ADVERTISING AND MARKETING COMMUNICATION
Marketing communication (MarCom) is a fundamental and complex part of a company’s marketing efforts. Loosely defined, MarCom can be described as all the messages and media you deploy to communicate with the market.
Marketing communication includes advertising, direct marketing, branding, packaging, your online presence, printed materials, PR activities, sales presentations, sponsorships, trade show appearances and more.
Marketing communication has two objectives. One is to create and sustain demand and preference for the product. The other is to shorten the sales cycle.
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PRACTICAL NO. 1
ADVERTISING AND MARKETING COMMUNICATION
Marketing communication (MarCom) is a fundamental and complex part of a company‟s
marketing efforts. Loosely defined, MarCom can be described as all the messages and media you
deploy to communicate with the market.
Marketing communication includes advertising, direct marketing, branding, packaging, your
online presence, printed materials, PR activities, sales presentations, sponsorships, trade show
appearances and more.
Marketing communication has two objectives. One is to create and sustain demand and
preference for the product. The other is to shorten the sales cycle.
Marketing communications are a management process through which an organisation engages
with its various audiences. By understanding an audience‟s communications environment,
organisations seek to develop and present messages for their identified stakeholder groups,
before evaluating and acting upon the responses. By conveying messages that are of significant
value, they encourage audiences to offer attitudinal and behavioural responses.
This definition has three main themes. The first concerns the word engages. By recognizing
the different transactional and relationship needs of the target audience, marketing
communications can be used to engage with a variety of audiences in such a way that one-way,
two-way and dialogic communications that meet the needs of the audience are used.
The second theme concerns the audiences for marketing communications. Traditionally,
marketing communications have been used to convey product-related information to customer-
based audiences. Today, a range of stakeholders have connections and relationships of varying
dimensions, and marketing communications need to incorporate this breadth and variety.
Stakeholder audiences, including customers, are all interested in a range of corporate issues:
sometimes these are product related, and sometimes they are related to the policies, procedures
and values of the organisation itself. Marketing communications should be an audience-centred
activity, and in that sense it is important that messages be based on a firm understanding of
both the needs and the environment of the audience. To be successful, marketing
communications should be grounded in the behaviour and information-processing needs and
style of the target audience. This is referred to as understanding the context in which the
communications event is to occur.
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The third theme from the definition concerns the cognitive response. This refers to the
outcomes of the communication process, and is a measure of whether a communication event
has been successful. The audience should be regarded as active problem-solvers who use
marketing communications to help them in their lives, in purchasing products and services, and
in managing organisation-related activities. For example, brands are developed partly to help
consumers and partly to assist the marketing effort of the host organisation. A brand can inform
consumers quickly that, among other things, „this brand means x quality‟, and through
experience of similar brand purchases consumers are assured that their risk is minimised. If the
problem facing a consumer is „which new soup to select for dinner‟, by choosing one from a
familiar family brand the consumer is able to solve it with minimal risk and great speed.
THE ROLE OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS
Marketing communications recognise the increasing role that the organisation plays in the
marketing process, and the impact that organisational factors can have on the minds of
audiences. As the structure, composition and sheer number of offerings in some markets
proliferate, so differences between products diminish, to the extent that it has become much
more difficult to differentiate between products. This results in a decrease in the number of
available and viable positioning opportunities. One way to resolve this problem is to use the
parent organisation as an umbrella, to provide greater support and leadership in the promotion
of any offerings – hence the earlier reference to the emerging strength of corporate marketing.
