HECM 524 Scientific Writing and Reporting for Media

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Scientific Writing and Reporting for Media

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HECM 524 Scientific Writing and Reporting for Media

  1. 1. HECM- 524 Scientific Writing and Reporting for Media Practical File Submitted To: Dr. Rajshree Upadhyay Professor, Department of HECM College of Home Science, Udaipur Submitted By: Shalini Pandey M.Sc. Previous HECM College of Home Science, Udaipur
  2. 2. INDEX S.No. Practical Date Signature 1. Writing Curriculum Vitae (CV) 2. Writing Resume 3. Format of Thesis 4. List of Journal related to Home Science and Format for Research paper 5. Research Paper 6. Review Paper 7. Article for farm woman 8. Article for Children 9. Report on Training Programme of Quilting and Patch Work 10. Report on Self Defence Classes 11. Format of News Paper
  3. 3. Practical No.-1 CURRICULAM VITAE Shalini Pandey 9837036351 Village -Purana Bindukhatta, shalinipandey46@yahoo.com Post Office - Lalkuan, District- Nainital (Uttarakhand) PIN-262402 Career Objective: • To achieve high career growth through a continuous learning process and keep myself dynamic, visionary and competitive with the changing scenario. Educational qualification: Certificate Courses: - Six months Liberal Education Human Rights course - Six months computer diploma - NSS “C” certificate Area of specialization: Home Science Extension and Communication Management Examination Year of passing Board/ University Institution Subjects Percentage/ OGPA M.Sc. 2015 Perusing MPUAT, University MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan Home Science Extension and Communication management 9.10 (till I semester) B.Sc. 2013 Pantnagar University GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar Home Science 8.20 Intermediate 2009 Uttarakhand Board G.I.C. Lalkuan, Uttarakhand Hindi, English, Mathematics, Physics, & Chemistry 78.8% High School 2007 Uttarakhand Board G.I.C. Lalkuan, Uttarakhand Hindi, English, Mathematics, Science & Social Science 73.6%
  4. 4. Internship: 3 months in Editorial Department of Amar Ujala Press (Hindi daily newspaper), . Unit- Haldwani, Nainital. Experience: Two months RAWE (Rural Awareness Work Experience) experience in the village Shimla Pistore, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand. Awards: ICAR JRF fellowship during master degree program University merit scholarship for year 2010-11, during Under Graduation Program Certificate of appreciation by VC, Pantnagar for contribution in national literary events Extra-curricular activities 1. Member of VSM -Vivekanand Swadhayay Mandal (VSM is a unique model of development wherein young urban farm graduates are molded to bring about a change in the society) 2. Participated in national Sports meet 2010-11 & caption of University Kabaddi team for the year 2010-11. 3. Coordinator of Dharohar-11 organized by SPIC MACAY, Pantnagar chapter. 4. Library Committee member of Hostel from 2010-2012. 5. Participated National Debate organized by National Council for Cooperative Training in Chennai on December, 2011 6. Participated in personality workshop and language workshop. 7. Consolation prize in National Essay writing competition. Leadership roles: 1. As a Team Leader, Participated in Leadership Hunt Contest-2011 and were among top 8 teams in the contest. 2. Lead Sunday classes – an initiative to teach slum children on Sundays. 3. Organized blood donation camp and special camp during NSS program. 4. Reported college level cultural, sports and educational events for newspaper. 5. Prepared radio program for community people in Community Radio, Pantnagar.
  5. 5. Personal skills: 1. A conscientious, enthusiastic, and highly motivated person who is reliable, responsible, and hard working. 2. Flexible within the work environment and able to adapt quickly and positively to challenging situation whilst remaining focused and positive. 3. Friendly personality who enjoys team work. 4. Well acquainted with computer skills (MS Office, HTML, and Adobe Photoshop). Personal Profile: Father’s Name : Mr. Lalit Mohan Pandey Date of Birth : Nov 15, 1992 Gender : Female Marital Status : Unmarried Languages known: English and Hindi Nationality : Indain I hereby solemnly declare that all the information furnished here by me is true. Date: Place: Signature:
  6. 6. Practical No.-2 RESUME Shalini Pandey 9837036351 Village -Purana Bindukhatta, shalinipandey46@yahoo.com Post Office - Lalkuan, District- Nainital (Uttarakhand) PIN-262402 Career Objective: • To achieve high career growth through a continuous learning process and keep myself dynamic, visionary and competitive with the changing scenario. Summary of qualification: • B.Sc. in Home Science from GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar with 8.20 OGPA in 2013. • Intermediate from Uttarakhand Board with PCM and 78.8% marks in 2009. • High School with science stream from Uttarakhand Board with 73.6% marks in 2007. Area of specialization: Home Science Extension and Communication Management Personal skills: • Good communication skills. • Friendly personality who enjoys team work. • Well acquainted with computer skills (MS Office, HTML, and Adobe Photoshop).
  7. 7. Experience: Two months RAWE (Rural Awareness Work Experience) experience in the village Shimla Pistore, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand. Certificate Courses: - Six months Liberal Education Human Rights course - Six months computer diploma - NSS “C” certificate Internship: 3 months in Editorial Department of Amar Ujala Press (Hindi daily newspaper), Unit- Haldwani, Nainital. Awards: ICAR JRF fellowship during master degree program University merit scholarship for year 2010-11, during Under Graduation Program Certificate of appreciation by VC, Pantnagar for contribution in national literary events. Extra-curricular activities • Member of VSM -Vivekanand Swadhayay Mandal (VSM is a unique model of development wherein young urban farm graduates are molded to bring about a change in the society) • Participated in national Sports meet 2010-11 & caption of University Kabaddi team for the year 2010-11. • Coordinator of Dharohar-11 organized by SPIC MACAY, Pantnagar chapter. • Library Committee member of Hostel from 2010-2012. • Participated National Debate organized by National Council for Cooperative Training in Chennai on December, 2011 • Participated in personality workshop and language workshop. • Consolation prize in Essay writing competition. I hereby solemnly declare that all the information furnished here by me is true. Date:
  8. 8. Place: Signature: Practical No.-3 Format of Thesis A thesis is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author’s research and findings. The term thesis comes from Greek word meaning something put forth and refers to an intellectual proposition. Format of thesis include following sections: Front Page: It contains title of thesis, name of the researcher, name of degree programme, name of department, college and university with logo. Certificates: Thesis consist of five certificates • Certificate of completion of comprehensive examination • Certificate of original research work • Certificate of passing oral examination • Certificate of approval of thesis by external examiner • Certificate of approval by advisor Acknowledgement: In this section researcher pays his/her gratitude to all person who helped her during the research work like parents, dean, advisor, professors, department, college, university, friends etc. Contents: it contains a complete list of all the thesis chapters.
  9. 9. List of Tables and Figures: It contains a complete list of tables and figures with their name and page number. Abstract: It is a brief summary of whole thesis and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the thesis purpose. Introduction: this chapter of thesis contains information regarding • Justification of study • Objective of study • Delimitation of study. • Implication of the study Review of Literature: this section includes main findings of other researcher relevant to present research work in order to support their research work. Methodology: this chapter includes following information • Locale of the study • Sample of the study • Selection and development of research tool • Field procedure of data collection • Analysis of data Results and Discussions: This chapter contains all the findings of research study in form of data, figure or table. This chapter also discusses reasons for particular result. In this chapter researcher analyze and interpret the data collected through research tool. Summary and Conclusion: This chapter includes a look at the overall problem, approach to solving problem and the results of attempted problem solving, relevance of these results to the problem and recommendation and suggestions on the basis of final outcomes. Bibliography: this section contains complete list of journals, articles, reports, books, research papers, newspaper articles and other references which were referred by researcher during her study. Appendix: this section contains a copy of research tool used for data collection, pictures and photographs related to research study and glossary of terms.
