1Be the first to say hello 2Introduce yourself to others. 3Remember people’s names. 4Show interest in others’ conversations. 5Restating their comments in another way. 6Communicate enthusiasm. 7Let the natural person in you come out. 8Tell others something interesting about what you do. 9Seek some common interest with other person 10Keep up to date on current events. 11Seek out other people’s opinions. 12Look for the positive aspects of the people you need. 13Listen carefully for free information. 14Compliment others about what they are doing or seeing. 15Prepare for each business or social function you attend.Here are some ideas that you might use to start a conversation:Excuse me! Have you got the time to talk to me?Hi! How is it going on (If it is sunny you could ask them if they are enjoying the
  7. 7. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.sunshine)Hey! What’s up?To a shop assistant you might say:Can I get your opinion, which one suits me better, blue or white?What time do you close today?What time do you open tomorrow?How long have you been working here?What is your name?What do you like about working here?Do you know if they have got any part time jobs here?(If you are looking for work)How often do you get in new stock?I am looking for a birthday present for my niece/nephew; do you have any idea onwhat Icould get them?Conversation Examples:Eat, Drink and be MerryWaiter: What will you have sir?Fat Man: Fried rice and chicken curry.Waiter: And you sir?Thin Man: Two chapattis and dal.Fat Man: Is that all you usually eat? It is hardly enough for a sparrow.Thin Man: I seldom eat more than this at lunch. But what about you? You nevereat just rice and curry, do you? You are always ordering fish, pudding and icecream….Fat Man: I have say, “eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die”.Waiter: Your fried rice and chicken curry, sir. Your chapattis and Dal, sir.Thin Man: Go on, have some fish. You often do.
  8. 8. Fat Man: But I never eat fish with chicken. “Waiter, please bring me some muttonkababs and bread pudding…..and some fruit salad….. And some cashew nuts …..And…..”That concert that never wasRavi: Have you been to the concert?Murali: Yes and no. I caught the 5:15 bus, and so when I got there the concerthadn’t begun.Ravi: Was there a large crowd?Murali: The hall was full and they had to turn people away. I had already boughtmy ticket, so I went in.Ravi: I suppose they started fiddling about with microphones and loudspeakersafter the musician had arrived!Murali: No, they had attended to all that.Ravi: Was the musician late?Murali: No, he was not late. He never arrived.Ravi: What? There was not any concert, then?Murali: No. We had the audience, the lights, the loudspeakers…. we had theexpectations… we had the violinists, the table player and a number of people tablaaway…we had everything for a successful concert except the musician!Ravi: And why wasn’t he there?Murali: His wife phoned to say that he was too drunk to sing! BODY LANGUAGEBody language is a term for communication using body movements or gesturesinstead of words. Studies show that the words account for only 7% of the messagewe convey. The remaining 93% is non- verbal. Of the 93%, 55% ofcommunication is based on what people see and the other 38% is transmittedthrough tone of voice. Body language is the meaning behind the unspoken words. It is understood asthe process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages.Parts of body language: You can send signals with individual parts of the bodyas well as together. Here are details of the contributions of each part of the body:Facial Expressions: The facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fearare similar throughout the world.
  9. 9. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Gestures:Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaningwithout words. Common gestures include waving , pointing, and using fingers toindicated number.Paralinguistic:Paranlinguistic refers to vocal communication that is separate from actuallanguage. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, infliction andpitch.Body language and posture:Posture and movement can also convey a great of information.Proxemics: People often refer to their need for personal space which is also an important typeof non-verbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount ofspace we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by number of factors includingsocial norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity.Eye gaze: Looking, staring, and blinking can also be important non-verbalbehaviour. When people encounter people or things that they like the rate ofblinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate arange of emotions, including hostility, interest, and attraction.Haptics: Communicating through touch is another important non-verbalbehaviour. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance oftouch in infancy, and early childhood.Appearance : Our choice of colour, clothing, hair styles and other factorsaffecting appearance are also considered a means of non-verbal communication.Research on colour psychology has demonstrated that different colours can invokedifferent moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgement,and interpretations.Eye contact: Eye contact is an important aspect of social interaction, and it issomething that many shy and socially anxious people have difficulty with. Oftenpeople with social anxiety describe looking at someone in the eyes as anxiety
  10. 10. provoking and uncomfortable.Communication through body language - 55%Communication through tone - 38%Communication through words - 7%Types of body language:There are six types of body language one has to be aware of: 2Eye Contact 3Facial Expression 4Head Movements 5Gestures and Body Movements 6Postures and Stance 7Proximity and Social Distance 8HandshakeEye Contact: “Eyes are so transparent; that through them, one sees the soul”. Researchers have discovered that one of the main differenced between peoplewho make friends easily, and those people who have a hard time making newfriends is how much eye contact they make with their conversation partners. Whenyou learn to make eye contact more effectively, you can increase the number ofpeople who want to be your friends. On the other hand, if you make too much eye contact or if you stare too hardat other people, they will feel uncomfortable. Staring too directly at another personcan be intimidating. We need to learn a good balance between making eye contact and lookingaway.Uses of eye contact There are different purposes of eye contact. They are:1Showing attention
  11. 11. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.2Showing interest3Inviting interaction4Providing feedback5Revealing attitudesFacial Expression: Facial expression of emotion is similar among human beings regardless ofage, culture, religion or region. Facial expression is universal. Smile is theessential ingredient of a facial expression. A smile sends positive message. Smiling adds warmth and an aura ofconfidence. Others will be more receptive if you remember to smile.Uses of facial expression Facial expression can be used to express the following emotions andfeelings.1Facial expression showing happiness2Facial expression showing sadness3Facial expression showing displeasure4Facial expression showing anger5Facial expression showing fear6Facial expression showing interest/disinterest
  12. 12. Head Movements: The position of your head speaks to people. When you find two peopletalking, you find besides the mouths and faces, the heads talking. Head movements are significant not only in talking but also in listening. Ifthe head movements are not used carefully and appropriately, it can adverselyaffect the relationship.Use of head movementsHeads movements are used for variety of purposes. They are used in1Indicating attitude2Replacing speech3Supporting what is said4Contradicting what is said5Indicating the direction in which one has to travel6Expressing doubt7Expressing reluctance8Recognizing someone9Expressing arrogance10Expressing feeling of superiority11Expressing easy going and casual approachGestures and body movements Gestures communicate as effectively as words-maybe, even more effectively.We use gestures everyday, almost instinctively. But no two people will use similargestures. Nor will people of the same culture act in a predictable, uniform fashion.This pattern becomes definitely more distinct and different across cultural barriers.This is simply because gestures are spontaneous. Gestures mean making expressive movements with hands and arms. Gesturescan be used a vehicle to send a variety of messages. Real mastery over bodylanguage can be developed only when we learn to use gestures appropriately.