A view that is becoming increasingly popular is that corporate strategy should be supported by
the organisation‟s key stakeholders if the strategy is to be successful. Strategy must be
communicated in such a way that the messages are consistent through time, and are targeted
accurately at appropriate stakeholder audiences. Each organisation must constantly guard
against the transmission of confusing messages, whether this be through the way in which the
telephone is answered, the navigability of a website, the impact of sales literature, or the way
salespersons approach prospective clients. Many organisations recognise the usefulness and
importance of good public relations. This is because of the high credibility attached to the
messages received and the relatively low operational costs. As a result, the use of corporate
advertising has grown. Finally, marketing communications recognise the development of
channel or trade marketing. Many organisations have moved away from the traditional control
of a brand manager to a system that focuses upon the needs of distributors and intermediaries
in the channel. The organisations in the channel work together to satisfy their individual and
collective objectives. The degree of conflict and cooperation in the channel network depends
upon a number of factors, but some of the most important are the form and quality of the
communications between member organisations. This means that marketing communications
must address the specific communication needs of members of the distribution network and of
those other stakeholders who impact on or who influence the performance of the network.
Indeed, marketing communications recognise the need to contribute to the communications in
the channel network, to support and sustain the web of relationships.
THE MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS MIX
The marketing communications mix consists of a set of tools (disciplines) that can be used in
various combinations and different degrees of intensity in order to communicate with a target
audience. In addition to these tools or methods of communication, there are the media, or the
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means by which marketing communications messages are conveyed. Tools and media should
not be confused, as they have different characteristics and seek to achieve different goals.
There are five principal marketing communications tools:
- sales promotion,
- public relations,
- direct marketing and
- personal selling.
However, there have been some major changes in the environment and in the way organisations
communicate with their target audiences. New technology has given rise to a raft of different
media, while people have developed a variety of ways to spend their leisure time. This is referred
to as media and audience fragmentation, and organisations have developed fresh combinations
of the promotional mix in order to reach their audiences effectively. For example, there has been
a dramatic rise in the use of direct-response media as direct marketing becomes adopted as part
of the marketing plan for many products. The Internet and digital technologies have made
possible new interactive forms of communication, where the receivers have greater
responsibility for their part in the communication process. An increasing number of
organisations are using public relations to communicate both messages about themselves
(corporate public relations) and also messages about their brands (marketing public relations).
What has happened therefore is that the promotional mix has developed such that the original
emphasis on heavyweight mass communication (above-the-line) campaigns has given way to
more direct and highly targeted promotional activities using direct marketing and the other
tools of the mix. Using the jargon, through-the-line and below-the-line communications are
used much more these days. The shift is from an intervention-based approach to marketing
communications (one based on seeking the attention of a customer who might not necessarily
be interested) towards permission-based communications (where the focus is upon
communications with members of an audience who have already expressed an interest in a
particular offering). In other words, with permission communications the seedlings for a
relationship are established by the audience, not by the brand owner. This has a particular
impact on direct marketing, online communications and – to some extent – personal selling.
Advertising is a non-personal form of mass communication that offers a high degree of control
to those responsible for the design and delivery of advertising messages. However, advertising‟s
ability to persuade the target audience to think or behave in a particular way is suspect.
Furthermore, the effect on sales is extremely hard to measure. Advertising also suffers from low
credibility, in that audiences are less likely to believe messages delivered through advertising
than they are messages received through some other tools.
ii. Sales Promotion
Sales promotion comprises various marketing techniques that are often used tactically to
provide added value to an offering, with the aim of accelerating sales and gathering marketing
information. Like advertising, sales promotion is a non-personal form of communication, but it
has a greater capability to be targeted at smaller audiences. It is controllable, and although it
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has to be paid for, the associated costs can be much lower than those of advertising. As a
generalisation, the credibility of sales promotion is not very high, as the sponsor is – or should
be – easily identifiable. However, the ability to add value and to bring forward future sales is
strong and complements a macroeconomic need that focuses on short-term financial
iii. Personal Selling
Personal selling is traditionally perceived as an interpersonal communication tool that involves
face-to-face activities undertaken by individuals, often representing an organisation, in order to
inform, persuade or remind an individual or group to take appropriate action, as required by the
sponsor‟s representative. A salesperson engages in communication on a one-to-one basis where
instantaneous feedback is possible. The costs associated with interpersonal communication are
normally very large.
iv. Public Relations
Public relations is „the art and social science of analysing trends, predicting their consequences,
counselling organisations‟ leadership, and implementing planned programmes of action which
will serve both the organisation‟s and the public interest‟ (Mexican Statement, 1978). This
definition suggests that public relations should be a part of the wider perspective of corporate
strategy, and this is discussed at length in Module 16. The increasing use of public relations, and
publicity in particular, reflects the high credibility attached to this form of communication.
