Integrating urban water management through green infrastructure by shashi shekhar singh ses jnu new delhi
Integrating urban water management through green infrastructure Presented By Shashi Shekhar Singh SES,JNU New Delhi
Urbanization: Trends and Patterns• Movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration• 286 million people in India live in urban areas (around 28% of the population)*• The proportion of urban population in India is increasing consistently over the years From 11% in 1901 to 26% in 1991 and 28% in 2001• Estimated to increase to 357 million in 2011 and to 432 million in 2021*• After independence • 3 times growth - Total population • 5 times growth - Urban population* * Census of India 2001
Urbanization trends in India Urban Total Year Population population In million 1800 2% 140 1950 30% 360 2000 47% 1027 2008 ~50% 1160 2030 ~ 60% 2050Source: UN, Urbanization prospects, the 1999 revision 3
What problems???• Water and sanitation problems• Due to increasing urbanization coupled with existing un-sustainability factors and conventional urban water management• Nearly 1.1 billion people worldwide who do not have access to clean drinking water and 2.6 billion people i.e. over 400 million people, lack even a simple improved latrine• Can lead to increased episodes of diarrhea and economic burden 4
Waiting for turn to fill water at community tap Collecting water at odd hours in the morning Old man collecting water at dawn Too little pressure for consumers…
Demand for water in India is expected to rise dramatically in the next few decades Drivers of water usage increase Water Demand in India; 2010 - 2050 Population increase from 1.2 Billion in 2010 to Cubic KM or Trilion Liters Population 1.6 Billion in 2030 will directly increase demand for water 1180 1.3% Increased urbanization from 30% to 50% will Urbanization create demand aggregation at select points in India, sometimes away from high water 843 availability areas 863 710 Per Capita Indian GDP is expected to grow causing per 650Income Increase capita income to rise from $468 to $ 17366 by 2050. Increased per capita will result in Agricultrue lifestyle changes, requiring more per capita 592 Domestic water. For e.g. water consumption in US is Industrial 119 582 litres/person / day compared to India’s Power 66 87 ~90 46 71 75 Others 39 13 India’s industrialization increase will increase 20 21 35 37Industrialization demand for water – especially increase in 2010 2025 2050 power, steel and other heavy industries Per Capita Availability1,2 1,730 1,401 1,200 As per international norms, if per capita water availability is less than 1700 m3 per year, country is water stressed and if the per capita availability is less than 1000 m3, the country is water scarce Source: Ministry of Water Resources, National Hydrology Institute, Roorkee , The Himalayan Challenge: Water Security in Emerging Asia, Strategic Fore
Resulting in a potentially significant demand supply gap in the near future Water Supply and Demand in India; 2010 - 2050 River Basins in India, with water shortage, 2030 Cubic KM or Trilion Liters Percentage Demand1,000 Current Supply 950 900 850 12% gap by 2025 800 +12% 750 Current useful 700 water supply 0 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 Expected issue by 2015 2: EFR – Eastern Flowing Rivers; WFR – Western Flowing Rivers (non major rivers) Source: Ministry of Water Resources, National Hydrology Institute
Concept of green infrastructure• Green infrastructure may be defined as the system of land, natural resources and natural habitats that collectively comprise a community’s underlying ecosystem• GI is present in every city although its size, diversity, strength vary greatly & regulate quality of air water and soil• GI conserves ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations
Key element of green infrastructure GI systems are comprised of: -Landscaped/cultivated green spaces like farmland, green roofs playfield, park -Natural area that provide wildlife habitat, water recharge areas Recreational spaces: community garden, parks, botanical gardens, greenways, right-of-way corridors Mapping and conservation of wetlands: Natural cycles of water and they mitigate flooding and absorb pollutant Environmental resources: Ground water recharge zone, watershed protection areas, wetland and floodplains e.g. GI has emerged as a best practice for storm water management
Example of green infrastructure in practiceStormwater management Rain gardens Retention ponds Floodplains Permeable pavement Vegetative roof covers or green roofsPhotosynthetic process Blue-green algae, grown intensively on roof tops Farms and open landscapes Productive landscapes Cultural resources
First commercial Green Street: Harrison Street
Case Study-I: Storm Water Management Project On Rotary Marg, JAIPUR
Case Study-I: Storm Water Management Project On Rotary Marg, JAIPUR The length of the road is about 400 m with average width of 8 m. Considering 600 mm annual rainfall and road catchment factor 0.75, direct runoff on road would be 1440 m3/ annum. Rotary marg also receives runoff from the roofs of adjoining houses and Hathroi hillock. The additional catchment area works out to be nearly 4000 m2. The additional runoff will be 1800 m3/ annum. The total runoff available for recharge will be around 3000 m3 / annum. Considering 60 mm as peak rainfall for Jaipur region, single storm of 15 minutes is expected to generate runoff on road of the order of 80 m3.