  13. 13. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Gestures can be used to express the following feelings such as1Openness2Defensiveness3Readiness4Reassurance5Frustration6Confidence7Nervousness8Acceptance9Expectance10Relationship11SuspicionGestures and personality Gestures can help us make an assessment about the kind of personality anindividual has. Authoritarian personalities tend to use less bodily movement thandemocratic type personalities.Proximity and Social distance We like to keep our distance from others and there are specific social rules
  14. 14. about how close we can go to others in particular situations. This social distance isalso known a body space and comfort zone and the use of this space is calledproxemics. The distance you keep from others is crucial if you want to establish goodrapport. The distance you maintain while communicating affects your interaction.Therefore, maintaining control over such distance is important in interactions.Why the distance? Regulating the distances between us and other people provides with severalbenefits, including: 7Safety: When people are distant, they can’t surprise attack us. 8Communication: When people are closer, it is easier to communicate with them. 9Affection: When they are closer still, we can be intimate. 10Threat: The reverse can be used- we may deliberately threaten a person by invading their body space.Handshake: Handshake has an immediate effect on the outcome of an encounter withother persons. In the business world, particularly when you deal with people fromother cultures, you need to shake hand well. Pay attention to where your handsare. Never keep you hands in the pockets. Having your hands anywhere above theneck is considered unprofessional. Good hand shakers are seen as being more extroverted and, eventually, morehirable. The only thing better than a good handshake is no handshake at all. VOCABULARY BUILDING
  15. 15. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Objective: 1To equip the students with a wide range of vocabulary, so as to enable them use language more effectively. 2To help the students perform better in international tests like GRE, TOEFL, IELTS, etc. Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important area of languagecompetence and is of concern to all four language skills. We will not be able tolisten or speak confidently or read and write effectively if we do not havereasonable vocabulary competence, which may include our stock of perceptivevocabulary as well as productive vocabulary. All successful communicators dohave a reasonable stock of words. We should therefore, develop our vocabulary. What does vocabulary development mean? What does learning a new wordinvolve? Does it involve knowing just the meaning of the word? Learning orknowing a new word involves knowing its different shades of meaning (bothdenotation and connotation), use in context, grammatical characteristics,pronunciation and so on. Prefixes Prefix means a word or a part of a word fixed before another word to addsomething to its meaning. It may be even a syllable. Most of the English prefixesare borrowed from Latin and Greek.
  16. 16. Prefix Meaning WordAnti Against Anticlimax, Antidote, Anti- national etcAnte Before Antedate, Antenatal, Antecedent,Auto Auto etcBi Two or Twice Autocrat, Automobile, Autograph, etcCo With Bilateral, Bigamy, Bisect,De Down Biweekly, etcDemi Half Co-operative, co-existence, Collision etcDis Apart Dethrone, Defame, Demoralise, etcEn, Em In, On Demi-god, Demi-official, Demi- paradise, etc. Disconnect , Disorganise, Discard, etc Endanger, Enable, Embody, Emplane, etc.
  17. 17. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Equi Equally Equilateral, Equivalent, Equidistant, etc.Ex Out of Expel, Extract, Extend, Express,Hetero Different etc.Hexa Six Heterogeneous, Heterodox, etc.Hyper Over Hexameter, Hexagon, etc. Hypersensitive, Hypertension,Mono Alone Hypercritical, etc.Non Not Monogamy, Monologue, Monopoly, etc.Omni All Nonsense, Non-violent, Non-entity, etc.Semi Half Omnipresent, Omnipotent,Poly Many Omniscient, etc.Sub Under Semi-colon, Semi-final, etc.Phil Love Polygamy, Polyandry, etc. Subconscious, Subhuman, etc. Philanthropy, Philanderer, etc.
  18. 18. A list of prefixes is provided hereunder with illustrations:SUFFIXES A suffix can change the word-class and meaning of a word. Suffixes may beused to form nouns from verbs and adjectives, and adjectives from nouns andverbs.The following list contains different suffixes and their uses to form new words:
  19. 19. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Nouns from verbs: Suffix Verbs Nouns-ment Amuse, move, conceal Amusement, movement, concealment.-tion Act, add ,adopt, invent Action, addition, adoption, invention-ance Perform, assist, attend Performance, assistance, attendance-al Arrive, deny, dismiss Arrival, Denial, Dismissal-sion Expel, Divide, extend Expulsion, Division, Extension-ing Learn, bless, build Learning, blessing, building-ure Fail, furnish Failure, furniture
  20. 20. Nouns from Adjectives: Suffix Adjectives Nouns-ity Able, active, mortal, Ability, activity, mortality, real reality-ness Busy, kind, weak, new Business, kindness, weakness, newness-ance Brilliant, distant, Brilliance, distance, ignorance ignorantAdjectives from Nouns: Suffix Nouns Adjectives-y Air, rain, rose, wind, Airy, rainy, rosy, windy, oily oil-ly Fatherly, manly, yearly Father, man, year-al Accidental, classical, facial Accident, classic, face-ish Bookish, blackish, boyish, Book, black, boy, slave slavish-ful Harm, beauty, skill, use Harmful, beautiful, skillful,-less useful
  21. 21. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. Use, pain, life, name Useless, painless, lifeless, namelessAdjectives from Verbs:Suffix Verbs Adjectives-able Avoid, believe, Avoidable, believable, compare comparable-ful Thank, help, use, boast Thankful, helpful, useful, boastful SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMSSYNONYMS: Synonyms and antonyms are as important as any other grammatical item. Infact, no word gives exactly the same meaning as any other word gives. But, thereare some same shades of meaning we find in them. They are used in differentsenses, in different contexts but are treated as synonyms. Words of like meaning
  22. 22. are called synonyms. Given below is a list of synonyms: Word Synonyms Word SynonymsAbandon Leave, forsake Abbreviat Abridge, shortenAuxiliary Accessory, subsidiary e Skilled, expertAdmire Praise, esteem Adept Help, supportAnger Ire, wrath, rage Assist Daring, valiantCandid Frank, straightforward Bold Insane, madDeadly Dangerous, fatal Crazy Vacant, emptyFabricate Forge, construct Devoid Disallow, prohibitHamper Block, disturb Forbid Unaware,Illegal Unlawful, illicit Ignorant unreasonableInfer Conclude, deduce Indicate Show, hintHideous Repulsive, ugly Initiate Start, beginLaudable Commendable, Insight Instigate, provokeQuantum praiseworthy Proficient Adept, expert Amount, share Revenge Retribution, vengeanceScoldUltimate Rebuke, reprove TeachVain Final, last Vacant Instruct, educateYield Fruitless, conceited Winsome Empty, void Give, surrender Zest Charming, attract Gusto, relishANTONYMS: Antonyms are the words that give opposite meaning. Sometimes in theabsence of exact equivalence, we understand the meaning of words with the helpof antonyms. Word Antonyms Word AntonymsAbove Below, beneath Accept Reject
  23. 23. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Asset Liability Base NobleBeautiful Ugly Benevolent MalevolentBoom Slump Confident DiffidentCreate Destroy convex ConcaveDemocracy Autocracy Ebb FlowFamous Obscure Genuine SpuriousHarsh, Gentle Keen Blunt, dullLewd Virtuous Monogamy PolygamyOptimistic Pessimistic Orient OccidentalPromote Demote Remarkabl OrdinaryReverence Scorn e AntipathyTranquil Disturb Sympathy RudeVague Clear Urbane Nadir ZenithWORD ROOTSA root is the part of any word that reveals its essential meaning, a meaning thatnever changes, even though other letters or word parts may be added at thebeginning or the end. The quickest, most useful, and easiest way to increase wordpower is to analyze and understand how words are put together. Once we learn torecognize the building blocks called the roots, many previous unfamiliar wordsbecome meaningful and useful. Besides, roots can help you memorize clumps ofwords with similar meanings, and they can help you decode words you don’tknow.
  24. 24. Root Meaning Exampleam, amic love, friend amity, amicable, amiable, amorousben, bon well, good benefactor, bonjourmor, mort die, death morbid, mortal, immortal, mortuaryauto self automatic, autonomous, autobiographychrono time chronology, synchronize, anachronismcorp body corpse, corpulentmorph form metamorphosis, amorphous, morphologyac, acu sharp acrid, acutespec, spic see, look spectator, spectacular, conspicuousloq speech,talk Soliloquy, eloquent, loquacious speech, talk soliloquy, eloquent, loquacious ONE WORD SUBSTITUTES
  25. 25. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. In the process of learning a language we come across some lengthy phrasesand clauses that can be expressed in a single word. A learner, if acquires commandover such words, will be able to use the language with comfort and ease. Thewords given hereunder will help promote the knowledge of a learner pertaining tothat aspect.Aborigines : The original inhabitants of a place.Accomplice : A partner in crime.Ambiguous : Capable of being interpreted in two way of double meaning.Ambidextrous : Able to use the left hand as well as the right.Amphibian : Living both on land and in water.Anachronism : Something out of harmony with the present time.Archaeology : Study of antiquities, especially of the pre-historic period.Astronaut : One who flies a space vehicle.Atheism : Disbelief in the existence of God.Autocrat : One who rules with absolute power.Blasphemy : Words uttered impiously about God.Bourgeois : Of the middle class.Carnivorous : Feeding on flesh.Compatriot : A person belonging to one’s own country.Complacent : Satisfied with one’s own character, achievements, etc.Connoisseur : One well versed in any art.Cosmopolitan : Free from national or regional prejudices.Extempore : Speaking without previous preparation.Fauna : The animals of a particular region.Flora : The plants that grow in a particular region.Genealogy : Account of a person’s descent from his ancestors.Hallucination : Seeing something which is not actually present.