Publicity involves the dissemination of messages through third-party media such as magazines,
newspapers or news programmes. There is no charge for the media space or time, but there are
costs incurred in the production of the material. (There is no such thing as a free lunch or free
promotion.) There is a wide range of other tools used by public relations, such as event
management, sponsorship and lobbying. It is difficult to control a message once it is placed in
the channels, but the endorsement offered by a third party can be very influential and have a far
greater impact on the target audience than any of the other tools in the promotional mix.
v. Direct Marketing
The growing utilisation of direct marketing by organisations over recent years has been
significant. It signals a shift in focus from mass to personalised communications. In particular,
the use of direct mail, telemarketing and the fast-developing area of interactive communications
represents through-the-line communications. By removing the face-to-face aspect of personal
selling and replacing it with an email communication, a telephone conversation or a direct mail
letter, many facets of the traditional salespersons‟ tasks can be removed, freeing them to
concentrate on their key skill areas.
Direct marketing seeks to target individual customers with the intention of delivering
personalised messages and building a relationship with them based upon their responses to the
direct communications. In contrast to conventional approaches, direct marketing attempts to
build a one-to-one relationship – a partnership with each customer – by communicating with
the customers on a direct and personal basis. If an organisation chooses to use direct marketing
then it has to incorporate the approach within a marketing plan. This is because distribution is
different, and changes in the competitive environment may mean that prices need to change.
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ADVERTISING: MEANING AND DEFINITION
Advertising is a form of marketing communication used to promote or sell something, usually a
business's product or service. The word advertising comes form the latin word "advertere
meaning” to turn the minds of towards". Some of the definitions given by various authors are:
According to William J. Stanton, "Advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting
to an audience a non-personal, sponsor-identified, paid-for message about a product or
According to American Marketing Association "advertising is any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor".
Advertising is used for communicating business information to the present and prospective
customers. It usually provides information about the advertising firm, its product qualities,
place of availability of its products, etc. Advertisement is indispensable for both the sellers and
the buyers. However, it is more important for the sellers. In the modern age of large scale
production, producers cannot think of pushing sale of their products without advertising them.
Advertisement supplements personal selling to a great extent. Advertising has acquired great
importance in the modern world where tough competition in the market and fast changes in
technology, we find fashion and taste in the customers.
FEATURES OF ADVERTISING
1. Communication: Advertising is means of mass communication reaching the masses. It is a
non-personal communication because it is addressed to masses.
2. Information: Advertising informs the buyers about the benefits they would get when they
purchase a particular product. However, the information given should be complete and true.
3. Persuasion: The advertiser expects to create a favourable attitude which will lead to
favourable actions. Any advertising process attempts at converting the prospects into
customers. It is thus an indirect salesmanship and essentially a persuasion technique.
4. Profit Maximization: True advertising does not attempt at maximising profits by
increasing the cost but by promoting the sales. This way It won‟t lead to increase the price of the
product. Thus, it has a higher sales approach rather than the higher-cost approach.
5. Non-Personal Presentation: Salesmanship is personal selling whereas advertising is non-
personal in character. Advertising is not meant for anyone individual but for all. There is
absence of personal appeal in advertising.
6. Identified Sponsor: A sponsor may be an individual or a firm who pays for the
advertisement. The name of reputed company may increase sale or products. The product gets
good market because of its identity with the reputed corporate body.
7. Consumer Choice: Advertising facilitates consumer choice. It enables consumers to
purchase goods as per their budget requirement and choice. Right choice makes consumer
happy and satisfied.