  10. 10. Practical: 4 List of Journal related to Home Science The National Academy of Agricultural Sciences is a think tank that provides a forum to scientists to present their views on critical issues relating to agricultural research, education and extension. List of NAAS rated Journal related to Home Science Extension is as follow: 1. Advance Research Journal of Social Science 2. Asian Agri-History 3. Asian Journal of Home Science 4. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology 5. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 6. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education 7. Indian Journal of Extension Education and Rural Development 8. International Journal of Family and Home Science 9. International Journal of Extension Education 10. Journal of International Agricultural & Extension Education 11. Journal of Extension Education, Coimbatore 12. Journal of Extension Systems 13. Journal of Global Communication 14. Journal of Communication Studies 15. Journal of Rural Development 16. Journal of Rural and Agricultural Research 17. Journal of Social Research 18. Research Reach: Journal of Home Science 19. Studies on Home and Community Science
  11. 11. Sn Journal Name NAAS Rating Type & Periodicity Publisher Research Paper Format 1. Advance Research Journal of Social Science - International Half-yearly Hind Arts Academy, Muzaffarnagar, (251001), UP, India Topic Authors name Abstract with Key words Introduction Methodology Observation & Discussion Conclusion Literature cited 2. Asian Agri- History 3.81 International Quarterly Asian Agri-History Foundation (AAHF) 47 ICRISAT Colony-I Brig. Sayeed Road Secunderabad 500009 Andhra Pradesh India Title Name(s) of author(s), Abstract Introduction Body Discussion Acknowledgments References Tables and figures 3. Asian Journal of Home Science 2.98 International Half-yearly Hind Agri- Horticulture Society, Muzaffarnagar, (251001), UP, India Title followed with Author’s name and affiliation Summary/Abstract Key words Introduction Methodology Results and Discussion Acknowledgement Reference 4. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology - International Quarterly SCIENCE DOMAIN International, Gurgaon, Delhi NCR, India Title Author’s name Abstract Key words Abbreviations Introduction Material and methods Results and Discussion Tables and Figures Conclusion Acknowledgement Reference 5. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development (AJARD) - International Monthly Asian Economic & Social Society, Authors introduction Title Abstract Keywords Introduction
  12. 12. Methodology Results & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation References 6. Indian Research Journal of Extension Education 3.92 International Tri Annual Society of Extension Education, Agra, India Title including address and e-mail of author Abstract with keywords Introduction Objectives Methodology Results & Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgement 7. Indian Journal of Extension Education and Rural Development 2.1 National Yearly Rajasthan Society of Extension Education, Udaipur, India Title Author’s name Abstract Introduction Research Methodology Results & Discussion Conclusion References 8. International Journal of Family and Home Science 3.0 International Bi-Annual Academic & Law Series, F-22 B/3, Lakshmi Nagar, Delhi Title Author’s name with designation and address Abstract Introduction Research Methodology Findings & Discussion Conclusion References 9. International Journal of Extension Education 4.15 International Yearly International Society of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, India Title Author’s name & Designation Abstract Introduction Methodology Findings & Discussion Conclusion References 10. Journal of International Agricultural & Extension Education - International Brenda Seevers, New Maxico State University, Las Cruces Title Abstract Keywords Introduction Operational Framework Purpose and Objectives Methods Findings & Results Conclusion Recommendation &
  13. 13. Implications References 11. Journal of Extension Education, Coimbatore 2.7 National Quarterly Society of Extension Education, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India Title Author’s name Abstract Keywords Introduction Material & Methods Results & Discussion Figures & Structures Tables Reference 12. Journal of Extension Systems 3.58 International Bi- Annual Chief Editor, Journal of Extension Systems, C-25/2, Kendriya Vihar, Nerula (West) Navi Mumbai, India Title Author’s name & institutional affiliation Abstract Keywords Introduction Methodology Findings & Discussion Conclusion & Recommendation Acknowledgement References 13. Journal of Global Communication 3.10 International Bi- Annual Global Communication Research Associaltio, North Ryde, New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia Title Author’s name & address Abstract Keywords Introduction Methodology Results Conclusion and Disscussions References 14. Journal of Social Research Natioanl Quarterly Badlav Sansthan 99-H-Block Sector No. - 14, Hiran Magari,Udaipur. Rajasthan(India) Pin code:313001 Title Authors name Abstract Keywords Introduction Methodology Results & Discussion References 15. Research Reach: Journal of Home Science 2.49 National Bi- annual Research Center, College of H.Sc., Nirmala Niketan, New Marine Lines, Mumbai, India Title Author’s name & deptt. Abstract Keywords Introduction Material & Methods Results
  14. 14. Discussion Conclusion Recommendation Acknowledgement References 16. Studies on Home and Community Science International Tri Annual Kamla-Raj Enterprises, 4771/23, 1st Floor, Mahavirshree Building, Bharat Ram Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi 110 002, India Title Author’s Name Institution from which the paper emanated, and E-mail Address Abbreviated Title Correspondence Address, Key Words Abstract Introduction Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion Recommendations Acknowledgement Notes References
  15. 15. Practical: 5 Research Paper on Internet use among PG Girls and Boys Shalini Pandey* Written for: Indian Journal of Extension Education and Rural Development Abstract: Today we are living in the era of internet and computers. The internet plays a vital role in life at university. It contributes to a great extent in our educational and social sphere. The objective of study was to explore and compare the extent of internet use by PG boys and girls. The study was conducted in all colleges of Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology (MPUAT), Udaipur. It was found that majority of students had unlimited access to internet either at college or hostel. Boys had high extent of internet use for education and medium extend of use for entertainment and miscellaneous purpose whereas girls had medium extent of internet use. Key words: Internet use, PG students Introduction: internet is worldwide, publicly accessible series of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard internet protocol. It carries an extensive range of information resources and services. It is estimated that in 1993 the internet carried only 1 percent of the information flowing through two way telecommunication. By 2000 this figure had grown to 51 percent and by 2007 more than 97 percent of all telecommunication information was carried over the internet. The internet has evolved to become one of the fastest and most effective tools a student can use to perform research and to learn about the world. The resources provide on various web pages are indeed very useful and informative for students related to every field of work. University serves as a repository of knowledge and technology to the students through internet facilities, so the student synchronizes with the current techniques of education and research. Internet has made a tremendous impact on the academic activities of the student; it has become a potential driving force of education. Students use internet to access information. As a result societal and educational organizations are challenged to use the internet more efficiently. So it is important to understand the pattern of internet usage The present study attempts to study and compare the extent of internet use by PG boys and girls of MPUAT, Udaipur. Research Methodology: Present study was conducted in all colleges of MPUAT at Udaipur campus. A sample of 50 boys and 50 girls was selected randomly from list of PG
  16. 16. students enrolled in academic year 2010-11 and 2011-12. Questionnaire method was used for data collection as it facilitates collection of information from a group of students simultaneously. Frequency, percentage, Mean Percent Score (MPS) and “Z” test were used for analysis of data. Results and Discussion: The main findings and discussion of the research of internet usage by PG students is described below- Extent for internet use for different purpose a. Education: Data in Table-1 indicate that the field of education, majority of the respondents were using internet for the project work (66percent), searching for the academic information (55percent), and searching for online results (54percent) either always (54-72percent) or sometimes (10-27percent). With regard to access of case studies, dissertation work, searching for scholarship and visiting e-library. Internet was used always by about one forth to 40percent respondents. Similar trend was found for internet use among PG boys and girls but more boys were using internet either always or sometimes for various task. Majority of boys (60-70percent) and girls (40-66percent) were using internet always for collection of information, searching for project work, searching for academic information and online results followed by 16-28percent boys and 20-32percent girls respondents were using internet sometimes for these tasks except for project work. Only 2 per cent boys and none of girl respondents were found to make rare internet use for searching academic information. Data in table-1 further reveals that internet was always used to access case studies by 46percent boys and 26 percent girls and sometimes by 36 percent boys and 26 percent girls but for dissertation work only 26percent boys and 48 percent girls were always using internet while 16 percent boys and 12 percent girls were using sometime. For preparing notes, about 22percent of boys used internet always, 20percent rarely and 18 percent girls used always and 2 percent rarely. Findings in Table-1 reveals that e-library was the only task where internet was used rarely, sometimes and always by equal no. of respondent i.e. 28, 25 and 24 percent respondents respectively. With regard to online examination and distance learning data in Table-1 clearly indicate that majority of respondents were using internet rarely i.e. 36 and 40 percent boys and 32 and 34 percent girls respectively. It is clear from the findings that respondents were mainly using internet for collection of information, searching for project work, academic information and online results followed by to access case studies, dissertation work, searching for scholarships and visit e-library and lastly for preparing notes, online examination and distance learning. Such findings may be due to the reason that the respondents were regular PG scholars and very much concerned about information related to educational projects and less concerned about other online examination or distance learning.
