Seminar deepti(final)

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Seminar deepti(final)

  1. 1. SUBMITTED TO:Dr. PRATIBHA SINGH Deptt. OF HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION SUBMITTED BY:DEEPTI KOTHARI I.D - 38293
  2. 2. EXTENSION IN THE WORLD O Origin from U.S.A O Started form late 80s O Until 1914, use of extension lectures O Smith Lever Act, 1914- a turning point
  3. 3. PHASES OF EXTENSION IN INDIA Postindependence Preindependence British period Pre-British Period Present scenario
  4. 4. 1.PRE- BRITISH PERIOD Villages were self-sustained, selfsufficient and self-governed units  Panchayat system was there  Development of central seat of the government i.e ONE RULAR 
  5. 5. 2.BRITISH GOVT. PERIOD No effort till last quarter of 19th century  Series of Famines(1875-1901) forced them to:1. Appoint commission 2. Following certain Acts(e.g. Cooperative Act, Land Improvement Loans Act etc.) 3. ESTD. Of Rural Construction Department 
  6. 6. OUTCOMES :Can be assessed in the form of shortcomings, that are: No detailed planning involved  No emphasis on people’s participation, cooperation and involvement  Never followed educational approach  Approach of extension agents were like that of BOSSES
  7. 7. 3.PRE INDEPENDENCE ERA Some efforts were done by benevolent persons and some agencies that are: Work at Shantiniketan  Gurgaon Experiment  Servants of Indian Society, Poona  Sir Daniel Hemilton’s Scheme of Rural Reconstruction  Marthandam Project  Sarvodaya Programme etc.
  8. 8. OUTCOMES:Although being initial efforts were superb, but still one or the other shortcoming that could be summed up are as following: Individual initiative  Govt. backing & financing were not forthcoming  All attempts were isolated, uneven & discontinuous  Inexperienced and untrained staff  Plans and programmes were ill-defined and unbalanced  No evaluation were carried out at the end
  9. 9. 4.POST INDEPENDENCE ERA There are 4 distinct stages in extension efforts during this period:1) Community Development 2) Technological Development 3) Development with Social Justice 4) Infrastructural Development
  10. 10. EXTENSION SYSTEM IN INDIA
  11. 11. PRESENT SCENARIO  Public-Sector Extension State Departments of Agriculture b. Agricultural Technology Management Agency c. SAUs d. Knowledge Transfer through KVKs  Public-Private Partnership: The Agriclinics and Agribusiness Centres (ACABC) Scheme a.
  12. 12. Cntd….  Private-sector Extension: E-Choupal,  Farmer Field Schools  Innovative Approaches  Mass Media and Information and Communication Technology Approaches
  13. 13. Information flow in the State Departments of Agriculture
  14. 14. Information linkages in the KVKs
  15. 15. Information flow in the e-Choupal model
  16. 16. Information flow in the agri-clinic program
  17. 17. Information flow in farmer field school approach
  18. 18. Private-sector Approaches O ITC e-Choupals O Haryali Kisaan Bazaars of DCM Shriram Consolidated Ltd. O Tata Kisan Sansar, an initiative of Tata Chemicals
  19. 19. ICT Approaches O Kisan Channel on Doordarshan O All India FM Transmitter Network O Kisan Call Centres O IKSL (IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Ltd. in collaboration with Airtel), Mandi on Mobile
  20. 20. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES O Kerala Horticulture Development Program (KHDP) O Mahindra Krishi Vihar (MKV) O BASIX
  21. 21. EXTENSION SYSTEM (STRENGTHS) Post T & V period show decentralization of extension planning & control  The use of group approach  Use of para-extension workers  Setting up of multi-disciplinary teams from SAUs  Setting up of agri-clinic by private entrepreneurs  Formation of registered societies like ATMA at the district level by integrating the functions of key stakeholders 
  22. 22. POINTS TO CONSIDER YET…… • • • • • Public sector still dominates ,Information flow is supply-driven and not needs-based or area-specific A large no. of agencies provide support and advisory support but restricted to regions Public-private partnership is limited Infrastructural & networking support is still lacking Remote areas and poor producers are poorly served by both private & public sector extension

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