  26. 26. Hedonist : One who lives for pleasure/one who seeks pleasure.Insuperable : That cannot be overcome.Misogynist : One who hates women.Misogamist : One who hates marriage.Misanthrope : One who hates mankind.Nemesis : Retributive justice/downfall that justifies such justice.Nepotism : Undue favour shown by a person in power.Omnipotent : Having infinite power.Omnipresent : Being present everywhere.Omniscient : Having infinite knowledge.Panorama : Unbroken view of surrounding region.Posthumous : Occurring after death. IDIOMS AND PHRASES Languages undergo many changes in course of time. What was considered tobe slang at one time might be acceptable at a different time. Resultantly, the styleof language also changes from time to time. An important fact that is stressed isthat idioms are not only colloquial expressions as people believe but they appear informal style and slang. They find place in poetry, in the language of Shakespeareor that of The Bible. An idiom, we can say, is number of words which, takentogether, means something different from the individual words of the idiom whenthey stand alone. They have some special features. So, we have to learn them as awhole. English is very rich in idiomatic expressions. Even native speakers are notaware that they are using an idiom. A non native learner makes the correct use ofidiomatic English. Some idioms are illogical and grammatically incorrect. Theycause him difficulty. Only a careful study and exact learning will help us.Ex: “Come off” means succeed. ‘Make up your mind’ means decide.Given below is a list of few idioms and phrases :11Arm in arm(interlinked). Ex: America and India work arm in arm.12Beat about the bush.(approach a matter in a round about way).Example: Some speakers beat about the bush when they explain some points.
  27. 27. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.13Bag and baggage(with all one’s belongings).Ex : To travel with bag and baggage is a Herculean task.14Blow one’s own trumpet(praise oneself)Ex: Some people blow their own trumpet though nobody likes it.15Corner stone(something of great importance) Ex: The philosophy of ’karma’ is the corner stone of Hindu philosophy.16A dead letter (obsolete).Ex: The regulation is already a dead letter.17End in smoke(failed).Ex: All the plans of the father ended in smoke.18Egg on(instigate).Ex: Some lectures egg on students to resort to strike.19Eleventh hour(last minute efforts).Ex: Some students make eleventh hour preparation.20From hand to mouth(without making provisions for the future).Ex: Most of the Indians lead a hand to mouth living.21Kick the bucket(die).Ex: The old man kicked the bucket at the age of 90.22Move Earth and heaven(make a great effort)Ex: America moved Earth and heaven to suppress Vietnam.
  28. 28. 23Neither head nor tail(unable to understand).Ex: He could make neither head nor tail of his new teacher’s explanation.24Pick holes(find fault).Ex: Some narrow-minded people pick holes in every matter.25Root and branch(completely).Ex: The factory was destroyed root and branch due to bomb blasting.26Rolling stone(wanderer).A rolling stone gathers no mass.27Splits hairs(make very fine distinctions).Ex: Some lawyers are experts in splitting hairs.28Under one’s thumb(under one’s control).Ex: A henpecked husband wants to be under the thumb of his wife.29White elephant(very expensive).Ex: The motor car is like a white elephant for a middle class man.30From A to Z(completely).Ex: She is thorough with ‘Gita’ from A to Z. PHRASES31Break down(to stop due to a mechanical fault). Ex: The bus broke down due to some mechanical problem.32Cut off(to isolate).Ex: The unexpected floods cut off the city from the rest of the villages.33Get at(to find).Ex: The judge got at the truth by questioning.34Keep off(be away from).Ex: We must keep off black sheep.35Make off(to run away).
  29. 29. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Ex: The thief made off with the suitcase.36Pass for(to pose as someone else)Ex: Some people pass for genuine guests at the wedding dinners.37Cotton on(understand)Ex: It took me sometime to cotton on to why my boss was angry with me.38Deal in(buy and sell)Ex: I deal in leather goods.39Figure out(understand)Ex: I cannot my figure out.40Hush up(keep secret by enforcing silence about it)Ex: These days, it is difficult to hush up murders for political causes.41Trim down(reduce)Ex: We have to trim down our spending to fit our income.42Back out(fail to do what is expected)Ex: You said you stand by me, why did you back out now? ANALOGY The ability to grasp the similarity or difference between pairs of words is, in away, necessary for scientists, engineers and technologists.
  30. 30. The following examples of pairs belonging to different classes and categoriesmay help the learner:1.Broad – NarrowAnimal: Tiger: : Stationery: Pen 2. Person-Quality Dwarf: Shortness: : Solomon: Wisdom 3. General-specificWorld: India: : Transport: Train 4. Word-Synonym Cunning: Deceptive: : Contented:Satisfied5.Operation –StageFootball: First Hal: :Cricket: First Innings6.Word_AntonymKind: Cruel: :Criminal: Innocent 7. Word_Definition Isolation: Loneliness: :Invalidation:Scratching8.Male-FemaleBoy: Girl: : Governor:Governess9.RelationshipsMother:Father: :Aunt:Uncle10.Virtue-FailingVirtue: Vice: :Generosity: Stinginess11.Element –ExtensionRain: storm: : Error: Blunder12.Lesser Degree – Greater DegreeSmile: Laughter: : Cruelty: Ferocity13.Singular - Plural
  31. 31. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Mouse: Mice: :Child: Children14.Part – WholeHouse: Kitchen: : Tree: Branch15.Elements of timeForenoon: Afternoon: : Dawn: Dusk16.Time SequenceSleep: Awake: : Initiate: Conclude17.User – ToolDoctor: Stethoscope: : Barber: Scissors18.Creator – CreationSculptor: Statue: : Carpenter: Table19.Cause – EffectRain: Flood: : Fever: Weakness20.Person – ProfessionEngineer: Construction: : Minister: Service21.Tool - FunctionHammer: Nailing: : Brush: Painting22.Symbol – InstitutionParcel: Post office: : Black coat: Judiciary23. Reward – Action
  32. 32. Nobel Prize: Literature: : Bhatnagar Award: Science24.Object – ObstacleBoat: Flood: : Agriculture: Drought25.Object – OperatorPen: Nib: : Stove: Burner26.Object – MaterialSpoon: Steel: : Mirror: Glass WORD ORIGIN To know the past of an individual helps us to understand him the better.To know the life history of a word makes its present meaning clearer and morenearly unforgettable. Words truly are little windows through which we can lookinto the past. “English has its bases broad and low, close to the ground” as WaltWhitman once said. “Into it are woven the sorrow, joys, loves, needs and heartbreaks of the common people. “And it is these same common people who havegiven us so much of our language and who have filled it full of the poetry that wesometimes call slang. The history of the letters of our alphabet goes back into extremeantiquity and disappears. The Semitic languages, that family of languages now spoken inSeria, Arabia, Palestine, Egypt, and other North African countries, so far theearliest discoverable source although it is suspected that some still earlier andprobably exiled tribe gave us our beginning. However, things may have started,the alphabet came down there through the Phoenicians, Greek and Latin languagesinto modern European. The first letters two letters of the Greek alphabet, alpha and betawere joined together to form our word alphabet. Each letter of our alphabet, itsearly beginning started with a picture or drawing. We are accustomed to think of our miscellaneous and polyglot speech
  33. 33. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.as the “English” language, yet it is doubtful whether more than one word in fifty inour vocabulary actually originated in that little patch of island we call England. What have we now just said and in what language have we said it? We have stated that the English language, in its origins, had little to dowith England itself, and even in making this simple statement we have had to drawupon a number of words that we have inherited from other languages. The word accustomed, for instance, that we used in the first line in thefirst paragraph above is from Old French. The word think traces to Old Englishthencan. The Latin language gave us miscellaneous, while polyglot is the Greekword “polyglottis” with poly meaning “many” and glotta “tongue”. With speechwe turn again to Old English spac. Our word language entered English by way ofFrance, but its eventful origin lies in the Latin word lingua meaning “tongue” aterm which, incidentally contributed linguist to us. The words doubtful,vocabulary, actually, and originated that appear in the latter part of the firstparagraph are all Latin derivatives. The proper name England is made up of thetwo Old English words engla and land or “land of the Angles”. But it is only onrare occasions that even these Old English words could be said to have originatedin England because most of them belong to the Western Germanic dialects that theAngles and the Saxons and the Jules brought with them from the continent. So even though you may not be versed in any foreign language, it is stilltrue that when you use your native English you are speaking a babel of strangetongues. The word whisky is Irish, but whisky has alcohol in it and alcohol comesfrom the ancient Arabic language. Should you ask for coffee at the end of a meal,you are in a fashion, speaking Turkish. Should it be tea you wish, the language is