  17. 17. The findings can be supported by Panda and Sahu, (2003) reported that 80 percent respondents access internet to get educational informational information, 70 percent respondents for search articles, 60 percent for career planning and placement, 45 percent for fellowship and 45 percent for research articles. b. Entertainment: An effort was made to find out the extent of internet use by respondents for entertainment purpose. A look over the data presented in Table-2 reveals that majority of respondents were using internet always to access social networking sites (47 percent) and download music and video (44percent) followed by 40 percent and 36percent respondents using sometimes and 16 percent and 14percent respondents using internet rarely. Majority of respondent (40 percent and 44 percent) were using internet sometime for online serials (44 percent) and chatting (40percent) followed by 38percent and 23 percent respondent using it always and 19percent and 29percent using it rarely. Comparison between boys and girls shows that 48percent boys were using internet always to access social networking sites while 46 percent girls were using internet for same. Slight difference was found in using always internet for music download i.e. 46percent boys and 42percent girls. Social networking sites were highly used by both girls and boys for being in contact with peer groups and relatives, which is helpful in maintaining long distance relationships. Significant difference was found in utilization of internet for chatting, 56percent boys always use internet for online chatting followed by 26 percent boys use internet sometime whereas only 20 percent girls were using internet always for chatting and 52 percent girls were using internet for chatting. Big difference was found in utilization of internet for watching online serial, playing games and sharing views. Girls were using internet more for watching online serial while boys were using more internet for playing games and sharing of views. 56percent girls were internet sometime followed by 32 percent using always internet for watching online serials. 30 percent boys always use internet for sharing views while only 1 percent girls were using it always for this purpose. Boys were using more internet for playing online games, 28 percent, 32 percent and 38 percent boys were using internet always, sometimes and rarely for playing games while 8 percent, were 28 percent and 44 percent girls using internet always, sometime and rarely for this. Online games provide relaxation and pass the leisure time, it helps people to entertain and relax at the same time. The results are in line with Jones and Madden (2002), that 78 percent college students have gone online at one or another time to browse for fun and 60 percent students to download music files. Nearly four fifth of college students (79 percent) agreed that internet use had positive impact on academic experiences and 40 percent students used internet primarily for entertainment. Table- 1 Internet Use for Educational Purpose
  18. 18. S N Category Boys (percent) n=50 Girls (percent) n=50 Total (percent) 1. EDUCATION Always Some time Rar e Always Some time Rar e Always Some time Rare a. Collection of information 70 16 14 68 20 12 69 18 13 b. Searching for project work 66 20 8 60 0 18 66 10 13 c. Searching for academic information 68 28 2 42 26 0 55 27 1 d. Online results 68 20 8 40 32 24 54 26 16 e. To access case studies 46 36 8 32 26 32 39 31 20 f. Dissertation work 26 16 22 48 12 4 37 14 13 g. Searching for scholarships 34 38 24 22 34 18 28 36 21 h. Visit e-library 36 40 24 12 10 32 24 25 28 i. Prepare notes 22 58 20 18 38 2 19 48 11 j. Online examination 24 36 36 12 26 34 18 31 35 k. Distance learning 14 26 40 0 32 32 7 29 36 Table-2 Internet Use for Entertainment Purpose SN Category Boys (percent) n=50 Girls (percent) n=50 Total (percent) ENTERTAINMENT Always Some time Rar e Always Some time Rar e Always Some time Rare 1. Access of social networking sites 48 44 6 46 28 26 47 36 16 2. Download music 46 36 16 42 44 12 44 40 14 3. Chatting 56 36 18 20 52 20 38 40 19 4. Online serials 14 26 48 32 56 10 23 44 29 5. Play games 28 32 38 8 28 44 18 30 41
  19. 19. 6. Sharing of views 30 34 32 1 28 58 16 31 45 7. Update fashion knowledge 12 42 38 14 24 34 13 33 36 Table-3 Internet Use for Miscellaneous purpose SN Category Boys (percent) n=50 Girls (percent) n=50 Total (percent) MISCELLANEOUS Always Some time Rar e Always Some time Rar e Always Some time Rare 1. e-News 48 34 12 22 46 18 35 40 15 2. e-ticketing 30 42 22 32 38 24 31 40 23 3. Searching online employment 42 32 20 16 42 10 29 37 15 4. Banking transaction 18 34 36 14 32 22 16 35 29 5. Medical / Health tips 14 34 48 8 40 16 11 37 32 6. Shopping 12 46 36 0 14 36 6 30 36 7. Matrimonial 0 24 50 1 4 44 1 14 47 c. Miscellaneous: Apart from academic and entertainment purpose internet is also used for some other tasks. Table-3 clearly indicates that respondents were using internet always for other purpose like 35 percent for e-news, 31 percent for e- ticketing, 29 percent for searching employment. As it is very convenient to read e- newspaper anywhere at any time, making reservation while travelling and searching employment with the help of internet. 37 percent respondents were sometime using internet for health tips followed by 35 percent for bank transaction, 30percent for online shopping. Internet was rarely used by respondent for matrimonial purpose; only 1 percent used it always, 14 percent sometime and 47 percent rarely for the same. This is due to fake information provided on matrimonial site most of the times. Majority of respondents were using internet for various purpose like shopping, internet banking, online reservation, e-News etc. Conclusion: It can be concluded that majority of boys and girls were using internet facility in hostel and college for the purpose of education, entertainment and other
  20. 20. miscellaneous purpose. Significant difference was found in internet use among boys and girls. High extent of internet use for educational purpose and medium extent entertainment and miscellaneous purpose was found was found among PG boys. Whereas Internet use among girls was found at medium extent for all three purposes. Extent of use of internet was found significantly higher among boys.
