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Data communication lab manual

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Data communication lab manual

  1. 1. DATACOMMUNICATION LAB
  2. 2. DATA COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABIn this lab students are exposed to various techniques like amplitude modulation /demodulation, frequency modulation / demodulation, phase shift keying etc. beingused in communication engineering. Through well designed experiments, studentsare able to appreciate the theoretical aspects of communication systems.
  3. 3. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS1. TO STUDY DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANSMISSION MEDIA2. TO STUDY QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION.3. TO STUDY SERIAL INTERFACE RS - 232.4. TO STUDY PARALLEL INTERFACE IEEE - 488.5. TO STUDY LAN USING USING STAR TOPOLOGY .6. TO STUDY LAN USING BUS TOPOLOGY.7. TO STUDY LAN USING TREE TOPOLOGY.8. TO STUDY CONFIGURE MODEM OF COMPUTER.9. TO CONFIGURE HUB/SWITCH.10. TO MAKE INTERCONNECTIONS IN CABLES FOR DATA COMMUNICATION.
  4. 4. EXPERIMENT NO. 1AIM: - To study different types of transmission mediaAPPRATUS REQUIRED: -THEORY: -Transmission Media - GuidedThere are 2 basic categories of Transmission Media:Guided and Unguided.Guided Transmission Media uses a "cabling" system that guides the datasignals along a specific path. The data signals are bound by the "cabling"system. Guided Media is also known as Bound Media. Cabling is meant in ageneric sense in the previous sentences and is not meant to be interpretedas copper wire cabling only.Unguided Transmission Media consists of a means for the data signals totravel but nothing to guide them along a specific path. The data signals arenot bound to a cabling media and as such are often called Unbound Media.There 4 basic types of Guided Media: • Open Wire • Twisted Pair • Coaxial Cable • Optical FibreCoaxial cables have a copper wire running through the middle encased inplastic insulation.The plastic insulation is itself encased in a metal braid which is covered byan outer layer of plastic insulator.The electrical signals run through the central wire and the metal braid actsas both an earth and as a shield against electromagnetic interference.
  5. 5. Diagram A BNC connector on a network cardCoaxial cables are connected to devices by means of a special plug with abayonet connection. This is called a BNC plug.Fibre optic cables have a thin strand of glass in the centre that carries thelight pulses.Cable Type BandwidthOpen Cable 0 - 5 MHzTwisted Pair 0 - 100 MHzCoaxial Cable 0 - 600 MHzOptical Fibre 0 - 1 GHz
  6. 6. Transmission Media - UnguidedUnguided Transmission Media is data signals that flow through the air. Theyare not guided or bound to a channel to follow. They are classified by thetype of wave propagation.RF PropagationThere are 3 types of RF (Radio Frequency) Propagation: • Ground Wave, • Ionospheric and • Line of Sight (LOS) Propagation.Ground Wave Propagation follows the curvature of the Earth. GroundWaves have carrier frequencies up to 2 MHz. AM radio is an example ofGround Wave Propagation.RESULT: - Thus different types of transmission media are studied.
  7. 7. EXPERIMENT NO – 2Aim: - to study quadrature phase shift keying modulation.APPARATUS REQUIRED:- CRO, experimental kit, power supply, connectingleads.BRIEF THEORY:-PSK:- PSK involves the phase change at the carrier sine wave between 0 to180 in accordance with the data stream to be transmitted .PSK modulator is similar to ASK modulator both used balanced modulator tomultiply the carrier with balanced modulator signal. The digital signal withapplied to modulation input for PSK generation is bipolar i.e. equal positiveand negative voltage level.When the modulating input is positive the out put at modulator is a linewave in phase with the carrier input whereas for positive voltage level, theoutput of modulator is a sine wave which is switched out of phase by 180from the carrier input.Quadrature Phase-shift Keying (QPSK)QPSK:- in QPSK each pair at consecutive data bit is treated as a two bit codewhich is switch the phase of the carrier sine wave between one at four phase90º apart. The four possible combinations at bib it code are 0º, 01, 10, and11 each code represents either a phase of 45º, 185º, 225º, and 315ºlagging, relative to the phase at the original un modulated carrier QPSKoffers an advantage over PSK is a no carrier that how each phase representsa two bit code rather than a single bit. This means that either we can chargephase per sec. or the same amount of data can be transmitted with .