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8. Art, Science and Profession: Advertising is an art because it represents a field of
creativity. Advertising is a science because it has a body of organised knowledge. Advertising is
profession is now treated as a profession with its professional bodies and code of conduct for
9. Element of Marking Mix: Advertising is an important element of promotion mix.
Advertising has proved to be of great utility to sell goods and services. Large manufactures
spend crores of rupees on advertising.
10. Element of Creativity: A good advertising campaign involves lot of creativity and
imagination. When the message of the advertiser matches the expectations of consumers, such
creativity makes way for successful campaign.
OBJECTIVES OF ADVERTISING
The fundamental purpose of advertising is to sell something – a product, a service or an idea. In
addition to this general objective, advertising is also used by the modern business enterprises
for certain specific objectives which are listed below :
1. To introduce a new product by creating interest for it among the prospective customers.
2. To support personal selling programme. Advertising maybe used to open customers' doors for
3. To reach people inaccessible to salesman.
4. To enter a new market or attract a new group of customers.
5. To light competition in the market and to increase the sales as seen in the fierce competition
between Coke and Pepsi.
6. To enhance the goodwill of the enterprise by promising better quality products and services.
7. To improve dealer relations. Advertising supports the dealers in selling the product. Dealers
are attracted towards a product which is advertised effectively.
8. To warn the public against imitation of an enterprise's products.
IMPORTANCE OF ADVERTISING
Advertising has become an essential marketing activity in the modern era of large scale
production and serve competition in the market. It performs the following functions:
1. Promotion of Sales: It promotes the sale of goods and services by informing and
persuading the people to buy them. A good advertising campaign helps in winning new
customers both in the national as wet as in the international markets.
2. Introduction of New Product: It helps the introduction of new products in the market. A
business enterprise can introduce itself and its product to the public through advertising. A new
enterprise can't make an impact on the prospective customers without the help of advertising.
Advertising enables quick publicity in the market.
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3. Creation of Good Public Image: It builds up the reputation of the advertiser. Advertising
enables a business firm to communicate its achievements in an effort to satisfy the customers'
needs. This increases the goodwill and reputation of the firm which is necessary to fight against
competition in the market.
4. Mass Production: Advertising facilitates large-scale production. Advertising encourages
production of goods in large-scale because the business firm knows that it will be able to sell on
large-scale with the help of advertising. Mass production reduces the cost of production per unit
by the economical use of various factors of production.
5. Research: Advertising stimulates research and development activities. Advertising has
become a competitive marketing activity. Every firm tries to differentiate its product from the
substitutes available in the market through advertising. This compels every business firm to do
more and more research to find new products and their new uses. If a firm does not engage in
research and development activities, it will be out of the market in the near future.
6. Education of People: Advertising educate the people about new products and their uses.
Advertising message about the utility of a product enables the people to widen their knowledge.
It is advertising which has helped people in adopting new ways of life and giving-up old habits.
It has contributed a lot towards the betterment of the standard of living of the society.
7. Support to Press/media/publisher: Advertising provides an important source of
revenue to the publishers and magazines. It enables to increase the circulation of their
publication by selling them at lower rates. People are also benefited because they get
publications at cheaper rates. Advertising is also a source of revenue for TV network. For
instance, Doordarshan and ZeeTV insert ads before, in between and after various programmes
and earn millions of rupees through ads. Such income could be used for increasing the quality of
programmes and extending coverage.
ACTIVE PARTICIPANT IN ADVERTISING
Following are the group of people who are actively involved in advertising.
1. Advertiser: Seller who manufacture and market consumer products are the prominent
group of advertisers. Hindustan unilever, proctor and gamble, Seimen and Larson and toubro
are the examples of advertisers. Also the retailers are the second prominent segment among
advertisers. They stock the products and sell them to the ultimate consumers. Government and
social organization are also the active participant in this category.
2. Target audience: It refers to the recipient of the advertising message. Every message is
either directed to a mass audience and class audience. Advertising desire to cover this target
audience for promoting sales. Advertising message intends to cover the potential user and non
user who may purchase the product in future. The messages are also directed to the user of the
competitor's product so that they switch over the advertiser's products.
