Common discourse is one of scarcity of water (and in general of natural resources). Experience shows that variability much more affecting food security and livelihoods, a trend increasing with climate change.
Comparing the performance of agricultural systems between river basins, based on the production in kg per m3 of water consumed or water productivity.With few exceptions, water productivity of cereals is very low (between 0.2 and 0.5 kg/m3). Efficient farmers achieve water productivity of 2.0 kg/m3, but in most basins it is only a fraction of this level.
Poverty map in Bangladesh – NEED A BETTER COPY
Example on resource conservation using high resolution image – IRS P6 23mMiddle Ganges basin example with similar situations to polder (bounded by rivers, water logging, excess moustire, late planting) 1 Execesive moisture in soils areas where late planting takes or are left fallow. These can be used for surface seeding of wheat (if supplementary irrigation is available in Feb or Mar), or of water availalbiliity is not sufficient, then legumes are an option2 Water logged areas are under water in Dec/Jan so these areas are a potential zone for Boro rice (which can yield 25% to 30% higher than aman rice)
Increasing the resilience of agricultural and aquaculture systems in the coastal areas of the Ganges Delta
9 years of research for developmentto improve water & food security of the rural poor Alain Vidal, Director CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food
Water, food and poverty analyzed in 10 basins1.5 billion people50% of the poorest < 1.25US$/day Niger
Drivers for poverty Not just population increase Not just scarcity 1,800 1,600 Bangladesh (1980-2009) GNI vs Water 1,400 50,000 1,200 40,000Per capita GNI 1,000 GNI ($/cap PPP) 30,000 800 Per capita GNI increases with 20,000 600 population pressure 10,000 400 200 0 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 -10,000 500 1,000 1,500 Water availability (m3/cap) Population (per km2 land)
Problems are more nuanced thatscarcity alone Water & Low land scarcity productivity Lack of Exposure to access to hazard resources
Water productivityremains very low over most areas WP (estimated potential / typically 1-2 kg/m3) YR Ganges Mekong Indus Nile Limpopo Volta Niger
There is enough water to meet ourneeds, it’s how we manage it ! Sustainable intensification Beyond a focus on productivity Income and ecosystem services Equitable sharing of benefits from water Finding balanced solutions Institutional water management A holistic approach to avoid fragmentation among actors Addressed through basin-focused research programs addressing a major development issue in each basin Guiding investment to relevant pro-poor interventions
CPWF Program on Ganges Deltain a nutshell Huge potential to improve food security and livelihoods through sustainable intensification Constraints: salinity and equitable access to freshwater CPWF Ganges shows salinity not a constraint everywhere – even an opportunity Lots of viable cropping systems possible with crop diversification, fish and shrimp Upscaling through targeting maps for decision-makers Main constraint remains proper water management requiring policies to change
How do such interventionsincrease water and food security ? Enhanced resilience Combined technical and institutional innovations prevent systems from moving to undesired state when shocked Water and food security Looking beyond the « yield gap » enables diversify food production (crops, fish and livestock) and ecosystem services Additional income alleviates poverty Empowerment Enhanced people’s rights and institutional governance
The Ganges Basin Development Challenge (GBDC) Increasing the resilience of agricultural and aquaculture systems in the coastal areas of the Ganges Delta
Tasks to Discuss: • Who works in GBDC? • Why GBDC? • What is the GBDC? • How does it work? • Where does it work? • Need your supportAndes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Water for a food-secure world
THE BD GANGES TEAM BAU BUET BFRI BRAC BWDB LGED IRRI IWM IWMI PS&TU SRDI Shushilan WFCAndes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta Water for a food-secure world
Why? Poverty in Coastal Zone of Bangladesh• Among world’s poorest, most food insecure, vulnerable• 75% of households (HH) with 0.2-0.6 ha; HH income ~70,000 BDT or <$100• 80% of population income < national poverty line• Too much water in rainy season• Salinity and lack of fresh water in dry season BBS / WorldBank / WFP (2009) Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
With advances in sciences, innovation and improved understanding of socio economic issues ….There are opportunities for livelihood improvements. GBDC is optimistic about a more productive and prosperous BD coastal zoneReducing poverty, improving resilience through improved water GBDC governance and management; and intensified and diversified agricultural and aquaculture systems in brackish water of the coastal Ganges.