  8. 8. Constellation diagram for QPSK with Gray coding. Each adjacent symbol onlydiffers by one bit.Sometimes known as quaternary or quadriphase PSK or 4-PSK, QPSK usesfour points on the constellation diagram, equispaced around a circle. Withfour phases, QPSK can encode two bits per symbol, shown in the diagramwith Gray coding to minimize the BER — twice the rate of BPSK. Analysisshows that this may be used either to double the data rate compared to aBPSK system while maintaining the bandwidth of the signal or to maintainthe data-rate of BPSK but halve the bandwidth needed.Although QPSK can be viewed as a quaternary modulation, it is easier to seeit as two independently modulated quadrature carriers. With thisinterpretation, the even (or odd) bits are used to modulate the in-phasecomponent of the carrier, while the odd (or even) bits are used to modulatethe quadrature-phase component of the carrier. BPSK is used on bothcarriers and they can be independently demodulatedBLOCK DIAGRAM:- Carrier Generator Carrier Modulation CRO Circuit Data Unipolar to Generator Bipolar Converter ( Block diagram of PSK)
  9. 9. Carrier Generator Carrier Modulation Circuit Data Unipolar to Generator Bipolar Converter Summing amplifier CRO Qudrature Carrier Generator Carrier Modulation Circuit Data Unipolar to Generator Bipolar ConverterPROCEDURE:-1. Make the connection according to the circuit diagram.2. Connect the modulator output to CRO.3. Observe output on CRO.
  10. 10. WAVE FORM:-RESULT:-PSK and QPSK output is obtained on CRO.
  11. 11. EXPERIMENT NO – 3Aim: - TO STUDY SERIAL INTERFACE RS - 232.Appratus Required: - Data Communication KitTHEORY: -Introduction to Serial CommunicationsAll IBM PC and compatible computers are typically equipped with two serialports and one parallel port. Although these two types of ports are used forcommunicating with external devices, they work in different ways.A parallel port sends and receives data eight bits at a time over 8 separatewires. This allows data to be transferred very quickly; however, the cablerequired is more bulky because of the number of individual wires it mustcontain. Parallel ports are typically used to connect a PC to a printer and arerarely used for much else. A serial port sends and receives data one bit at atime over one wire. While it takes eight times as long to transfer each byteof data this way, only a few wires are required. In fact, two-way (full duplex)communications is possible with only three separate wires - one to send, oneto receive, and a common signal ground wire. RS-232 stands for Recommend Standard number 232 and C is the latestrevision of the standard. The serial ports on most computers use a subset ofthe RS-232C standard. The full RS-232C standard specifies a 25-pin "D"connector of which 22 pins are used. Most of these pins are not needed fornormal PC communications, and indeed, most new PCs are equipped withmale D type connectors having only 9 pins.The RS-232 standard states that DTE devices use a 25-pin male connector,and DCE devices use a 25-pin female connector. You can therefore connect aDTE device to a DCE using a straight pin-for-pin connection. However, toconnect two like devices, you must instead use a null modem cable. Nullmodem cables cross the transmit and receive lines in the cable, and arediscussed later in this chapter. The listing below shows the connections andsignal directions for both 25 and 9-pin connectors.The TD (transmit data) wire is the one through which data from a DTEdevice is transmitted to a DCE device. This name can be deceiving, because