  34. 34. Chinese. If you request a cigar you will have switched to Spanish. A cigarette?you have turned to French. No language is so complex as English; none so varied. Strangely enough,the Celts, who were the original inhabitants of England, contributed little ornothing to our language. Save a few such place names as Aberden and Kildare.But in the 6th century, the invading Angels, Saxons, and Judes brought over thebasic structure of our speech, our most common words, and for 500 years Englishwas almost wholly a Germanic language. By the 14th century, French and native English words were being meldedand merged and the Latin importations were becoming naturalized. By the 16thcentury Latin had become the mark of culture. Queen Elizabeth conversed in Latinwith the foreign envoys at her court; Oliver Cromwell had the poet Milton as hissecretary. And it is for seasons such as this that more than half of the words in ourlanguage trace to Latin as a source. There was no such influx of the Greek language into English, but somuch of Greek has come to us through Latin that it is often hard to give credit tothe proper source. We are apt to find the Greek words that we have taken overdirectly listed in the more modern terminology of the fields of general science, ofmedicine, and in the technical terms of language study. Our borrowings from other than the classical languages have beenscanty although they have contributed to the richness of our speech. So much we have inherited from the popular foreign languages; somuch from the classical; and all is mixed and intermingled with the speech of ourmother country, England. But with the establishment of the colonies in America,the English language started on a new era. The revolution, the wars, the pioneeringof the West, the sailings of the seven seas, the empires of industry, the Aladdin likeinventions, the explorations of the sciences, all poured their wealth of words intothe melting part until a new language was born, the American language that nowstands unmatched in all the word in all history.
  35. 35. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. GROUP DISCUSSION Group discussion is commonly known as “G.D” as the name suggests, it is agroup activity. People are grouped in a bunch for a common purpose. 1For job, academic, professional purposes. 2Share Knowledge. 3Exchange Opinions. 4Brain storm (find solutions innovative look for improvements). 5Job selection process.- You need to perform G.D activities well.- You‘ll require positive attitude.- Effective skills.- Good amount of knowledge. Activities Knowledge Attitude Skills
  36. 36. Knowledge:-- General (world Knowledge). Verbal English/Local Language Non Verbal Body Movements.Activities:- Appropriately The Discussion Speaking Listening Skills 1)Listening. 2)Speech/Speaking. 3)Timing. 4)Logic (arguing).
  37. 37. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. Attitude 1)Don’t Dominate. 2)Don’t Suppress. 3)Don’t be silent for too long. 4)Be tolerant. 5)Be team player. 6)If it is a G.D for selection remembers you can’t be listening all the time because you will be one of the five or six to show your skills in 15-20 minutes nor you can complain that you weren’t given a choice.It’s upto you to look for pauses between sentences of Our team mate and enter adiscussion smoothly.
  38. 38. --You score point for 1. Leading the discussion 2. Directing discussion in a different angle. 3. Summarizing in the middle and closing discussion appropriately. 1GD for academic or professional purpose (Brain storming). 2Forget your ego. 3Appreciate and applaud (encourage) others views. 4Encourage silent partners to be communicative. 5Remember here there are no points to score. You as an individual don’t matter, it’s the team that matters. G.D:- G.D’s can be Topic-based or case-based. Topic-Based: 1. Factual Topics. 2. Controversial Topics. 3. Abstract Topics. Factual Topic:- Topics which an ordinary person is aware of in his day- to-day life. These can be current. Eg: Environment pollution Child Labour.Controversial Topics:- Topics which are argumentative in nature. Eg: Should reservations be removed?
  39. 39. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Abstract Topics:- Topics are about intangible things. Which test the participant’screativity.Do’s- Sit at the center.- Take notes.- Use appropriate gestures.- Allow others to talk.- Keep eye contact. Don’ts:- Avoid sitting at corners.- Don’t interrupt into others speech.- Don’t become emotional.- Don’t silence others.- Don’t talk for long.- Don’t look only at one person.- Don’t repeat what already said.For a successful G.D:- 1Agreement on Group Goals. 2Goal oriented Interaction. 3Agreement on procedures.
  40. 40. 4Cooperative and friendly atmosphere. 5Use of effective communication techniques. 6Equitable distribution of participation. 7Shared Leadership is important.  Leader ship functions during a G.D include initiative, analysis, assertiveness, self-confidence, objectivity, patience and composure, persuasiveness (persuasion is an art that requires an ample amount of convincing power) and motivation.Team Management: To acquire this skill Adaptability, positive attitude,cooperation and coordination are required.Participating in G.D: Use appropriate strategies for effective participation in G.D Eg: well friends, may I request your kind attention Hello everybody, hello friends. INTERVIEWSObjectives 1To develop interview skills 2To know the characteristics of job interviews 3To understand the strategies of the interviewers to facilitate better responses during the ‘placement’ interviews.Introduction: The word ‘interview’ means ‘view between’ or ‘sight between’. It suggests ameeting between two persons for the purpose of getting a view of each other. Aninterview is thus, a means of two way communication. It is not only and academictest but also a psychological test. One must prepare well and be in the best frameof mind to face the interview successfully. Many a candidate with excellentacademic and scholastic record fails to make the mark on account of their inability
  41. 41. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.to face the interview successfully. The role of the interviewer is to seek information and that of the interviewee isto provide it.Types of Interview:1.Appraisal Interview: It is usually held once a year to discuss the performanceof the employee. It has two goals: a. Improving job performance and better relations. b. Improving communication between the manager and the subordinates.2.Grievance Interview: This interview is conducted for giving complaint againstthe employee.3.Reprimand Interview: To reprimand someone is to criticize him severely forsome action. It is a disciplinary action likely to be resented by the employees. Buta good manager can use it in a constructive manner.4.Exit Interview: These interviews are conducted when the employee is leavingthe organization either voluntarily or through dismissal.5. Depth Interview: A number of questions on a particular area are put to theinterviewee. Answer to any one question does not cover full information. Anumber of follow up questions are put by the interviewer.6. Board Interview: A panel/board interview is well suited for governmentorganization or autonomous body. This type of interview enables selection ofsuitable candidate in just one interview. The board usually consists of four to sixmembers headed by a chairman. The chairman takes decision after listening to theimpression of all the board members, their comment about the candidate andfinally on his own impression. The candidate gets interviewed on a variety ofsubjects related to his field, because each expert covers different areas.7.Group Interview: In a group interview, a group of interviewees are allowedtogether to interact and exchange each other’s views.