We envision that after 10 years of GBDC……..• Livelihood – Reduce food insecure HHs by 50%; increase HH income by $100/year – Disadvantaged groups and women are more empowered – Increase resilience (farmers have greater ability to cope with effects of vulnerability)• Production – Annual agricultural/aquaculture outputs increased by 50% – 50% of HHs have 2 crops/year, diversified with high value non-rice crops and/or aquaculture – Income from “homestead” increased by 50%• Policy – Enabling crop diversification and intensification – Coherent policies and institutions on water management
How?River • Develop improved, intensified and diversified agric and aqua systems amongInlet to sluice gate and within homesteads • Better water governance and management Polder 31 • Quantify salinity and water dynamics: present and future Sluice gate on river side • Identify extrapolation domains and the Sluice gate inside propose land use maps polder • Enhance impact through Polder 30 coordination, stakeholder participation and policy advocacy
Where?Barisal: Patuakhali, BargunaKhulna: Khulna & Satkhiraexcept the Sundarbans Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Land use 2000To serve you better, we need yoursupport: You are the investors You are the decision makers Critical feedback Guidance & collaboration Frequent interactions 6 3 1S or 3R/U Land use zoning 1S-1R proposed by Land use 2005 project in 2000 2 1S or 1S-1R 5 1 4 3R/U S+C - F 2R/U xS: No. of shrimp crops Andes • Ganges • xR: No.of • Mekong • Nile • Volta Limpopo rice crop xR/U: No. of rice or upland crop S+C-F: Shrimp+Crab - Fish
Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta
Ganges Basin Development ChallengeAdoption of new technologies- Salinity and External Drivers
Salinity Dynamics in the Peripheral river of Polder-43/2F POLDER-43/2f Kharif-2 Rabi Kharif-1
Salinity Dynamics in the Peripheral river of Polder-30 Kharif-2 Rabi Kharif-1 POLDER-30
Salinity Dynamics in the Peripheral river of Polder-3 POLDER-3 Salinity Level remain below 2 ppt form end of July to Early December
Road Network and Change of Drainage PatternPolder-30
Water flow Models Water Flow at Pussur River Q Q Q Water Flow boundaryWater Flow Model ofSouth-West Region Q QQ WL Water Level at Pussur River WL WL 2 Dimensional Model (Bay of Bengal Model) WL WL Water flow boundary from SWRM Water level from Global Tide Model WL
Drivers and ScenariosFinal List of Key External Drivers Scenarios Single or combination of the external drivers 2030 and 2050
Participants• Experts,• service providers, practitioners and academicians• Policy planners• representatives from other G’s• Stakeholders and community representatives
Scenarios from the workshop1. Change in transboundary flow +Population growth+Land use change+Climate change (includingppt, temp & SLR)A2+ Urbanization2. Change in transboundary flow +Population growth+Land use change+Climate change (includingpptn, temp & SLR)A1B+ Urbanization
Effects of External drivers on Salinity intrusion and Fresh water availability 2 PPT Salinity line moves 10-15 km upwards 2 PPT Salinity line moves 12-18 km upwards 800 Sqkm more area is likely to be affected 1050 Sqkm more area is likely to be affected 15 Km
Key Findings• In the low saline zone freshwater is available for the whole year at present and future and three crops can be established instead of one crop at present;• Gravity irrigation is feasible during Aman Crop;• Costal polder needs improved water management with additional drainage and flushing sluices and ensuring proper operation of gates;• Internal road network needs adequate number of cross-drainage structure for drainage improvement;• Excavation of internal drainage khal for drainage improvement and water storage for agriculture;• In the high saline zone, unauthorized pipes/structure are used for saline water supply can be replaced by few number of flushing sluices for better water and conflict management and safety of the embankment ;• The effects of external drivers on water resources is significant and needs to be considered in future plannning.
Adoption of improved technologiesrequires improved watermanagement in coastal polders
The opportunity• Tremendous potential to improve food security & livelihoods in the coastal zone through – improved crop & aquaculture technologies – cropping system intensification & diversification• CPWF Ganges program has demonstrated that with – new varieties – timely crop establishment – improved crop & water management, cropping system intensity & the productivity of the coastal lands can be greatly increased - in all seasons.