CASE STUDY – IIRoad/paved area storm water recharge in industrialpremises of Hero Honda Motors Limited, Dharuhera, Haryana The total area of the roads of the factory premises is 7581.5 m2 Which would generate 85.29 m3 volume of storm water runoff for recharge to the ground water at an average rainfall of 726 mm, considering peak rainfall intensity of 60 mm/hour and 0.75 as the catchment factor.
CASE STUDY – III Road/paved area storm water recharge throughartificial recharge reservoir in industrial premises ofHero Honda Motors Limited, Haridwar, Uttranchal. The total area of the roads and paved areas of the factory premises is 115080 m2. which would generate 129465 m3 volume of storm water runoff for recharge to the ground water at average rainfall of 1520 mm per annum.
•The rainwater collection basin is located on the roof of the Farm Centre and integrated with the existing roof structure and drainage systems. An example of a Rainwater HarvestingSystem. This one is integrated into the design of a home and yard in Portland Parapet wall has been given corrugated profile to facilitate more quantity of rain flow to the gutter CASE
The IUWM framework Water Source Agriculture, Rural use Water-bodies (Surface and Ground) and Environmental flows (Lake &river) Resource augmentation Sewage Storm Water Effluent(Re-use & Recovery) Treatment Collection treatment Water Supply Water Treatment Water Treatment(Quality (Portable Grade) (non-portable grade)graded) Water use Portable Non-portable Industrial/Public(quality graded) (Domestic and (Domestic and amenities commercial) commercial)
Sustainability principles for green infrastructure Prioritize environmentally sensitive land and natural resources for green infrastructure functions Integrate GI elements within municipal plans Integrate GI elements within built environment Ensure accessibility for all Identify appropriate measures and track performance Interdepartmental cooperation and accountability
Conclusion• Treated wastewater or in some cases urban runoff or stormwater (rain water harvesting) could be reused efficiently.• Large scale wastewater treatment system are not feasible in congested urban centers because high land value• The availability of water from water resource depends upon hydrology, type of housing, land cover and topography• Rain water harvesting, amount depends on rainfall and total roof area and roof characteristics• Tariff structures designed to conserve water must penalize over use but not minimize access to the urban poor.• Awareness campaigns to reduce water use amongst all consumers can play an important role in demand management.
SELECTED REFRENCES Deverill, P, Bibby, S, Wedgwood, A and Smout, I. (2002) “Designing water supply and sanitation projects to meet demand in rural and peri-urban communities”, Book 1 Concept, Principles and Practice, WEDC 2002. Frederick, K.D (1993) “Balancing Water Demands with Supplies- The role of management in a world of increasing scarcity”, World Bank Technical Paper No: 189,1993 Fredricksen, H.D (1992) “Drought Planning and Water efficiency Implications in Water resources Management”, World Bank Technical Paper No: 185,1992 GWP (2003) “Toolbox, Version 2 - Integrating water resources management” Global Water Partnership 2003 Rosegrant, M.W, Cai, X and Cline, S.A (2002) “Averting an Impending Crisis” Food policy report-Global water outlook to 2025 IWMI 2002. UNCHS (1999) “Managing Water for African Cities Developing a Strategy for Urban Water Demand Management”, Expert Group Meeting Cape Town, South Africa 26-18 April 1999, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) UNCHS (2003) “Managing Water for African Cities” www.un-urbanwater.net UNESCO (2003) “Water for people water for life United Nations” World Water Development Report, UNESCO-WWAP 2003 WHO, UNICEF and WSSCC (2000) “Global water supply and sanitation assessment - 2000 Report” , WHO 2000 Xie, M, Kufferner, U and Le Moigne, G. (1993) “Using Water efficiently - Technological Option”, World Bank Technical Paper No: 205,1993