  21. 21. Practical No.-6 REVIEW PAPER On National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) meeting people’s health need in India The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched by the government of India on April 12, 2005, to provide accessible, affordable and quality health care to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups. The Union Cabinet vide its decision dated 1st May 2013, has approved the launch of National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) as a Sub- mission of an over-arching National Health Mission (NHM), with National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) being the other Sub-mission of National Health Mission. NRHM seeks to provide equitable, affordable and quality health care to the rural population, especially the vulnerable groups. Under the NRHM, the Empowered Action Group (EAG) States as well as North Eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh have given special focus. The thrust of the mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned, decentralized health delivery system with inter-sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health such as water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender equality. It seeks to reduce the Infant Mortality Ratio (IMR) in the country from 407 to 100 per 1,00,000 live births, Infant Mortality Ratio (IMR) from 60 to 30 per 1000 live births and the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) from 3.0 to 2.1 within the seven year period of the mission. Goals, Strategies and Outcomes of the Mission The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has launched with a view to bringing about dramatic improvement in the health system and the health status of the people, especially those who live in the rural areas of the country. The Mission seeks to provide universal access to equitable, affordable and quality health care, which is accountable at the same time responsive to the needs of the people, reduction of child and maternal deaths as well as population stabilization, gender and demographic balance. In this process, the Mission would help achieve goals set under the National Health Policy and the Millennium Development Goals. To achieve these goals NRHM will: • Facilitate increased access and utilization of quality health services by all. • Forge a partnership between the Central, state and the local governments. • Set up a platform for involving the Panchayati Raj institutions and community in the management of primary health programmes and infrastructure. • Provide an opportunity for promoting equity and social justice. • Establish a mechanism to provide flexibility to the states and the community to promote local initiatives. • Develop a framework for promoting inter-sectoral convergence for primitive and preventive health care.
  22. 22. The Objectives of the Mission • Reduction in child and maternal mortality • Universal access to public services for food and nutrition, sanitation and hygiene and universal access to public health care services with emphasis on services addressing women’s and children’s health and universal immunization • Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases. • Access to integrated comprehensive primary health care. • Population stabilization, gender and demographic balance. • Revitalize local health traditions & mainstream AYUSH. • Promotion of healthy life styles. ACHIEVEMENTS OF NRHM There has been a significant increase in the number of sub centres across the states for serving the rural population. Today the total number of sub-centres is 1,48,124. However even this is short of the full requirement- and this shortfall is expressed in the tables below. Table: Status of Sub centres in states States No. of sub centres required No. of sub centres in position Bihar 18533 9696 Assam 5841 4604 Chhattisgarh 4904 5076 Delhi 83 41 Kerala 3525 4575 Madhya Pradesh 12314 8869 Manipur 492 420 Odisha 8136 6688 Punjab 3463 2950 Rajasthan 11374 11487 Tamil Nadu 7516 8706 Tripura 673 632 Uttarakhand 1440 1765 Uttar Pradesh 31037 20521 West Bengal 13036 10356 TOTAL 122367 96386 8.84 lakh Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) have been selected in the country, of which over 8.09 lakh received training up to 1st Module, 7.77 lakh up to Module II, 7.73 lakh up to Module III, 7.70 lakh up to Module IV, 7.10 lakh up to Module V, 0.11 lakh up to Round 4 of VIth& VIIth Modules. Over 7.96 lakh ASHAs have been positioned after training and provided with drug kits. (AS ON 30TH SEPTEMBER 2012)
  23. 23. There has been accelerated progress in achievement of key health outcomes-notably in child survival and population stabilisation. In maternal mortality too, there has been substantial reduction. (According to Sixth Common Review Mission Report, 2012) The achievement status of key indicators against the MDG and NRHM goals is depicted in table below: Table: RCH goals and achievements Indicator MDG NRHM Goals Achievement Infant Mortality Rate 28 30 per 1,000 live births 44 per 1,000 live births (SRS -2011) Maternal Mortality Ratio Reduce by ¾ by 2015 100 per 1,00,000 live births 212 per 1,00,000 live births (SRS -2007- 09) Total Fertility Rate - 2.1 2.5 (SRS -2010) Under 5 Mortality Rate < 39 - 59(SRS -2010) Outcomes in Maternal Mortality: MMR has reduced from 254/100000 live births in 2004-06 to 212/100000 live births in 2007-09, a reduction of 42 points over a three year period or 14 points per year. In the four southern states, Kerala and Tamil Nadu have already achieved the goal of a MMR of 100/100000 live births. (Report of the Working Group on NRHM for the Twelfth Five Year Plan) Table – MMR, IMR and CBR of the visited states States MMR 2007-09 IMR 2005 IMR 2011 CBR 2011 Assam 390 68 55 22.8 Bihar 261 61 44 27.2 Chhattisgarh 269 63 48 24.9 Delhi NA 35 28 17.5 Kerala 81 14 12 15.2 Madhya Pradesh 269 76 59 26.9 Manipur NA 13 11 14.4 Odisha 258 75 57 20.1 Punjab 172 44 30 16.2 Rajasthan 318 68 52 26.2 Tamil Nadu 97 37 22 15.9 Tripura NA 31 29 14.3