The opportunity: low saline area• where freshwater is available in the rivers for 10- 11 months a year, such as parts of Barguna District – Aman-Grasspea (rice: 3 t/ha, grasspea: 0.5 t/ha) – Aus-Aman (rice: 6 t/ha) can be replaced by – Aus-Aman-Boro (rice: 16 t/ha) – Aus-Aman-Rabi (rice: 10 t/ha, sunflower: 3 t/ha, maize: 8 t/ha)
Aus-Aman-Rabi Cropping System A M J J A S O N D J F M A 30 June 15 Nov 05Apr Aus (100-105 d) T. Aman (130-140 d) Rabi (130-140 d)10 Apr 10 July 1 Dec
The opportunity: moderately saline area• Where freshwater is limited during the dry season, such as parts of Khulna District, – Productivity of the traditional Aman-Sesame or single Aman systems (rice: 2 t/ha, sesame: 0.5 t/ha) can be increased several-fold through – Aman-Rabi (rice: 4 t/ha, maize: 8 t/ha, sunflower: 3 t/ha) – Aman-Boro (rice: 9 t/ha)
Aman-Rabi Cropping SystemM J J A S O N D J F M A M 15 Nov 30 Apr Aman (140 d) Rabi (120-140 d) 15 July Dec/Jan Terminal Drainage
The opportunity: high saline area• where water salinity too high for dry season agriculture, e.g. parts of Satkhira District, productivity of shrimp culture can be greatly enhanced by new technologies for higher aquaculture production & reduced risk• Shrimp culture (shrimp: 200 kg/ha) can be replaced by more resilient systems of [Shrimp+Fish]-[Rice+Fish] (shrimp: 200 kg/ha, rice: 3 t/ha, fish: 700-1200 kg/ha)• Win-win-win: greater food security + cash income without damaging the environment.
Improved aquaculture-rice system Dry season Wet seasonGherpreparation Bagda Rice+Fish SeedlingJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Drain out saline water, expose gher soil to rainfall to leach down soil salinity Poorly-drained gher in polder 3 Well-drained gher
Realising the opportunityRequires ability to: – drain fields – intake water of the desired quality – store fresh water for irrigationThis is NOT the current situation………
Rice-Fish cultivation in Ghers in Satkhira(inundated due to rainfall during 3-5 September 2012)
How to realise the opportunity?• Successful large-scale implementation of the opportunities requires – a change in mind set & investments in agriculture, aquaculture, & water management. – Need to focus on polder level water management; a pre-requisite• Effective investment in water management requires fundamental changes in thinking about the roles of the polders, polder design & infrastructure, & the institutional set up to manage the water of the polders
Re-defining the roles of polders• Each polder needs to be considered as an integrated water management unit, serving the production systems• The original role of the polders was to enable one crop of tall, long duration traditional aman rice (HYVs did not exist)• HYVs & improved cropping system technologies now available, but with different requirements from traditional aman
How will good drainage help?• Improved drainage will – enable adoption of HYV in rainy season (aman) – timely establishment of rabi crops – ability to grow higher yield/value rabi crops – adequate leaching of salt from shrimp ghers prior to transplanting the aman crop – cropping system intensification
How to increase storage volume inside polders? • Increased fresh water storage capacity during the dry season requires re-excavation of existing canal networks (will also improve drainage!)
Small water management units in poldersEffective water management at polder level requireseparation of lands on the basis of land topography toform a small water management unit by about 50 cmhigh farm levee
Small water management unit: Needs replication River Drainage Outside Outside canal sampling area sampling area Road Sluice gate Sluice canal Drainage Rural outlet road Outside sampling area
Changing institutional set ups• Treating the polders as unified water management units also requires fundamental changes in institutional set up to govern and manage water in the polders.• The present set up is too fragmented and disjoint – BWDB is in charge of embankment and sluices – BADC for small scale irrigation systems in/out-side polders – LGED for structures outside the polders• There should be one single entity in charge of each whole polder, servicing the people living within the polder and their production systems.
Key issues in improving land and water productivity in coastal polders• Investment: Investment in polder water management is a must for increasing productivity and improving livelihoods of the peoples living in coastal polders.• Rehabilitation: The polders should be considered as a single integrated water management unit servicing the production systems.
Key issues in improving land and water productivity in coastal polders• Efficient water management: Small water management units should be created to facilitate efficient and improved polder water management with provision of drainage and water storage.• Institutional set-up: One single entity should be in charge of each polder for water management.
Adoption of improved technologies: improved spatial data availability Andy Nelson - IRRI On behalf of: BWDB Bangladesh Water Development Board IRRI International Rice Research Institute IWM Institute of Water Modelling LGED Local Government Engineering Department SRDI Soil Resource Development Institute
1/13 Why do we need improved spatial data? The challenge is to identify where and when each improved technology can be successful in the coastal polder zone Technology targetting The coastal zone is complex, it faces multiple challenges, and situations change quickly over small distances and from season to season A high resolution spatial database and multidisciplinary partnerships are paramount for targetting at village level.