3. Advertising Agencies: An advertiser has two options viz. (i) to design, develop and
produce and advertising message and get it placed in desired media directly through his own
sales or advertising department, or (ii) to entrust the entire job of advertising to a team of highly
professionalised, specialised, independent, advertising agency. An advertising agency is
composed of creative people, who conceive design, develop and produce, advertising message
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with creative ideas and place it in the desired advertising media, for and on behalf of its client
(the advertiser). The advertising agencies usually charge a commission of 15% on the media bills
from the media owners. In addition, they charge out-of pocket expenses to their clients, i.e. the
advertisers. They employ copywriters, artists, photographers. Typographers, layout designers,
editors and such other creative people.
4. Advertising Production People (Artists): The production of impressive and persuasive
advertisements is possible only with the active help and creative spirit of the artists like
copywriters, artists, photographers, typographers, layout designers, editors and such other
creative people. Such people are usually employed by the ad agencies or, their services may be
hired by the ad agencies on job basis.
5. Target Audience (Readers, Listeners, Viewers and Present and Future Buyers):
Advertising messages are given about products services and ideas to readers, listeners, viewers
and actual and potential buyers, who are known as the audience. The target audience may be
classified into the following three categories, viz., (i) existing or, current consumers, who are
reminded and influenced to continue their patronage and to increase the volume of their
buying, (ii) consumers, who buy and use, a competitor‟s brand; hence they are persuaded to buy
the advertised brand, instead of the competitor‟s brand; and (iii) those consumers, who do not
use any such product; and even then, are persuaded to buy the advertised product.
6. Mass Media: Advertising messages are communicated to the target audience through
different mass media, such as,
(i) Print Media: They consist of newspapers, magazines, journals, handbills, etc.
(ii) Electronic Media: They consist of radio, television motion pictures, video, multi-media and
(iii) Outdoor Media: They consist off posters, hoarding, handbills, stickers air balloons, neon
sing bill boards, local cinema houses, and transit media.
(iv) Direct Mail: It consist of brouchers, leaflets, pamphlets, letters and return cards addressed
to consumers. The advertising agencies guide their clients (advertisers) in selection of the most
appropriate advertising media, which is known as media planning‟. Each medium has sits own
merits and demerits.
7. Government Authorities: The business of advertising is regulated by the government
department. The government adopts law and regulation which have a direct or an indirect
bearing on the advertising. Apart from this ASCI (Advertising standards council of India) and
ABC (Audit Bureau of circulation) are also some of authorities regulating advertising.
8. Advertising Production Firms: Advertising production firms are the support agencies
which help in the production of advertisement. This includes copywriter, artist, photographers,
typographers, producer, editors. These are the people who transform ideas into a finished forms
Thus the success and failure of the advertisement depend on these people.
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PRACTICAL NO. 2
Objective: To study different types of advertising
Different types of advertising studied includes
Outdoor or Mural Advertising
Newspapers are bought largely for their news values. Newspapers may be national/local
daily/weekly. These are a good vehicle to pass on information about new products, current
products and price-off deals. They can be used for local, national and regional market coverage.
In India, there are a number of newspapers both in English and also in regional languages.
Many newspapers in English and Hindi have nationwide coverage. So a message given in
newspapers may have a better impression on the minds of the people and it may be more
specific, clear, complex and lengthy. Currently, 1173 daily newspapers and 5280 weekly
newspapers are published in India, out of which the largest number is accounted for by the
Hindi language newspapers followed by Urdu, Marathi and English newspapers in terms of
number, and English, Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi and Gujarati in terms of circulation.
They offer a lot of flexibility. According to the convenience and necessity of the advertiser, the
shape, size and appeal may be frequently changed to suit the need of the advertiser.
Obituary Ads: these type of ad contains a photograph and detail text about death person and his
family. 3*8, 4*8, 5*8, 6*8, 9*8, 13*16 etc. Most of these ads were two column ads.