  12. 12. this wire is used by a DCE device to receive its data. The TD line is kept in amark condition by the DTE device when it is idle. The RD (receive data) wireis the one on which data is received by a DTE device, and the DCE devicekeeps this line in a mark condition when idle.RTS stands for Request To Send. This line and the CTS line are used when"hardware flow control" is enabled in both the DTE and DCE devices. TheDTE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the remote device that itis ready and able to receive data. If the DTE device is not able to receivedata (typically because its receive buffer is almost full), it will put this line inthe space condition as a signal to the DCE to stop sending data. When theDTE device is ready to receive more data (i.e. after data has been removedfrom its receive buffer), it will place this line back in the mark condition. Thecomplement of the RTS wire is CTS, which stands for Clear To Send. TheDCE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the DTE device that it isready to receive the data.DTR stands for Data Terminal Ready. Its intended function is very similarto the RTS line. DSR (Data Set Ready) is the companion to DTR in the sameway that CTS is to RTS. Some serial devices use DTR and DSR as signals tosimply confirm that a device is connected and is turned on. The RS-232C standard imposes a cable length limit of 50 feet. You canusually ignore this "standard", since a cable can be as long as 10000 feet atbaud rates up to 19200 if you use a high quality, well shielded cable. Theexternal environment has a large effect on lengths for unshielded cables. Inelectrically noisy environments, even very short cables can pick up straysignalsDiagram :25 Pin Connector on a DTE device (PC connection) Male RS232 DB25 Pin Number
  13. 13. 9 Pin Connector on a DTE device (PC connection) Male RS232 DB9Advantages : It is applicable for long distance.Disadvantage :- Comparatively low speed.Result : Thus studied RS – 232 standard.
  14. 14. EXPERIMENT NO – 4Aim: - TO STUDY PARALLEL INTERFACE IEEE - 488.Appratus Required: - Data communication kitTHEORY: IEEE-488 / HP-IB / GPIB IEEE-488 stacking connectorsData signal Parallel data bus with handshakingWidth 8 bitsBandwidth 8 Mbps(later extended to 64 Mbps)Max devices 15Protocol ParallelCable 20 meters maxPins 24 (8 data, 5 bus management, 3 handshake, 8 ground)
  15. 15. Connector 24-pin Amphenol-designed micro ribbon Pin outA female IEEE-488 connector Pin 1 DIO1 Data input/output bit. Pin 2 DIO2 Data input/output bit. Pin 3 DIO3 Data input/output bit. Pin 4 DIO4 Data input/output bit. Pin 5 EOI End-or-identify. Pin 6 DAV Data valid. Pin 7 NRFD Not ready for data. Pin 8 NDAC Not data accepted. Pin 9 IFC Interface clear. Pin 10 SRQ Service request. Pin 11 ATN Attention. Pin 12 SHIELD Pin 13 DIO5 Data input/output bit. Pin 14 DIO6 Data input/output bit. Pin 15 DIO7 Data input/output bit. Pin 16 DIO8 Data input/output bit. Pin 17 REN Remote enable. Pin 18 GND (wire twisted with DAV) Pin 19 GND (wire twisted with NRFD) Pin 20 GND (wire twisted with NDAC) Pin 21 GND (wire twisted with IFC) Pin 22 GND (wire twisted with SRQ) Pin 23 GND (wire twisted with ATN)IEEE-488 is a short-range, digital communications bus specification. It was originally created for use withautomated test equipment, and is still in wide use for that purpose. IEEE-488 is also commonly known as HP-IB(Hewlett-Packard Instrument Bus) and GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus).IEEE-488 allows up to 15 devices to share a single 8-bit parallel electrical bus by daisy chaining connections. Theslowest device participates in control and data transfer handshakes to determine the speed of the transaction. Themaximum data rate is about one Mbyte/sec in the original standard, and about 8 Mbyte/sec with IEEE-488.The IEEE-488 bus employs 16 signal lines — eight bi-directional used for data transfer, three for handshake. andfive for bus management-plus eight ground return lines.