2/13 Study sites for improved technologies Polder 3 Polder 30 Rice/Aquaculture & Intensification from one to Shrimp/Shrimp two crops Polder 43/2f Intensification from one/two to three crops
3/13 Increasing area affected by soil salinity Soil salinity None Very slight Slight Strong Very strong
4/13 Large changes in salinity through the year Movement of the 4ppt water salinity boundary in early 2011
5/13 Improving livelihoods and profitability Opportunity for rice Aug-Nov and shrimp Feb-Jun Current practice – shrimp farming in Feb-Jun Daily water salinity Lower threshold limit of salinity - Shrimp Upper threshold limit of salinity - Rice Water salinity (ppt) Rice Shrimp Date Opportunities for targetting additional crop in fallow lands (Polder 3)
6/13 Spatial land use patterns are complex! Boro rice Aus rice Aman rice Nov – Apr Apr – Jul Jul – Nov 5m hectares 1.1m hectares 5.8m hectares There is scope for intensification & diversification in the coastal zone
7/13 Cropping systems are complex!Extensive Gher based year round brackish water poly culturedry seasonAman - Boro Water quality and availability in Difference Minimum air Minimum salinity Land type / Internal Soil Aman - Boro temperature Water quality and availability in wet seasonAcidity high Month when (m) in Description Fresh (< 4dS/m), (ppt) at PL Inundation storage (pH) Description of river water texture Proximity to water level in for 1weekwater ground (C) stocking depth capacity in Land use still remain river, canal, Mar and land availability and relation to land Difference (m) in land Description of Land type(technology) Shrimp PL is stocked fresh Maximum inundation ponds (m) claysurface andsurface for pumping depth >10 depth S1 0.5 - 0.7 MaximumS1 inundation area low water S1 6.5 - 7.5 use when there is >25 in Feb (<4 dS/m) depth (m) for more S1 than Loam gravity S1 (m) in August (ML/ha) level in Sep/Oct for type(technology) brackish water one week in Sep/Oct irrigation (m) drainageadequate and suitable 20 - 25 0.7- 1; 5.5 - 6.5; Aman HYV rice is Yes, < 6 m S2 5 to 10 S1 March S1S2 >0.3 - 0.5 5 S1 S2 <50Loam S1 S1 > 1 - 8.5 S2 S1 Boro rice is seededtemperature, brackish < 0.1 S1 < 0.2 S1 >1 7.5 S1 transplanted in July-water Fish 15 Nov. (MS) around is stocked August, to be Yes, 7 -20 Sandy to 15 Dec (LS). Boro18 -20 – 0.2 S3 2 - Feb few weeks later. 0.1 S2 5 S2 S2S3 – 0.5 --1.2; 1 0.2 2.5 5 4.5 5.5; S2 S3 50-100 - 1 S2 0.5 - 1 S2 S2 S2 0.5 S3 harvested by the end m 0 - 0.3 loam 8.5 - 9.5 Water is irrigated with rice replenished of November 0.2 – 0.3 S3 0.5 – 0.8 S3 0.2 – 0.5 S3 asriver water (when needed. Harvest yes, > 20 S3 Jan S3 1> 1.2; no - 2.5 S3 100-300 S3 0.2 - 0.5 S3 (Moderate Salinity <4.5; starts after with water <18 fresh) or 2 month SN <2 SN SN Sandy SN SN zone) or December inundation >9.5 stored in canal until end of Nov. (low saline zone). No 0.3 > SN Dec SN SN0.8 <1 > SN >300 0.2 SN < 0.2 SN SN SN < networks S1 = Most Suitable S2 = Suitable S3 = Least Suitable SN = Not Suitable Detailed data & multi disciplinary expertise needed to define requirements
8/13 Cropping systems are complex Groundwater Surface water Depth of Month when Storage Proximity to Suitability for Fresh GW Tubewell? prehatic river water capacity fresh SW dry season (< 4dS/m) surface (m) (< 3 dS/m) (ML/ha) source (m) rice crop Yes Shallow S1 <6 S1 Deep 7 - 20 S2 > 20 S3 No Mar S1 Feb 2.5 - 5 < 100 S1 > 100 S2 1- 2.5 < 100 S2 > 100 S3 Jan 2.5 - 5 < 100 S2 > 100 S3 1 – 2.5 < 100 S3 > 100 SN Dec SN
9/13 Cropping systems are complex! Existing system for validation (1) Aman – Rabi crop (2) Aus - Aman (3) Aman - Shrimp (4) Year round aquaculture Innovative systems for targetting (1) Aman (HYV) - Rabi (HVC) (2) Aus – Aman - Boro (3) Aus - Aman - Rabi crop (4) Boro - Aman (5) Aus (HYV) – Aman (HYV) (6) Year round polyculture (7) Shrimp - Rice Each system has different requirements that can be assessed and mapped
10/13 Coastal ecosystems are complex! Social BWDB Demographic IRRI Economic Infrastructure IWM Water Climate LGED Soil SRDI Land cover Topography Basin partners Open sharing of GIS data and expertise across institutes in Bangladesh
11/13 Data held by many different institutes We need a coordinated approach to facilitate data sharing/access
12/13 Detailed and specific information is needed Location and time specific constraints like appropriate sluice gate operation (community level water management), and canal siltation (infrastructure maintenance), need to be incorporated into the suitability analysis as critical requirements for innovative cropping systems. Incorporating socio economic constraints to the usual “climate+soils+topography” approach is paramount for realistic suitability maps
13/13 Key messages on spatial data A framework that encourages institutes in Bangladesh to openly share GIS data in consistent standards will greatly enhance the ability to respond to policy makers needs A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) for Bangladesh Socioeconomic, infrastructure and management information need to included in the targetting approach. They are as important as biophysical constraints.