  42. 42. PROCESS OF AN INTERVIEW The interview process may involve exchange of facts, events, opinions,reactions, feeling, panel decision, goal setting, evaluation, investigation etc. The process of an interview contains the following stages:1.Opening: The first is introduction. In this the parties exchange their greeting.2.Object of the interview: Interviewer explains to the interviewee the object of theinterview.3.Beginning of the interview: In the commencement of an interview, both partieswill be in a light hearted manner and follow the sequences of questions and topics. PRE-PLANNING1. Personal Information The candidate must post himself with all the information relating to hisfamily background, his own scholastic and academic achievements, the nature ofhis present employment. If any, present emoluments, his extra-curricular activitiesand other interests in the professional, research, and other fields. Whateverenquiry is made of these things, the candidate must readily offer the answer tothem.2. Preparing a Career Statement The members of the selection committee may pose a number of questionson the candidate’s career interests. They are rather searching questions and thecandidate may not have imagined them. Therefore the wisest thing is to prepare alist of questions of this type and work out coherent and convincing answers tothem.Dress Code
  43. 43. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.The candidates must be trim and tidy, and neatly dressed. However, for mencandidates dark and light combination with a suitable tie and polished shoe, seemsimpressive. In the case of women candidates saree, blouse and sandals seem to bea dignified dress. They must avoid gaudy colours and fancy-type dresses. Highheeled shoe may be avoided, because they produce distracting tapping sounds, andthe candidates look extraordinarily tall.Detection of the Self, Likes and DislikesThe candidate must be aware of his likes and dislikes, his abilities and inabilities.When he is asked to list them out, he should be able to do it well as it shows hisself –awareness and also helps the interviewer to understand him.Practising The candidates should all go out to grab a career opportunity. As the date of theinterview is fast approaching, they must sit before the mirror and try to answer thequestions raised earlier. Or, they may practise before a trusted friend or acolleague and take the benefit of the feedback. They may also tape-record theiranswers and listen to them with a view to improving their expressions or answers.INTERVIEW QUESTIONSThe suitability of a candidate for a particular position is evaluated during a jobinterview through an oral question/answer session. Thus, the interview containsspecific questions and appropriate answers. The candidate should understand thenature of different types of interview questions, analyze expected questions inorder to devise answering strategies, and practice these answers. Some tips on jobinterview questions and answers are discussed below:
  44. 44. Types of interview questionsWe should be familiar with the nature and type of questions being asked during jobinterviews so that we are ready to answer them confidently. There are sevendifferent types of questions that are asked to elicit certain responses fromcandidates. They include open, closed, probing, reflective, loaded, hypothetical,and leading questions.Open questions An open questions asks the candidates to ‘talk about’ something.Its main purpose is to encourage the candidates to talk broadly about a topic orsubject. It broadens the scope of the response by forcing the candidates to engagein deeper thinking. Following are some of the examples of open questions:1Tell us something about yourself?2Talk about your interest and activities?3Describe the most difficult situation that you recently faced?4What are the advantages of a mixed economy?5What do you think about the impact of multinational companies on the Indianeconomy?Closed questions Unlike open questions, closed questions limit the scope of theresponse by asking the candidates to provide specific information or facts. Itpermits the candidate no freedom of selection as they are required to give veryspecific answers. Following are some such examples:1When did you complete your graduation?2What was your major subject in the college?3Where did you receive your first professional training?4Do you know data processing?Probing questions The main purpose of a probing question is to probe moredeeply or ask for an explanation or clarification of a statement just made. Probingquestions encourage the candidate to talk in greater depth about a topic or subject.For example, after the response, “I believe that students should be allowed inacademic decision making”, the interviewer might ask the probing question, “Doyou think that this should include all academic decisions?”Reflective questions Reflective questions are asked to confirm the statementsgiven by the candidate. The purpose is to check that the interviewer understandswhat the candidate has said. Following are some examples of reflective questions:1That means you want the public sector companies to be totally privatized?
  45. 45. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.2Am I right in thinking that you are against economic liberalization in India?3Does it mean that you favour a total ban on any type of violence in movies?Loaded questions Loaded questions assess the candidate’s response to a sensitiveissue, subject or point. The main purpose of loaded questions is to judge thecandidate’s ability to handle difficult and sensitive situations. There may not beany right or wrong answer to a loaded question. Rather, it would be a reasonableor unreasonable response. The following are some examples:1You are too short.2Don’t you think this is going to be a handicap for you?3Your GPA in the first semester of your B.Tech is too low. How do you justifythat?4Do you think that a Ram temple should be constructed at the site of Babri Masjid?Hypothetical questions A hypothetical question may involve a hypotheticalsituation. It may be asked to test the possible reactions of the candidate to a certainsituation. The candidate may be asked the question, ‘what would you do if ….?’,or the candidate may be given a situation and asked how he/she will deal with it.Some examples are given here:1What would you do if you face a group of angry employees who want to harmcompany vehicles because one of the workers has been hurt by company lorry?2One of your staff has been involved in activities detrimental to your organization.He has been doing this for money that he needs for the treatment of his ailingmother. What would you do?Leading questions A leading question is asked to obtain a desired response. Itleads the candidate to a particular answer. Such questions generally suggest apoint of view on the part of the interviewer and call for agreement with a ‘yes’answer. Given below are some examples:1Don’t you agree that our company is a market leader in electronic products?
  46. 46. 2Don’t you think that MNCs have boosted the Indian economy?3Don’t you agree that our economy needs more privatization?ANSWERING STRATEGIES:Keys to answering questions: How a question is answered is sometimes more important than the answeritself. The way a question is answered reflects a person’s communicative ability.The following suggestions will help in improving the quality of answers.Attentiveness: When a person attends a job interview, he /she cannot answer theinterviewer’s questions correctly unless he/she is listening properly. Manycandidates start answering before they have heard the complete question. This iswrong. The candidate should listen to the interviewer attentively in order tounderstand the question and then respond to it. Moreover, the interviewer shouldnot be interrupted while he or she is speaking. This constitutes rude behaviour andis against the norms of any formal interaction.Accuracy: The candidate should give particular attention to dates, timelines,persons, places and other details. If he/she cannot remember a date or time, itshould not be mentioned. Giving an incorrect or incomplete answer will reducethe chances of success. The candidate should not try to bluff the interviewer; it isbetter to accept that he/she does not know an answer rather than giving an incorrectanswer. No one is expected to know everything and there is nothing wrong inaccepting one’s lack of knowledge.Brevity: The candidate should be brief and to the point particularly in openquestions, where he/she has the scope to speak as much as he/she can. He/sheshould listen to the question carefully and answer only what is asked, not takingmore than on minute to answer any question, irrespective of its nature andcomplexity. A long answer does not necessarily mean a better answer; it is usuallyotherwise.