  16. 16. Signalsbus line descriptionDIO1– Data input/output bits. These 8 lines are used to read and write the 8 bits of a data or command byte thatDIO8 is being sent over the bus. Not ready for data. NRFD is a handshaking line asserted by listeners to indicate they are not ready toNRFD receive a new data byte. Data valid. This is a handshaking line, used to signal that the value being sent with DIO1-DIO8 is valid.DAV During transfers the DIO1-DIO8 lines are set, then the DAV line is asserted after a delay called the T1 delay. The T1 delay lets the data lines settle to stable values before they are read. Not data accepted. NDAC is a handshaking line asserted by listeners to indicate they have not yet readNDAC the byte contained on the DIO lines. Attention. ATN is asserted to indicate that the DIO lines contain a command byte (as opposed to a dataATN byte). Also, it is asserted with EOI when conducting parallel polls. End-or-identify. This line is asserted with the last byte of data during a write, to indicate the end of theEOI message. It can also be asserted along with the ATN line to conduct a parallel poll. Interface clear. The system controller can assert this line (it should be asserted for at least 100IFC microseconds) to reset the bus and make itself controller-in-charge. Remote enable. Asserted by the system controller, it enables devices to enter remote mode. When REN isREN asserted, a device will enter remote mode when it is addressed by the controller. When REN is false, all devices will immediately return to local mode. Service request. Devices on the bus can assert this line to request service from the controller-in-charge.SRQ The controller can then poll the devices until it finds the device requesting service, and perform whatever action is necessary.Advantage : Fast speed.Disadvantage : Apllied for short disdtance.
  17. 17. EXPERIMENT NO – 5Aim: - TO STUDY LAN USING USING STAR TOPOLOGY .Rppratus Required: - 4 to 5 computers, cablesTheory: -What is Network Topology?The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physicaltopology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information betweenworkstations.Main Types of Network TopologiesIn networking, the term "topology" refers to the layout of connected devices on a network.Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: • Star Topology • Ring Topology • Bus Topology • Tree Topology • Mesh Topology • Hybrid TopologyMore complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the above basic topologies.Star TopologyMany home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" thatmay be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet.Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star networkcable will only take down one computers network access and not the entire LAN. (If the hub fails, however, theentire network also fails.)
  18. 18. DIAGRAM: -Advantages of a Star Topology • Easy to install and wire. • No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.Disadvantages of a Star Topology • Requires more cable length than a linear topology. • If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled. • More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the concentrators.The protocols used with star configurations are usually Ethernet or LocalTalk. Token Ring uses a similar topology,called the star-wired ring.RESULT: - Star Topology is studied.
  19. 19. EXPERIMENT NO – 6Aim: - TO STUDY LAN USING BUS TOPOLOGY.Appratus Required: - 4 to 5 computers , cablesTheory: --What is Network Topology?The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physicaltopology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information betweenworkstations.Main Types of Network TopologiesIn networking, the term "topology" refers to the layout of connected devices on a network.Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: • Star Topology • Ring Topology • Bus Topology • Tree Topology • Mesh Topology • Hybrid TopologyBus Topology lEthernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and dont require much cabling compared to the alternatives.10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago forbus topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozencomputers are added to a network.l
  20. 20. DIAGRAM: -Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology • Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. • Requires less cable length than a star topology.Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology • Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable. • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down. • Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large buildingResult: - Thus Bus Topology is studied.
  21. 21. EXPERIMENT NO – 7Aim: - TO STUDY LAN USING TREE TOPOLOGY.Appratus Required: - 4 – 5 Computers , cables.Theory: --What is Network Topology?The physical topology of a network refers to the configuration of cables, computers, and other peripherals. Physicaltopology should not be confused with logical topology which is the method used to pass information betweenworkstations.Main Types of Network TopologiesIn networking, the term "topology" refers to the layout of connected devices on a network.Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: • Star Topology • Ring Topology • Bus Topology • Tree Topology • Mesh Topology • Hybrid TopologyTree TopologyTree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devicesconnect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. This bus/star hybridapproach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devicesdue to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub connection points) alone.