  24. 24. Uttarakhand 359 42 36 18.9 Uttar Pradesh 359 73 57 27.8 West Bengal 145 38 32 16.3 Source – SRS Bulletin 2012, 2011, 2006 There has been accelerated progress in achievement of key health outcomes-notably in child survival and population stabilization. In maternal mortality too, there has been substantial reduction, although the lack of data after 2009 limits speculation on accelerating rates of decline. (According to Report of sixth common review mission, 2012) The national infant mortality rate has declined from 57 /1000 live births in year 2006 to 50 / 1000 live births in the year 2009. Of this the decline in rural areas was more (from 62 /1000 live births to 55/1000 live births). In urban areas, the decline in IMR was from 39/1000 live births to 34/1000 live births. The decline in under five mortality was similar. The current levels have reached 64/1000 live births with a rural of 71/1000 live births and urban of 41/1000 live births. Ten states and union territories have reached the NRHM goals of IMR of 30. (Report of the Working Group on NRHM for the Twelfth Five Year Plan) The Census 2011 report states that the report “marks a milestone in the demographic history of the country, as it is perhaps for the first time, there is a significant fall in growth rate of population in the EAG states after years of stagnation.” The rate of fall of the five most populous states of these 8 states was even faster. That it fell, when IMR was also falling in these states, shows the potential for early achievement of population stabilization even in states where the challenges are the most. Census 2011 shows growth rate for the nation as a whole as 17.4; and this is a significant decline from the previous decade. Nineteen states and five union territories have reached population stabilization goals of a TFR below 2.1(2008) and/or a crude birth rate below 21 per 1000 population (2009). Three states are on way to achieving it- Haryana, Gujarat, Assam. (Report of the Working Group on NRHM for the Twelfth Five Year Plan) National TFR is 2.6 in the year 2008. By 2012 it could reach 2.4 and this would be short of the target of 2.1 which the eleventh five year plan had set. Nineteen states and five union territories have reached population stabilization goals of a TFR below 2.1(2008) and/or a crude birth rate below 21 per 1000 population (2009). Three states are on way to achieving it- Haryana, Gujarat, Assam. Six large states have a TFR above 3.0, which is matter of concern, but even these six states have shown steady improvements. Four of these states had a 0. 4 point TFR decline in these five years and the other two declined by 0.3 points, as compared to an all India decline in TFR of 0.3. (Report of the Working Group on NRHM for the Twelfth Five Year Plan) The child sex ratio in India has dropped to 914 females against 1,000 males - the lowest since Independence. According to 2011 Census, the child sex ratio has declined from 927 females against 1,000 males in 2001 to 914 in 2011. Disaggregating by states, an increasing trend in the child sex ratio (0-6 years) has seen in Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In all remaining 27 states and Union Territories, the child sex ratio shows decline from census 2001 to census 2011. The major decline in child sex ratio is recorded in state of Jammu and Kashmir by 82 points from 941 in 2001 to 859 in 2011. (Report of the Working Group on NRHM for the Twelfth Five Year Plan)
  25. 25. So far as increased utilisation of health services is concerned, there is considerable increase in outpatient attendance and in-patient admissions. There is significant progress in the creation of new facilities and infrastructure at sub-centres, CHC and DH levels. Availability of drugs has increased at all levels, but gap has observed at sub-centre and ASHA levels. JSSK has also helped foster the perception of health care as an entitlement within the public system. (According to Sixth Common Review Mission Report, 2012) Findings of recent evaluations and monitoring visits acknowledge the important role played by ASHAs in better utilization of health services and improving health outcomes. “Evaluation Study of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) In 7 States by Programme Evaluation Organisation; Planning Commission; Government of India” stated ASHAs to be highly functional – Target Selected % Training status Support structures High Focus 496837 489266 98.48 • Module 5 - > 80% trained except in Rajasthan (68%) and Bihar. • Round 3 Module 6 &7 – 92% in UK • Round 2- recently initiated in Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand and MP. • Round 1- >70% in Odisha and Jharkhand; 48% in MP & Bihar (Mod 5, 6 & 7) and 46% in Rajasthan. Chhattisgarh – 100% trained in Module 14 & 15 • TOT – UP (CCSP training complete in 17 districts) • Support and supervisory mechanisms at state, district, block and sub block levels in place in all states except for UP and MP. • No ASHA resource centre in UP but the programme is managed by a dedicated team. • Process of selection of ASHA facilitators is underway in UP and MP Non High Focus 54411 53785 98.85 • Module 5 – >97% in Karnataka and Punjab; 72% - 82% in Gujarat, Haryana, J &K, Kerala, West Bengal and 42% in TN, Maharashtra, Delhi • Round 3 &4 – 40% in Gujarat, 22% in Karnataka • Round 2- 69% in • Punjab, tribal districts of Maharashtra and Gujarat have district level support structures and have started appointing ASHA facilitators. • Other states
  26. 26. Gujarat and 9% in Maharashtra and 33% in WB, • Round 1- 99% in Punjab, 60-63% in Karnataka & AP; 21% in WB and 17% in Maharashtra. • TOT – Delhi, J &K and Haryana Kerala and TN to start NCD based module. have no support systems below the state and not even at the state in Delhi, Haryana, J&K, Kerala, Punjab and WB. Programme is managed by existing staff. North East 356291 322977 90.65 • Module 5 – Completed in all states • Round 3- 100% in Manipur • Round 2 - >92% in Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura; 75% in Mizoram and 45% in Arunachal Pradesh • Round 1- 48% in Assam • State and district level support mechanisms are in place in all states except Mizoram and Sikkim. • Block community mobilizers have been engaged only in Nagaland. • ASHA facilitators are in place in all states except Nagaland and Mizoram. Total 908281 866726 95.42 CRITICAL AREAS FOR CONCERTED ACTION Across all terms of reference, there are shortfalls in achieving key objectives. These shortfalls are due to the historical legacy of a weak health system reflected in low baselines, and existing institutional constraints that have likely hampered more rapid progress. (According to Sixth Common Review Mission Report, 2012) The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of the Eleventh Plan was “conceptualized in response to what were perceived as systemic flaws in the health system namely, the lack of a holistic approach, absence of linkages with collateral health determinants, gross shortage of infrastructure and human resources, lack of community ownership and accountability, non-integration of vertical disease control programs, inadequate responsiveness to