Adoption of improved technologiesrequires better investments in water management Some policy suggestions
We studied institutional arrangements in5 BWDB polders and 4 LGED sub-projects
To understand theactors, communities and institutions Which institutions,What are the problems organizations and How is the community and for which groups? individuals are involved in involved in waterHow are they managed? water management? management? How? POLICY CHANGE FOR BETTER WATER MANAGEMENT
Qualitative methodsOver 3000 people were interviewed
Polders and sub-projects vary widely • Salinity and fresh water availability • Cropping systems and livelihoods • Procedures for closing and opening of gates • Role of Water Management Organizations
Diverse cropping pattern depending on salinity levels
Institutional Arrangements of Water Management Variation across and within poldersPolder/Sub- WMO Gher UP Gate LocalProject owners Chairman committee elites and appointed by Members UP or BWDBPolder 3 - × × × ×Polder 31 × × × × ×Polder 30 × - × - ×Polder 43-2F × - × - ×Latabunia × × - - ×Jabusha × × × -Jainkathi - - × - ×Bagarchra × × × - ×
But all sites have three things in common• Poor condition of embankments, khals and gates due to poor maintenance• Conflicts surrounding water management and land use• UP Chairman and Members are de-facto decision makers, but do not necessarily have a formal role
Why are water infrastructures not maintained? • WMOs were created for solving ‘deferred maintenance’ • Why communities don’t maintain? Public goods dilemma Even so called ‘minor’ repair and maintenance may be beyond the capacity of communities Incentive problems: if communities don’t fix it in time, government or donor will in a few years time
‘Deferred maintenance’ as an incentive problem • Why can’t the governments do regular repair and maintenance? – Allocation from Non-Revenue Field evidence Development Budget is less shows communities than 10% of total requirement cannot do – Belongs to communities, they maintenance must do it expected of them. • Why don’t donors pitch in? – Belongs to GOB and communities, they must do it
How can we help communities to better maintenance? • Give WMOs access to income generatingBut communities can not assets like lease of do it alone! common land or micro- credit • Devise fair rules for collection of maintenance funds • Coordination between existing WMOs and UP
Solutions beyond community levels• Use existing social safety net funds of UP, like 40 days work, KABHIKA for polder maintenance• Twin benefits of employment creation (LCS) and infrastructure maintenance• Coordination between UP, BWDB, LGED and Central Government
Solutions by donors and central government• Create of Donor- Government Trust Fund for Maintenance of Water related infrastructure in Donors Bangladesh GoB• All polder/sub-projects get allocations for repair and maintenance every year from interest amount of Trust Fund Donor Government Trust Fund
Trust fund money is allocated to every polder each year for Repair and Maintenance
How to reduce drainage problems and conflicts?Divide polders into smallerhydrological units (SHU).Use LGED rural roads ashydrological boundariesFor even smallerboundaries, use UP socialsafety funds for ailconstruction
Some of these are already happening… • Constitution of Union Development Coordination Committee (UDCC) launched under Local Government Support Project to oversee all developmental activities. • Using rural roads as hydrological boundaries for forming smaller hydrological units. LGED is already doing it in SSWDRP III and IV phases • Delineating smaller hydrological units within BWDB polder with help of LGED Already happening in Narail Chenchury Bil project where LGED is doing 30 sub-projects within BWDB polder.
So, what can policy makers and donors do?Devise better ways of maintainingexisting infrastructure: • Through Donor-Government Joint Maintenance Trust Fund • Use social safety net programs for construction of rural roads, small ails, and repair of internal canals and embankments
So, what can policy makers and donors do?Devise ways to reducewater conflicts: • Divide larger polders into smaller hydrological units by using rural roads and ails as hydrological boundaries • Formal involvement of UP’s and WMOs