  22. 22. DIAGRAM: -Advantages of a Tree Topology • Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. • Supported by several hardware and software venders.Disadvantages of a Tree Topology • Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. • If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. • More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.Result: - Thus Tree Topology is studied.
  23. 23. EXPERIMENT NO – 8Aim: - TO STUDY CONFIGURE MODEM OF COMPUTER.Appratus Required: - MODEM and Data communication kitTHEORY: -The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator. A modem is typically used to senddigital data over a phone line.The sending modem modulates the data into a signal that is compatible with the phone line, and the receivingmodem demodulates the signal back into digital data. Wireless modems convert digital data into radio signalsand back.Modems came into existence in the 1960s as a way to allow terminals to connect to computers over the phonelines. A typical arrangement is shown below:Types of Modem InternalInternal modems are Compact, Inexpensive but difficult to set-up (if not pre-installed with computer package). ExternalExternal modems are - Simple to set up, allow flexible usage but are more expensive than internal modems.In a configuration like this, a dumb terminal at an off-site office or store could "dial in" to a large, centralcomputer. The 1960s were the age of time-shared computers, so a business would often buy computer time froma time-share facility and connect to it via a 300-bit-per-second (bps) modem.A dumb terminal is simply a keyboard and a screen. A very common dumb terminal at the time was called the DECVT-100, and it became a standard of the day (now memorialized in terminal emulators worldwide). The VT-100could display 25 lines of 80 characters each. When the user typed a character on the terminal, the modem sent theASCII code for the character to the computer. The computer then sent the character back to the computer so itwould appear on the screen.People got along at 300 bps for quite a while. The reason this speed was tolerable was because 300 bps representsabout 30 characters per second, which is a lot more characters per second than a person can type or read. Oncepeople started transferring large programs and images to and from bulletin board systems, however, 300 bpsbecame intolerable.Modem speeds went through a series of steps at approximately two-year intervals: • 300 bps - 1960s through 1983 or so
  24. 24. • 1200 bps - Gained popularity in 1984 and 1985 • 2400 bps • 9600 bps - First appeared in late 1990 and early 1991 • 19.2 kilobits per second (Kbps) • 28.8 Kbps • 33.6 Kbps • 56 Kbps - Became the standard in 1998 • ADSL, with theoretical maximum of up to 8 megabits per second (Mbps) - Gained popularity in 1999DIAGRAM: --RESULT: - Different types of modems are studied.
  25. 25. EXPERIMENT NO – 9Aim: - TO CONFIGURE HUB/SWITCH.Appratus Required: - HUB, Switch and CablesTHEORY: -The Hubs are the physical hardware devices placed in a central locations. The Hubs can be either multi-portrepeaters or concentration. The Hubs can be of two types:- a) The Hubs with minimum intelligent (i.e. no microprocessors). b) Intelligent Hubs which can perform the basic diagnostics and task the nodes to see if they are operating correctly or not.The third category can be smart Hubs which can be polled and managed remotelyPurpose of HubHubs are used to provide star topology. At the center of a star is the Hub or the switch with the n/w nodes locatedon the tips of the star. The hub is installed in a central wiring clost with all the cables extending out to the n/wnodes. The advantage of having a central wiring location i.e. it is easier to maintain to troubleshoot large n/w. Alln/w cables come to the central hub. So it is especially easy to detect and fix the cable problems. The user caneasily move a workstation in a star topology by changing the connection to the Hub at the central wiring closet.BLOCK DIAGRAM: -RESULT: - Thus Hub is Studied