  27. 27. community needs and lack of financial resources” (background paper issued by Planning commission to Twelfth five year plan process for health sector). Interrupted and inappropriate supplies of drugs consequent on poor logistics continue to be a problem. Improved availability of diagnostics has seen in the hospital. There is considerable increase in attention to quality of care across all states, but also considerable fragmentation. Infection control was a problem in all states except Tamil Nadu. Lack of privacy for women patients and insensitive providers were still problematic in many states. Quality Assurance Committees exist, but their functioning and value addition is uncertain. There is no “measurement” of quality improvement, except in a few instances where more comprehensive quality management systems were set-up.(According to Sixth Common Review Mission Report, 2012) According to Framework for Implementation (2005-2012) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India Report Sl. No. Priorities Constraints Action to overcome Constraints 1. Functional facilities - Establishing fully functional Sub Health Centres / PHCs/ CHCs/Sub Divisional/ District Hospitals. • Dilapidated or absent • physical infrastructure • Non-availability of • doctors/paramedics • Drugs/ vaccines shortages • Dysfunctional equipments • Untimely procurements • Chocked fund flows • Lack of accountability • framework • Inflexible financial resources. • Infrastructure/equipments • Management support • Streamlined fund flows • Contractual appointment and support for capacity development • Pooling of staff/optimal utilization • Improved MIS • Streamlined procurement • Local level flexibility • Community /PRI/RKS for accountability / M&E • Adopt standard treatment guidelines for each facility and different levels of staffing, and develop road maps to reach desirable levels in a five to seven year period. 2. Increasing and improving human resources in rural areas • Non-availability of doctors and paramedics • Shortage of ANMs/MPWs. • Large jurisdiction and poor monitoring. • No accountability • Lack of any plan for career advancement or for systematic skill up gradation. • No system of appraisal • Local preference • Contractual appointment to a facility for filling short term gaps. • Management of facilities including personnel by PRI Committees. • Train and develop local residents of remote areas with appropriate cadre structure and incentives. • Multi-skilling of doctors /
  28. 28. with incentives/ disincentives for good/ poor performance and governance related problems. paramedics and continuous skill • up gradation • Convergence with AYUSH • Involvement of RMPs. • Partnership with non- State Stakeholders. 3. Accountable health delivery • Panchayati Raj Institutions /user groups have little say in health system • No village / hamlet level unit of delivery • No resources for flexible community action • Referral chain from hamlet to hospital • Control and management of Health facilities by PRIs • Budget to be managed by the PRI/User Group • PRI/User Group mandate for action • Untied funds and Household surveys 4. Reducing maternal and child deaths and population stabilization • Lack of 24X7 facilities for safe deliveries. • Lack of facilities with for emergency obstetric care. • Unsatisfactory access and • utilization of skilled • assistance at birth • Lack of equity/sensitivity in family welfare services/ counselling. • Non-availability of Specialists for anaesthesia, obstetric care, paediatric care, etc. • No system of new born care with adequate referral support. • Lack of referral transport systems. • Need for universalization of ICDS services and universal access to good quality antenatal care. • Need for linkage with parallel • improvement efforts in social • and gender equity • Functional public health system including CHCs as FRUs, PHC-24X7, SHCs, Taluk /District Hospital • Trained ANM locally recruited • Institutional delivery • Quality services at facility • Expanding facilities capable of providing contraception including quality sterilization services on a regular basis so as to meet existing demand and unmet needs. • Thrust on Skilled Birth Attendants/local appointment and training • Training of ASHA • New born care for reducing neo natal mortality; • Active Village Health and Sanitation Committee; • Training of Panchayat members. • Expanding the ANM work force especially in remote areas and in larger village and semi-urban areas. • Planned synergy of ANM, AWW, ASHA work force and where available with local SHGs and women’s committees. • Linkage of all above to the
  29. 29. dimensions. • Lack of linkages with other dimensions of women’s health and women friendliness of public health facilities. Panchayat committee on health. The launch of NRHM has provided the Central and the State Governments with a unique opportunity for carrying out necessary reforms in the Health Sector. The reforms are necessary for restructuring the health delivery system as well as for developing better health financing mechanisms. The strengthening and effectiveness of health institutions like SHCs/PHCs/CHCs/Taluk/District Hospitals have positive consequences for all health programmes [TB, Malaria, HIV/AIDS, Filaria, Family Welfare, Leprosy, and Disease Surveillance etc.] as all programmes are based on the assumption that a functioning public health system actually exists. The submission of the Task Force Reports and the recently published Reports of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health and Mid-Term Appraisal by the Planning Commission provide valuable insights on these issues. In order to improve the health outcomes, it is necessary to give close attention to critical areas like service delivery, finances (including risk pooling), resources (human, physical, knowledge technology) and leadership. The following are identified as some of the areas for concerted action:- · Well functioning health facilities; · Quality and accountability in the delivery of health services; · Taking care of the needs of the poor and vulnerable sections of the society and their empowerment; · Prepare for health transition with appropriate health financing; · Pro-people public private partnership; · Convergence for effectiveness and efficiency. · Responsive health system meeting people’s health needs. References: http://nrhm.gov.in/nhm/nrhm.html http://nrhm.gov.in/images/pdf/about-nrhm/nrhm-framework- implementation/nrhm-framework-latest.pdf http://nrhm.gov.in/nhm/nrhm/nrhm-framework-for-implementation.html http://planningcommission.gov.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp12/health/WG_1N RHM.pdf http://nrhm.gov.in/images/pdf/monitoring/crm/6thcrm/report/6th_CRM_Main_ Report.pdf
  30. 30. http://nrhm.gov.in/images/pdf/monitoring/crm/6thcrm/presentation/JS(Policy)_ 6th_CRM.pdf http://www.iegindia.org/events/nrhmconf6_8aug13.pdf http://mohfw.nic.in/WriteReadData/l892s/8%20Chap%20IV%20PAGE%2026- 137%20Review%20Performance-73398458.pdf http://www.kcci.org.in/Document%20Repository/NRHM.pdf http://medind.nic.in/iaj/t09/i3/iajt09i3p175.pdf http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/peoreport/peoevalu/peo_2807.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Rural_Health_Mission http://nrhm.gov.in/nhm/about-nhm.html http://203.193.146.66/hfw/NRHM_Initiatives.asp?GL=8 http://pib.nic.in/archieve/flagship/faq_nrhm.pdf http://jknrhm.com/images/operational%20%20guidelines%202012-13.pdf http://www.graam.org.in/sites/graam.org.in/files/NRHM%20Evaluation%20- %20Final%20Report.pdf http://mpdecentralizedplanning.in/spc/Download/case_study/NRHM%20report %20Chhatarpur.pdf http://www.nrhmharyana.org/Writereaddata/userfiles/file/PDFs/Child %20Health/Guidelines%20on%20Infant%20Death%20Review%20at %20Community%20and%20Facility%20Level.pdf