  47. 47. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.Focus: The candidate should be focused and specific. Very often, candidatesdeviate from the question asked and do not answer specifically. Trying to impressinterviewers by giving information that is not asked for should be avoided. Themore specific the answer, the more convinced the interviewers are likely to be of acandidate’s suitability for the position. Concrete and specific words and phrasesshould be used, and obscure, abstract, and vague words that may confuse theinterviewers should be avoided.Clarity: Candidate should answer directly and clearly. The candidate should notgive the interviewers a chance to ask for an answer to be repeated or classified.Clarity of expression generally reflects clarity of thought and professionalism.Positive Attitude: The candidate’s answers reflect a positive attitude.Interviewers may ask negative or sensitive questions to explore the negatives in thecandidate’s personality. Therefore, it is important to remain positive and answereven negative questions positively.Logical Thinking: The ability to think logically is always an asset during andinterview. Answers should always be rational and logical because illogicalanswers reflect a disorganized personality. Logical arguments and illustrationsshould be used when answering questions that demand careful thinking (that is,probing and hypothetical questions).TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS Telephone interviews have become very common today due to compellingreasons of time and distance. Unlike a face-to-face interview, which generallytakes place in an office with the focus on a traditional structure of questions andanswers in a conventional setting, a telephone interview takes place in a non-conventional setting. Although the telephone interview has certain inherent
  48. 48. weaknesses as an interview format, its popularity is increasing, especially forrecruitment to senior positions. Moreover, it is less cumbersome for both theinterviewers as well as the candidates. The telephone interview generally has a fixed structure. The number ofinterviewers may vary from one to eight. The chairperson of the selectioncommittee introduces the members of the committee to the candidate. Then, eachexpert introduces himself/herself and asks questions. This goes on till eachmember has talked to the candidate. Each of them may form an opinion about thecandidate and then a final decision is made on the basis of consensus. The following suggestions will help improve telephone interview skills:1Candidates should plan and prepare for the interview in a manner similar to thatfor a face-to-face interview. All the relevant interview techniques and strategiesdiscussed earlier can be applied here too. The interviewers may ask the candidateto give a date and time for the interview or may fix it themselves.2The candidate should ensure that there are no distractions during the telephoneinterview.3The names of all the members of the interview panel should be written down atthe beginning of the call and they should be referred to by name throughout theinterview. It is important for the candidate to know who is speaking in order toestablish rapport with them. Each member of the pane l should be greeted whenhe/she asks the first question.4The interviewee must organize his/her papers and documents and keep them closeso that he/she may easily refer to them.5He/she must also keep a pen and paper to take notes.6When an interviewer passes on the telephone to other members of the interviewboard, the candidate must thank him/her.7As in a face to face interview it is best to answer briefly in telephone interviewstoo.8The interviewee should speak clearly and distinctly, keeping his/her voice levelup to reveal a high energy level.INTERVIEW THROUGH VIDEOCONFERENCING Interviews may also be held through videoconferencing. This is very similar toa face-to-face job interview because the interviewers can watch the candidateanswering questions and can assess his/her behaviour and non-verbal gestures.Some organizations might prefer to have a screening interview throughvideoconferencing. Situational interviews may also be conducted throughvideoconferencing.
  49. 49. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. The videoconferencing interview also has a fixed structure. The number ofinterviewers may vary from one to eight, as in a face-to-face or telephoneinterview. The chairperson of the selection committee may introduce the membersof the committee to the candidate. Then, each expert may talk to the candidateasking him/her a few questions. This may go on till each member has talked to thecandidate. As the form and structure of a videoconferencing interview is similar totraditional face-to-face personal interview, candidates may apply the sametechniques and strategies of interviewing here. RESUME WRITING 1Resume is a document that speaks about you. 2Your Resume contains general information. 3Building an effective resume focuses on overall organization, font selection, contact information, education, experience, Honors and Activities etc. 4Presentation is everything. The way the Resume is structured organized and written is important. 5It is a brief account of personal details, your education, work experience that you have.
  50. 50. 6Resume must be neatly printed or typed and appealing to the eye. 7Avoid giving information that is not relevant to the application. Resume writing  Covering letter  Resume  Thank you letter  Follow up letter  Recommendation. Recommendation letter 1Should be typed 2Use official letter head 3Sign the letter 4Put in an envelope 5Sign across the sealRESUME DESIGN The design of a resume largely depends on a person’s background, employmentneeds, career goals and professional conventions in the area of specialization. Aresume should be original. Although resume writing software may be used todesign a resume or it may be written by professional resume writer, it should bedesigned according to individual needs. Keeping a resume job specific gives it therequired focus and makes it more effective. 1How do you begin to write the body of the resume for your career change? 2Take your achievements , strengths, education and training and writing them down which one can you group together under one heading 1Heading could includes 1.leadership 2.financial management 3.account management 4.goal setting and achievement
  51. 51. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. These headings depend on your own experiences and achievements.TYPES OF RESUMESThere are three types 1.Chronological resume 2.Functional resume 3.Combination resume
  52. 52. Name AddressCareer Objective --- 1 sentencePosition soughtAcademic qualificationTech. qualificationProjects /experienceExtracurricularPersonal profile Name Father’s Name DOB/Age Address Ref : 1 2 3 Signature
  53. 53. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. SAMPLE RESUME Chronological Resume: This is the most common resume style .It focuses oneducation and experience. It organizes past employment record or education inreverse chronological order. It lists work experience items or educational
  54. 54. /professional qualifications starting with the current or most recent and worksbackwards in time. VIBHOR SAXENA A-25/31, Sector-60, Noida-201301 E-mail: vibhorsaxena@dppc.comPOSITION SOUGHT Manager-ProjectOBJECTIVE To contribute to the growth of a leading project management company by working in a challenging position where I will have opportunities to utilize my exposure to project management methodologies and experience as project leader in construction activities of large scale heavy engineering projects.EXPERIENCE Project leader, Dharampal Premchand Ltd., Sector-60, Noida-201301 December 2001 to present 2Complete civil projects within ahead of the schedule through strict planning, monitoring, and control while maintaining the best construction standards 3Supervise erection of auxiliary facilities like water treatment, ETP, cabling , piping and other utilities 4Maintain customer relations through effective presentation of technical expertise. Assistant Project Manager(Civil), Subhash Projects and Marketing Ltd, Park Street ,Kolkata December 1998 to November 2001 1Assist in the project management of various civil works being executed Coordinate with Head Office, sites, various departments and subcontractors Maintain close liaison with clientsEDUCATION Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry B.Tech in Civil Engineering, July 1998
  55. 55. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. Institute of Information Technology, Mumbai Certificate in Computer Programming, December, 1998SPECIAL SKILLS 2Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel, and Word 98 and 2000 3Good problem-solving skills 4Excellent communication and interpersonal skills 5Competent in speaking FrenchACTIVITIES 1Member, Institution of Engineers, New Delhi 2Member, National Cadet Corps, 1994-1996 3Secretary, Society for Promotion of Science, New DelhiINTERESTS 1Badminton, Football, Cycling 2Classical Music, Movies, Fiction
  56. 56. Functional Resume Unlike chronological resumes that focus on education and workexperience, functional resumes highlight accomplishment and emphasise skills.Some employers are more interested in the applicant’s ability to handle theposition they are applying for, and they would prefer a functional resume ratherthan a chronological one. A functional resume provides example of experiencesthat demonstrate the skills needed for the targeted position. VIBHOR SAXENA A-25/31, Sector-60, Noida- 201 301 E-mail: vibhor_saxena@dppc.comPOSITION SOUGHTManager – ProjectOBJECTIVETo contribute to the growth of a leading project management company by workingin a challenging position where I will have opportunities to utilize my exposure toproject management methodologies and experience as project leader inconstruction activities of large scale heavy engineering projects.PROJECT MANAGEMENT Assisted in the project management of various civil works being executed at site at Subhash Projects and Marketing Ltd 1Completed civil projects within or ahead of the schedule at Dharamapal Premchand Ltd 2Maintained strict planning, monitoring and control while maintaining the best construction standards 3Supervised erection of auxiliary facilities like water treatment, ETP, cabling, piping, and other utilities