  26. 26. EXPERIMENT NO – 10AIM: - TO MAKE INTERCONNECTIONS IN CABLES FOR DATACOMMUNICATION.APPRATUS REQUIRED: - Different types of cablesTHEORY: -Ethernet CablesComparison between CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6, CAT7 CablesIn the context of the 100-ohm UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) type of cable used for Ethernet wiring the onlycategories of interest are Cat3, Cat4, Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat7. CATx is an abbreviation for the categorynumber that defines the performance of building telecommunications cabling as outlined by the ElectronicIndustries Association (EIA) standards. Some specifications for these categories are shown further down.Up until the late 1980s thick or thin coaxial cable was typically used for 10-Mbps Ethernet networks, but aroundthat time, UTP cabling became more commonly used because it was easier to install and less expensive. UTP CAT3and CAT4 were used for a quite limited time since the emergence of 100Base-TX networks meant a quick shift toCAT5. By the year 2000, moves to gigabit (1000Base-TX) Ethernet LANs created a need for another specification,CAT5e. CAT5e is now being superseded by CAT6 cable and there is a developing standard for CAT7.Specifications for Cat3, Cat4, Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, and Cat7 Cables Category Type Spectral B/W Length LAN Applications Notes Cat3 UTP 16 MHz 100m 10Base-T, 4Mbps Now mainly for telephone cables Cat4 UTP 20 MHz 100m 16Mbps Rarely seen Cat5 UTP 100MHz 100m 100Base-Tx,ATM, CDDI Common for current LANs Cat5e UTP 100MHz 100m 1000Base-T Common for current LANs Cat6 UTP 250MHz 100m Emerging Cat7 ScTP 600MHz 100mIt might seem that CAT5 and CAT5e are the same. Pretty much they are, the CAT5e specification simply includedsome additional limits over the CAT5 specification. The reality is that most CAT5 cable is in fact CAT5e cable justnot certified as such. Here is a comparison of those extra specifications.
  27. 27. CAT5, CAT5e, and CAT6 UTP Solid Cable Specifications Comparison Category 5 Category 5e Category 6Frequency 100 MHz 100 MHz 250 MHzAttenuation (Min. at 100 MHz) 22 dB 22 dB 19.8 dBCharacteristic Impedance 100 ohms ± 15% 100 ohms ± 15% 100 ohms ± 15%NEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) 32.3 dB 35.3 dB 44.3 dBPS-NEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) no specification 32.3 dB 42.3 dBELFEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) no specification 23.8 dB 27.8 dBPS-ELFEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) no specification 20.8 dB 24.8 dBReturn Loss (Min. at 100 MHz) 16.0 dB 20.1 dB 20.1 dBDelay Skew (Max. per 100 m) no specification 45 ns 45 nsSome modern hubs dont care if you use crossover cables or straight through cables, they work out what youreusing and configure themselves accordingly.As stated at the outset, the actual difference is in the wiring. Inside the UTP patch cable there are 8 physical wiresalthough the network only uses 4 of them (the other 4 are simply wasted). The 8 wires are arranged in whatsknown as pairs and one pair is used to send information whilst the other pair is used to receive information.On a PC, the pair on pins 1 and 2 of the connector send information, whilst the pair on pins 3 and 6 receive theinformation. To make PCs talk to each we therefore need to connect the send pair of one PC to the receive pair ofthe other PC (and vice-a-versa). That means we need a crossover cable. If we used a straight through cable theboth be listening on the one pair - and hearing nothing, and sending on the one pair - achieving nothing.The most common cable is the straight through cable. In a home or small office network you might only have onecrossover cable used - perhaps from the cable or DSL modem to the distribution hub.
  28. 28. Color Codes If a cable has 568A color wiring on both ends then its a straight through cable. If a cable has 568B color wiring on both ends then its also a straight through cable. If a cable has 568A color wiring on one end and 568B color coded wiring on the other end, then its a crossover cable.In fact, while the colors are standardized and usually followed, thats not the important part. Whats moreimportant is that one "pair" (wires that are twisted together inside the cable sheath) is used for the transmit sideand another pair for the receive side. If pairs arent used then its likely your cable will not work. Pairs areidentified by the colors. The orange wire and the orange with white stripe (or sometimes white with orange stripe)wire are a pair. The brown wire and the brown with white stripe wire are a pair. Etc. DIAGRAM: -RESULT: - CAT types of cables are studied.

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