  31. 31. Practical No.-7 oehZdEiksLV dh mi;ksfxrk daspqvk [kkn ;k oehZ dEiksLV iks’k.k inkFkksaZ ls Hkjiwj ,d mRre tSo moZjd gSA ;g daspqvk vkfn ds }kjk ouLifr;ksa ,oa Hkkstu ds dpjs vkfn dks fo?kfVr djds cukbZ tkrh gSaA oehZdEiksLV esa cncw ugha gksrh gS vkSj eD[kh ,oa ePNj ugha c<+rs gS rFkk okrkoj.k iznwf’kr ugha gksrk gSA rkieku fu;af=r jgus ls thok.kq fdz;k”khy rFkk lfdz; jgrs gSaA oehZdEiksLV Ms<+ ls nks ekg ds vUnj rS;kj gks tkrk gSA blesa 2-5 ls 3 izfr”kr ukbVkstu] 1-5 ls 2 izfr”kr lYQj] 1-5 ls 2 izfr”kr IkksVk”k ik;k tkrk gSaA daspqvk [kkn cukuk (oehZ dEiksfLVax) daspqvk }kjk tSo fo?kVu”khy O;FkZ inkFkksaZ ds Hk{k.k rFkk mRltZu ls cuus okyh [kkn dks daspqvk [kkn ;k oehZ dEiksLV dgrs gSaA oehZ dEiksLV dks feV~Vh esa feykus ls feV~Vh dh moZjk “kfDr rks c<+rh gh gS lkFk gh lkFk Qlyksa dh iSnkokj vkSj xq.koRrk esa Hkh c<+ksRRkjh gksrh gSaA jklk;fud moZjdksa ds vf/kd bLrseky ls feV~Vh ij cqjk izHkko IkM+rk gSa] daspqvk [kkn ds mi;ksx ls feV~Vh ij dksbZ cqjk izHkko ugha IkM+rk vkSj feV~Vh dk lq/kkj gksrk gSaA bl izdkj oehZ dEiksLV Hkwfe dh HkkSfrd- jklk;fud o tSfod n”kkvksa esa lq/kkj dj feV~Vh dh mitk ऊ “kfDr dks fVdk ऊ djus esa Hkh ;ksxnku nsrk gSaA vuqekur% 1 fdxzk- Hkkj esa 1000 ls 1500 dsapq, gksrs gSaA izk;% ,d daspqvk 2 ls 3 dksdwu izfr lIrkg iSnk djrk gSaA blds ckn gj dksdwu esa ls 3 ls 4 lIrkg esa 1 ls 3 dsapq, fudyrs gSaA ,d daspqvk vius thou esa yxHkx 250 dsapq, iSnk djus dh {kerk j[krk gSaA izfrfnu ,d daspqvk vius Hkkj ds cjkcj feV~Vh [kkdj dEiksLV esa cny nsrk gSaA ,d fdxzk dspq,a ,d oxZ ehVj {ks++= esa 45 fdyksxzke vi?kVu”khy inkFkksZa ls 25 ls 30 fdxzk- oehZ dEiksLV 60 ls 70 fnu esa rS;kj dj nsrs gSaA oehZ dEiksLV ds ykHk
  32. 32. • oehZ dEiksLV lkekU; [kkn cukus dh fof/k ls ,d frgkbZ le; (2 ls 3 ekg) esa gh rS;kj gks tkrk gSA • oehZ dEiksLV esa xkscj dh [kkn dh vis{kk ukbVkstu] QkLQksjl- IkksVk”k rFkk vU; lw{e rRo vf/kd ek=k esa ik;s tkrs gSaA • oehZ dEiksLV esa lw{e tho] foVkfeu rFkk o`f) djus okys rRo vf/kd ek=k esa ik;s tkes gSaA • dsapq,a }kjk cuk;h [kkn dks feV~Vh esa feykus ls feV~Vh dh moZjk “kfDr c<+rh gSa] ftldk lh/kk izHkko ikS/kksa ds fodkl ij iM+rk gSaA • oehZ dEiksLV okyh feV~Vh esa Hkw-{kj.k de gksrk gS rFkk feV~Vh dh ty/kkj.k {kerk esa lq/kkj gksrk gSaA • [ksrksa esa oehZ dEiksLV ds mi;ksx ls [kjirokj o dhM+ksa dk izdksi de gksrk gS rFkk ikS/kksa dh jksx jks/kd {kerk Hkh c<+rh gSA • oehZ dEiksLV ds mi;ksx ls Qlyksa ij jklk;fud moZjdksa rFkk dhVuk”kdkas dh ekWx de gksrh gS] ftlls fdlkuksa ij bldk [kpZ de gksrk gSA • oehZ dEiksLV ls izkd`frd larqyu cuk jgrk gS] lkFk gh Hkwfe] ikS/kksa ;k vU; izkf.k;ksa ij bldk dksbZ cqjk izHkko ugha iM+rk gSaA oehZ dEiksLV cukus dh fof/k 1- dspqvksa dk p;u% oehZ dEiksfLVax esa dspqvksa dh mu iztkfr;ksa dk p;u fd;k tkrk gS ftuesa iztuu o o`f) nj rhoz gks] izkd`frd rkieku ds mrkj p<+ko lgus dh {kerk gks rFkk dkcZfud inkFkksZa dks tYnh ls dEiksLV esa cnyus dh {kerk gksA mnkgj.kr;k vkblhfu;k QhfVMk] ;wfMyl ;wtsuh vkfnA 2- oehZ dEiksfLVax ;ksX; inkFkZ%& oehZ dEiksLV ds fy, lHkh izdkj ds lM+us xYkus okys dkcZfud inkFkZ tSls& tkuojksa dk xkscj] xkscj xSl dh Lyjh]
  33. 33. jlksbZ ?kj dk dpjk] Qlyksa ds vo”ks’k] ?kkl&Qwl o ifRr;ksa vkfn dk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA 3- dEiksfLVax%& dEiksfLVax fdlh Hkh izdkj ds ik= tSls feV~Vh ds crZu] ydM+h ds cDls] lhesUV ds VSad bR;kfn esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA xM~<ksa ;k csM dh yEckbZ& pkSM+kbZ miyC/k LFkku ds vuqlkj fu/kkZfjr djasA budh xgjkbZ 50 ls-eh- ls vf/kd u j[ksaA dEiksfLVax ds fy, lcls uhps dh lrg 5 ls-eh- eksVs dpjs (?kkl&Qwl] dsys ds iRrs] ukfj;y ds iRrs] Qlyksa ds MaBy vkfn) dh rg fcNk;saA blds ckn bl rg ij lM+s gq, xkscj dh 5 ls-eh- dh rg fcNk;sa rFkk ikuh fNM+d dj 1000&1500 dspq,a izfr ehVj dh nj ls NksM+sA blds ckn fQj lM+k xkscj Mkysa rFkk VkV ;k cksjh ls <+d nsaA bl ij jkst vko”;drkuqlkj ikuh dk fNM+dko djsa rkfd ueh dk Lrj 40 izfr”kr ls T;knk jgsA dEiksfLVax ds fy, Nk;knkj LFkku dk pquko djsa ] tgkW ikuh uk Bgjrk gkasA 4- dEiksfLVax ,d=hdj.k% lk/kkj.kr;k 60 ls 70 fnu esa dEiksLV cu dj rS;kj gks tkrh gSA vc ikuh nsuk cUn dj nsa ftlls dspq,a uhps pys tk;sa fQj dEiksLV dks ,d= dj ysaA Nku dj dspq,a vyx dj ysa rFkk Nk;k esa lq[kkdj IykfLVd dh FkSfYk;ksa esa Hkjdj lhy dj nsaA oehZ dEiksLV dk mi;ksx • oehZ dEiksLV dks [ksr rS;kj djrs le; feV~Vh esa feyk;saA • [kkn~;kUu Qlyksa esa oehZ dEiksLV 5 Vu izfr gsDVs;j dh nj ls mi;ksx djsaA • lCth okyh Qlyksa esa oehZ dEiksLV dk mi;ksx 10&12 Vu izfr gsDVs;j djsaA • Qynkj o`{kksa esa 1&10 fdxzk- o`{k dh vk;q o vko”;drkuqlkj rus ds pkjksa rjQ ?ksjk cukdj MkysaA • Xkeyksa esa 100 xzke izfr xeys dh nj ls mi;ksx djsaA oehZ dEiksfLVax esa fo”ks’k lko/kkfu;kW
  34. 34. • vkaf”kd :Ik ls lM+s dkcZfud O;FkZ inkFkkZas dk gh mi;ksx djsa] blls [kkn tYnh curh gSaA • dEiksfLVax csM esa ekSle ds vuqlkj ueh dk Lrj cuk;s j[kasA • dEiksfLVax csM ;k xM~<s dks /kwi o o’kkZ ls cpk;saA • dEiksfLVax csM dks twV dh cksjh ;k iqvky ls <d dj j[ksaA
  35. 35. Practical No.-8 Mobile Phones for Kids: Know the Dangers Don't let dangerous radiation “cook” growing brains. A startling study shows that young people are five times more likely to get brain tumors if they use a cell phone before they’re 20. Other research finds that a mobile phone call lasting just two minutes can produce brain hyperactivity that lasts an hour in kids. Many teens think they are addicted to cell phones, and they certainly act like it. In one study, teens aged fifteen to nineteen describe themselves as addicted to their phones, and in another, 30 percent say they're depressed when they can't use it. Even cordless phones emit dangerous radiation that can almost double heart rate variability and affect the autonomic nervous system, causing anxiety, blood pressure changes, fatigue, dizziness or fainting, and sleep disturbances. Why Kids Are at Risk The problem is children’s brains absorb twice as much radiation from these phones as adult brains. Not only do youngsters have thinner skulls and smaller heads than adults, but their brains also continue developing during childhood and adolescence—only increasing their risk. With kids spending significant time on mobile phones may be face a public health crisis in an epidemic of brain cancers.” In addition to brain tumors, research suggests cell phones can lead to hearing loss in kids. Psychologists, who have studied cell phone use, particularly texting, by teens, report that it leads to anxiety, behavioral problems, and distraction in school, repetitive stress injury, and sleep deprivation. Excess use of mobile interacts with fertility, the immune capacity, shattering of DNA, or impaired learning and intelligence. Cell phones are being linked to “brain aging” (early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and other brain damage), as well as DNA damage. Expert concerned, “a whole generation of cell-phone users may suffer negative side effects in middle age.” A new study in the Journal suggests that EMFs may also have harmful effects on bone density, making it “better to keep mobile phones as far as possible from the body.”So start protecting yourself to ensure a safer tomorrow.