  57. 57. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.COORDINATION AND CUSTOMER RELATIONS 1Coordinated with Head Office, sites, various departments, and sub-contractors 2Maintained customer relations through effective presentation of technical expertise 3Maintained close liaison with clientsSPECIAL SKILLS 1Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel, and word 98 and 2000 2Good problem-solving skills 3Excellent communication and interpersonal skill 4Competent in speaking FrenchEDUCATIONPondicherry Engineering College, PondicherryBTech in Civil Engineering, July 1998Institute of Information Technology, MumbaiCertificate in Computer Programming, December, 1998EMPLOYMENT RECORD2001/Present Project Leader, Dharampal Premchand Ltd., Sector-60,Noida – 201 3011998/2001 Assistant Project Manager (Civil), Subhash Projects andMarketing Ltd,
  58. 58. Park Street, KolkataACTIVITIES 1Member, Institution of Engineers, New Delhi 2Member, National Cadet Corps, 1994-1996 3Secretary, Society for Promotion of Science. New DelhiINTERESTS 1Badminton, Football, Cycling 2Classical Music, Movies, FictionCombination Resume As the name suggests, a combination resume follows a mixed style,drawing on the best characteristics of the chronological and functional resumes. Ithighlights skills but includes detailed information about the candidate’s educationand work experience. VIBHOR SAXENA A-25/31, Sector-60, Noida-201 301 E-mail: vibhor_saxena @ dppc.comSKILLS 1Conversant in structural steel design and fabrication 2Have sufficient exposure to project management methodologies • Competent in managing construction activities of large scale Heavy Engineering Projects • Proficient in MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Excel, and Word 98 and 2000. • Good problem-solving skills • Excellent communication and interpersonal skills • Competent in speaking French.EXPERIENCE Project Leader, Dharampal Premchand Ltd,Sector-60, Noida- 201301
  59. 59. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. December 2001 to present 1Complete civil projects within or ahead of the schedule through strict planning, monitoring and control while maintaining the best construction standards 2Supervise erection of auxiliary facilities like water treatment, ETP, cabling, piping and other utilities 3Maintain customer relations through effective presentation of technical expertise Assistant Project Manager(Civil), Subhash, Projects and Marketing Ltd, Park Street, Kolkata December 1998 to November 2001 4Assist in the project management of various civil works being executed at site 5Coordinate with Head Office, sites, various departments, and sub-contractors. 6Maintain close liaison with clientsEDUCATION Pondicherry Eng College, Pondicherry B.Tech in Civil Engineering, July 1998 Institute of Information Technology, Mumbai Certificate in Computer Programming, December, 1998 ACTIVITIES 7Member, Institution of Engineers, New Delhi 8Member, National Cadet Corps, 1994-1996
  60. 60. 9Secretary, Society for Promotion of Science, New DelhiINTERESTS 1Badminton, Football, Cycling 2Classical Music, Movies, Fiction READING COMPREHENSIONObjective: 1Identifying the purposes of reading 2Identifying the differences between active and passive reading.Reading is an important communicative process and reading skills are probably themost important language skills required for academic and professional purposes.Quick efficient and imaginative reading techniques are essential in order to achieveacademic success, because academic performance depends on the quality andquantity of reading.
  61. 61. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. Reading is a complex communicative process of receiving and interpreting thewritten word. It involves recognizing what is written and comprehending thematter, that is, understanding the main and subsidiary points as well as links themain and subsidiary points as well as links between different parts of the writtenmaterial. Whole receiving and interpreting the written word, the reader isconcerned with fowl factors, that is, decoding, comprehending, text analysis, andresponse. Comprehension is reading to the identification of the central theme, main ideas,supporting details, and main ideas, supporting details, and writing pattern. In orderto comprehend a technical message, we need to think critically and analyticallyabout what we are reading so that we are able to respond to the lexical meaning ofwords and the relationship between them, understand the specific details, andrecognize the meaning and function of sentence patterns accurately as well as theylogical and thematic coherence.Reading with a purpose: An engineering student has to read and interpret text books, research papers,and articles in technical journals, teaching notes, notices, web materials,directories, encyclopedias, laboratory instruction sheets, safety manuals andregulations, technical reports, and reference materials. Although the basic purposeof reading is to extract information from various sources, it may primarily be to:1get an introductory idea of a text.2get a broad understanding of the subject matter.2Understand scientific ideas, theories, and principles; obtain specificinformation; understand new changes and developments in a particular field.3Broaden one’s outlook and understanding.
  62. 62. 4Discover the author’s view points.5To see evidence for one’s own point of view. In order to achieve the above reading purposes, we need to understand thedifferences between Active and Passive Reading. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE READING Active Reading Passive Reading>The reader pays attention to both >The reader pays attention to eithercontent content or style.as well as style.>The reader interprets and analyses >The reader does not analyse whatwhat he or she reads in order to he or she reads.understand both explicit as well asimplicit meaning of a writtenmessage.>The reader predicts and responds to >The reader does not predict andthe context. respond to the context.>The reader pays attention to the >The reader doesn’t pay attention towriter’s intention. the writer’s intention.>The reader differentiates between >The reader does not distinguishideas, opinions, feelings, and facts. between factual and non factual information.>The reader infers the meaning of >The reader does not infer theunfamiliar words from contextual or meaning of unfamiliar words frominternal clues. contextual or internal clues.>The reader identifies and evaluates >The reader does not identify ora writer’s attitude. evaluate a writer’s attitude.
  63. 63. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.>The reader understands and >The reader does not interpretinterprets graphic information. graphics.>The reader draws inferences andconclusions. >The reader is only concerned with the literal meaning of a written message.SKIMMING SKILLS:Skimming is a more sophisticated skill than scanning. It refers to the process ofreading a text or a passage in order to get a rough idea of what the text or passageis all about. It is a rapid reading technique that prepares the reader for detailedreading. As the main objective of skimming is to understand the central idea andthe main points of a text, the reader needs to use a reading strategy that involvesfast reading and quick analysis. Skimming also involves discovering the purpose and organization of a text.One of the most important purposes of reading for academic and professionalpurposes is obtaining relevant information for various purposes. This involves notthe ability to recognize the main ideas and supporting details but also the ability toidentify different writing patterns used to develop these ideas. Authors use avariety of discourse patterns in scientific writing. Skimming is essential for better understanding of a text. Skimming shouldanswer the following questions of a text:
  64. 64. 1.What is the overall purpose of the text?2.What is the central idea or theme?3.What is the logical organization?(general to specific, specific to general, chronological, more important to less important, less important to more important, and so on.)4.What does the author intend to do? (describe, instruct, report, narrate, explain, argue, persuade, illustrate, and so on.)5.What are the main points of the text?Identifying the central idea:The first step of skimming is to identify the central idea. Every essay, article,passage, or text book chapter deals with a theme or central idea. All the otherideas, points, examples, illustrations in the text support and expand this centralidea. This central idea is also called thesis. The thesis answers the following threequestions: 43What is the subject? 44What does the author want to say about the subject? 45What is the author’s point of view?In order to understand central idea of a text, the reader should carefully read thefollowing: 46the title or the main heading 47the subheadings 48the opening paragraph 49the last paragraph The title or the main heading of a text can give a clue to the content.Similarly, the subheadings can also help in identifying the central idea. Theopening and the last paragraphs generally sum up the subject and the author’s pointof view. The reader should also glance over the beginning of the text to identify itslogical organization.Identify the discourse technique used in text, i.e., definition, description,explanation, comparison and contrast, narration, classification, and so on. Let us try to understand this with the help of an example. Read thefollowing passage and try to identify the central idea of the passage by quicklyreading the title and the sub headings.
  65. 65. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.SCANNING SKILLS:Scanning refers to the ability to locate specific information or facts as quickly aspossible. While trying to look for the meaning of a word in a dictionary or lookingfor a telephone number in the telephone directory, we scan and try to look forspecific information. Scanning is an important rapid reading technique, whichprovides better comprehension while reading a scientific or technical text. It mayserve several purposes, which include looking for: a)a specific point or fact in a text b)relevant graphic details c)a formula in a text d) word in a dictionary e)train or television schedules f)any reference or bibliographical listings g)examination results, or h)any notes/questions/remarks at the end of text We may know how to scan a newspaper or a dictionary but may do it slowlywith less accuracy. What is important is to increase scanning speed with accuracy.The following suggestions will help increase proficiency at scanning.Know What You Want to Find In order to scan any reading material, the readerneeds to know what he/she wants to find. If he/she does not know what he/she islooking for, he/she will not be able to scan well. So, the purpose of scanningshould be determined and the reader should not be confused about the informationthat he/she requires.Do Not Read Everything As the reader knows what he/she is looking for before
  66. 66. he/she begins to read, he/she should not read everything. He/she shouldconcentrate on the information that he/she needs with his/her eyes only on theparticular word, phrase, and word group or thought unit that he/she is looking for.The attempt should be to pursue word groups and thought units quickly.Use Guides and Aids Every reading material contains certain guides and aids,which should be used to find what the reader wants.Know the Organization of the Material to be Read The reader needs to knowthe organization of the reading material to scan it with speed and accuracy.Practise scanning different kinds of reading materials such as newspaper listings,dictionaries, telephone directories, and analyze the way information is structured inthese materials.Concentrate while Scanning The reader needs to concentrate while scanning areading material. He/she must have the urge to read and scan the material. Thiswill improve his visible perception and help him identify the required informationquickly. TECHNICAL REPORT WRITINGObjective 1To equip students with a number of pointers to write professional and structured technical reports. A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technicalinformation in a clear and easily accessible format. It is divided into sectionswhich allow different readers to access different levels of information. Technicalcommunication is the delivery of technical information to readers (or listeners orviewers) in a manner that is adapted to their needs, level of understanding, andbackground.Definition of Technical Report
  67. 67. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech. Technical Reports present facts and conclusions about our designs and otherprojects. Typically, a technical report includes research about technical conceptsas well as graphical depictions of designs and data. A technical report also followsa strict organization.KEY FEATURES OF A REPORT:1Are designed for quick and easy communication of information2Are designed for selective reading3Use sections with numbered headings and sub headings4Use figures and diagrams to convey dataTHE 5 Cs OF TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING: 1.Clarity: To be clearElements1Avoid needless complexity in words, phrases and sentences.
  68. 68. 2Keep things simple by using familiar words, constructing effective sentences andparagraphs that are logical and ordered.3Avoid ambiguity by using precise, concrete language and making appropriatechoices in words, syntax, pronouns and punctuation.4Avoid jargon and colloquialisms.2. Conciseness: To be brief or to the point without losing the intent of ourmessage.Elements1Eliminate unnecessary prepositional phrases.2Avoid necessary repetition.3A note about prepositional phrases.4List details but do not emphasize any one detail over another.3. Concrete: To be definite, not abstract, real and completeElements1Be precise- say what you mean.2Be technically accurate and complete.3Choose the right words and be careful when substituting one word for another.4Use specific facts and figures – make no assumptions.5Use active rather than passive verb forms.4.Coherence: To hold together in a logical, orderly and consistent manner.Elements1Keep ideas tied together by repeating key terms and phrases.2Establish links between ideas by using appropriate transitional words.3Develop ideas and details that fit together clearly and read smoothly.5.Context: To consider the circumstances in which an event occurs.Elements1Define your purpose or goal.2Identify your audience, their knowledge and needs.
  69. 69. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.3Consider the effect of or response to your writing.4What do you hope or want to achieve?5Consider the ethical and legal implications.CLASSIFICATION OF THE REPORTS:1.On the basis of legal formalities2.On the basis of frequency or issue3.On the basis of functionsOn the basis of legal formalities:a. Informal Report: An informal report is usually in the form of individual toindividual communication.b. Formal Report: A formal is in the form of detailed prescribed form. Thesereports can be prepared by experts of the company and submitted to themanagement.c. Statutory Report: A report prepared and presented according to the form andprocedure laid down by the law is called a Statutory Report.d. Non Statutory Report: Formal reports which are not required under any law,but which are prepared to help the management in framing policies or taking otherimportant decisions are called Non Statutory Reports.On the basis of frequency of Issue1. Routine Reports: Reports which are prepared to meet the regular and routine
  70. 70. needs of an organization are called Routine Reports. Routine Reports are usuallyprepared and submitted to different levels of management at periodical intervals.The following are some of the routine reports: a. Progress Reports: Progress means how much work has been completedaccording to the plan. We write a progress report to inform a supervisor,associate, or customer about the progress you have made in a project over a certainperiod of time.b Inspection Reports: In this case, it is an inspection which likely is going to behome inspection/business inspection to look for defects within and on the property.c. Performance Appraisal Reports: The performance appraisal is a process inwhich we value the employee contribution and worth to the organization.2. Special Reports: This report may or may not contain statistical data. Using thisreport, a particular operation is investigated at a specified time for a particularpurpose. This is done according to the requirements of management but not on aregular basis. The deviations from standards are paid additional attention andcorrective action is taken. Handling complaints of damage are an example of thistype of report.On the basis of functions: On the basis of functions, technical reports may be informational andanalytical reports. If a report merely presents facts relating to an issue or situation,it is informative. It does not have any conclusions or recommendations. On theother hand, if it analyses the facts, draws conclusions and makes therecommendations, it may be described as analytical or interpretative orinvestigative. For example, to extend production or to start a new branch or to takeanother existing business unit analytical reports are essential.REPORT WRITING: Writing a report requires special writing skills and knowledge of format. A
  71. 71. Advanced English Communication Skills Lab Manual 2011-2012 III – B. Tech.cover letter usually accompanies technical, research or psychological report. Thisletter provides the recipient with the context of a report. Transmittal letters shouldbe brief. They contain address, name of recipient, date and our request.Successful report writing contains several main parts:1.Cover Sheet: This should include the full title of the report and your name.2.Title Page : Contains the report title, name and organization for whom thereport has been created, author name and the date of fulfillment.3.Acknowledgements Page: It should always be included into our research ortechnical report saying thank you to the people who helped us with work.4.Summary Abstract: Usually includes the topic chosen for our paper and scope ofthe project. It should be completed when the report is written so that we discuss itsmain parts and make conclusions. Summary Abstracts must be interesting to theother researchers and contain current information.5.Table of Contents: This page contains the paper structure with numbers for everyheading and sub heading for the reader’s convenience. At first, a draft is created inorder to organize the material and ideas, though it may be changed during thereport writing.6.The list of tables, figures and illustrations: We need to number all the figures andtables presented in a technical report and list them in the order they are given. Ifwe use more than seven tables and figures we should list them or a separate pagegiving the page numbers that can be found at in the work.7.Executive Summary or Summary of the Report: This is an overview of the entire
  72. 72. document. It should show the reader what this report is about. It includes thepurpose, review literature, the methodology we choose and a brief list of ourfindings and recommendations.8.The Body: The body of our report is the main part of the paper that contains allthe important materials and data necessary for the research of the issue. The bodyincludes literature, methodology, result or findings, analysis and discussionsections. Literature review helps us to place the research into a background andshow its significance as well as to critically analyze scholarly articles and bookswhich relate to our topic. Methodology contains methods and principles which weused in our research. Besides, in this section we must explain why we have chosenthese methods for report writing and discuss the ethical issues of the topic. Theresults and findings section contains the presentation of facts and our findings andcompares them with the findings of other researchers.9.Conclusion: This is the final part of the work. We should summarize ourfindings and draw conclusions which are supported by evidence.10.Recommendations: We should make some suggestions concerning furtherresearch into the topic.11.Appendix: The report may contain an appendix or several ones, which maypresent a copy of a questionnaire, maps, calculations, plans, etc.12.Bibliography: All the sources should be listed.STAGES OF REPORT PREPARATION: Information has limited value unless we arrange the collected data in achronological manner and in a usable form. Never resume that our job is finishedwhen the investigational or problem solving phase has been completed. It is alsoour responsibility as an engineer or a scientist to show promptly that our results areworthwhile. The only way to convey these thoughts is by writing a report.1.Gathering the Data (or developing the theory): To be a successful technicalwriter, we should develop the ability to foresee the general content of the reportbefore the program begins. In most cases, we should be able to prepare apreliminary report outline at the beginning of the program. Outlining shouldbenefit both the report and the program, for obviously a well-prepared outline