  36. 36. Practical No.-9 REPORT WRITING on Training programme on quilting and patch work A training programme for Aaganwadi Supervisor was organized by Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, college of Home Science, MPUAT Udaipur from Feb 17, 2014 to Feb 22, 2014 with the main objective of developing skills of preparing home utility items. Trainees were from nearby areas of Udaipur District; they were provided training so that they can go back to their villages and disseminate the same skill to rural women and adolescent girls. The inaugural session was chaired by Dr (Mrs)Meenu Sriwastva Head of Department TAD, followed by orientation session to make all the participant acquainted with machine quilting and patch work , advance machine with their operation function and uses. A plan of action was prepared by organizing team to conduct the training efficiently and efficiently. Total 21 aaganwadi supervisor were trained in the training. Trainees were divided into groups of five members, and four such groups were formed, each group was facilitated with one final year vocational student of TAD Department. There were two trainers for each day training program, one for morning session from 10am- 1pm and another for afternoon session from 2pm- 5pm. Training session was coordinated my master trainer on each day. Master trainer used demonstration techniques for developing skills. Demonstration was given for drafting, cutting and stitching of Roti cover, tray cover, Baby quilting, Baby feeder, napkin holder, fancy Saari cover, cushion cover, shopping bag, Jute bag, Clutch Purse and apron. All trainees learned skills under the guidance of master trainers Dr. Rupal Babel, Dr. Dolly Mogra, and Dr. Sonu Mehta. Trainees completed their respective group and displayed an exhibition of the entire item prepared during training program on last day. The valedictory session was held in the benign presence of Dr. O. P. Gill honourable Vice Chancellor of MPUAT, Udaipur. Dr Gill mentioned that these kinds of trainings are very helpful in the direction of self employment which ultimately will lead to empowerment of women. Participant also seems to be very enthusiastic throughout the training and expressed some of their reflection upon the training content etc. the training was ended by the vote of thanks by Dr. Rupal Babel.
  37. 37. Practical No.-9 Report writing on Self Defence Classes Self defence classes for college girls were organized in Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur from Feb 15, 2014 to Mar 04, 2014. These classes were organized by joint collaboration of Student Welfare Officer (SWO) and Central Student Union. The main objective of Self defence classes was to create an opportunity for participants to receive information that may reduce their risk of exposure to violence, and to create an opportunity for participants to familiarize themselves with the possibility of future physical skills training. Training was organized with an objective of developing safety and security technique i.e. karate. Karate essentially means the way of living life perfectly through the practice of the techniques of emptiness of the body, the mind and the soul. Go-Ju Ryu Karata do emphasis the need to constantly balance life between the hard and soft component i.e. It is a combination of physical as well as mental self-defence techniques. Classes imparted physical and mental techniques of self defence so that it enable a woman with deep rooted respect to herself as well as whole nature with solid confidence towards the life. Training under self defence classes was given by Sensai Rajkumar Menaria, chief instructor & Director of Shihan Viraf’s Go-Ju University of Martial Arts India. He is well known international self defence trainer and won several Gold medals of national level and awarded by R. Vanket Ramman, Former President of India. More than sixty girls of MPUAT have participated enthusiastically during the classes and learned techniques of self- defence. They learned how to beat opponent who is attacking them. They also learned how to make themselves mentally and physically active at times of difficulty. Participants feel access to the self-defence techniques can help them in improving their confidence in less-than-ideal situations. This significant knowledge can help them in keeping calm and using the proper teachings passed down to them during confrontational circumstances. Classes were all about defending self, and protect belongings from low-life thieves. They feel these types of classes are helpful for them and should also be organized in future also.
  38. 38. Practical No.-11 Format of Newspaper 1. The Hindu 2. Hindustan Times 3. Rajasthan Patrika 4. Dainik Bhaskar 5. Prathkaal 6. Dainik Navjyoti The Hindu Introduction: The Hindu, started in 1878 as a weekly, became a daily in 1889 and from then on has been steadily growing to the circulation of 15,58,379 copies (July-December 2012) and a readership of about 22.58 lakhs. It is printed in seventeen centres including the Main Edition at Chennai (Madras) where the Corporate Office is based. The printing centres at Coimbatore, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Madurai, Noida, Visakhapatnam, Thiruvanathapuram, Kochi, Vijayawada, Mangalore, Tiruchirapalli, Kolkata, Hubli, Mohali, Allahabad and Kozhikode. Format: It includes following main sections- The Hindu brings out supplements and features on all days of the week. On Mondays • Business Review • Education Plus On Tuesdays • Young World • Book Review On Wednesdays • Empower On Thursdays • Science, Engineering, Technology & Agriculture On Fridays • Friday Review On Saturdays • Habitat On Sundays • Weekly Magazine • Cinema Plus • Classifieds • Open Page • Literary Review , every first Sunday
  39. 39. Hindustan Times (HT) Introduction: Hindustan Times (HT) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India). The newspaper is owned by Rajya Sabha M.P., Shobhana Bhartia. Format: It includes following main sections- • My India my vote have news regarding 2014 Lok Sabha Election. • Metro city news • htNational contains news of national importance. • Comment section includes editorial, columns etc. • htbusiness includes news related to senses, business deals, market scenario etc. • htclassified includes news regarding sale, discount, offers, requirements etc. • Shine jobs includes job opportunities in various fields. • ht world includes news of other countries which are important. • htsports includes sports news. • Advertisements Rajasthan Patrika Introduction: Rajasthan Patrika ( राजसथान पितका) is a Hindi-language daily newspaper published from Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Udaipur, Kota and other cities of Rajasthan and from major Indian cities such as Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur, Raipur, Ahmedabad, Gwalior, Kolkata, Chennai, New Delhi and Bangalore. Format: It includes following main sections- • Lakecity news contains local news of Udaipur city. • Raajneeti includes political news. • Jago Janmat for creating awareness regarding 2014 Lok sabha election. • Patrika Plus • State Rajneeti
  40. 40. • Patrikayan, Spot Light • National, Global • Patrika Classified • Sports • Advertisments Dainik Bhaskar Introduction: Dainik Bhaskar (दैिनक भासकर) is an Indian Hindi-language daily newspaper published by D B Corp Ltd.. It was started in year 1958 from Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. As of 2012, its National Editor is Kalpesh Yagnik who operates from Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Format: It includes following main sections- • Udaipur’s local news • Dharam Samaj • Abhivyakti: Editorial page • Pradesh: Rajasthan states news • Classified: • Business Bhaskar: business news. • Sports • Desh Videsh • Sara Jaha: Global news. • Advertisments Pratahkaal Introduction: Pratahkal (पातःकाल), a Hindi daily newspaper published from Mumbai, Delhi, Jaipur and Udaipur was founded in 1979 in Udaipur. It was inaugurated by Shri L. K. Advani, the then Central Information and Broadcasting minister, in Udaipur. Format: • Udaipur: Udaipur city news. • Jaipur • Sampadkey: I Editorial page
  41. 41. • election 2014 • Sports • Nation • Advertisments Dainik Navajyoti Introduction: Dainik Navajyoti (दैिनक नवजयोित) is a Hindi language daily newspaper published from Jaipur, Jodhpur, Ajmer & Kota Rajasthan. It started in 1936. Dainik Navajyoti was started from Ajmer by the freedom fighter Capt. Durga Prasad Chaudhary. Earlier it was a weekly newspaper later it became daily. Presently it is publishing from Jaipur, Ajmer, Jodhpur & Kota covering Rajasthan. Format: • Front Page • Aapni Citi, Aapna Log • Sampadkeyh • Desh Videsh • Bajar • Sports

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