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Classified Ads: there size varies. They were available in small to medium sizes like 1*3, 1.5*3,
3*3, 6*6, 5*3, 6*3, 6*7, 5*6. Most of these ads were black and white. These ads were related to
education tuition, rented apartments, lost and found, vehicle selling, property selling, job
requirements, business requirement etc. there font size was small because these ads are seen by
the person who already has interest in them. They contain little information and provide a
contact number for additional information.
Commercial Ads: Most of these ads were colored. And larger in size as compared to classified
ads. There size vary from 8*8, 10*8, 20*12, 16*20, 25*16, 12*32, 25*32, 52*32 etc. these ads
were related to different consumable goods, sales, vehicles, electronics, food items, beauty
products, institutions, online shopping, footwear, sales and other offers. These ads were
colorful, attractive with bold feature with the brand name.
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Magazine offer selective circulation throughout the country and it has special target audience as
Ads vary upon the client group like housewives, businessman, teenagers, farmers etc. targeted
by magazine. For magazines like Femina and Grihsobha, who are for women, ads was related to
beauty products, household items, furnishing items, jewelry and housing were there. These
were printed with glossy effect and large pictures in order to grab the attention of reader.
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Magazines for competitive exams have ads related to student like books, publisher, coaching
classes, institutes, pen etc. These ads only contain information to make the reader aware about
new publication product. These ads were mostly in mono color with less colorfulness.
Farm related magazine had the ads related to agricultural tools and equipment, pesticides,
water pumps, seed companies, extension services etc. these ads contain a picture of farm or
farmer or farm related activities as well as the advantage of using the advertised
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Ads on the Internet can take a variety by forms. Most advertising on Internet can be classified as
websites, banners, buttons, interstitials, Meta ads, classified ads, and email ads.
i. Banner ads: A banner is a little billboard that spreads across the top or bottom of
the Web page. These are colorful and horizontally placed on top of the webpage.
ii. Button Ads: similar to banners. They are small version of the banner those often
look like an icon usually provides a link to an advertiser‟s home page. These ads are
less colorful but contain a button as a link to visit the advertiser‟s website.
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iii. Interstitials ads: variety of animated ads that pop up on the screen while the
computer downloads a website that the user has clicked on.
iv. Meta Ads: an advertisement displayed on the results page of a search, specific to the
searched item. Meta ads are also referred to as keyword advertising.
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v. Classified Ads :
Another growing area for Internet advertisers are classified ad websites. They are similar to
newspaper classified ads. You can search for homes, cars, jobs, toys, shoes etc.
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vi. E-Mail Advertising: Advertisers can send e-mail advertising to customers who
have asked for it. it is the most effective form of internet advertising. These ads
contain attractive deals, offers, sale so that viewer get influence and visit on the link
provided with the email.
Outdoor Advertising: these ads were large in size, using bold letters, bright colors and big
pictures so that message can be easily received by moving public.
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PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISEMENT
These ads are released by different ministries and departments of Government of India. They
used to make the public aware about certain issue, service, programme, policy and provoke
action from the citizens. They contain lots of information regarding special features, what to do,
details and logo of the concerned ministry etc.
Today, radio has emerged as one of our major advertising media. It provides a very large
coverage of audience in urban and rural areas. Today, radio advertising is extremely popular
with both trade and industry as the demand exceeds the time. Radio advertising may be
described as „word of mouth advertising on a wide scale‟. The advertiser delivers the message
orally and not visually. It makes appeal to the ear and not to the eye with the effect that the
message is conveyed to the masses whether literate or illiterate.
Today television advertising is the best-selling media ever invented. It has a potential
advertising impact unmatched by any other media. It is a means of bringing actual
demonstration in the homes of the prospects and is therefore more effective media when
compared with radio. That is why the position of radio advertising has now being gradually
taken by television advertising.
Radio and television ads has been submitted in a form of CD.
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PRACTICAL NO. 3
Objective: To study the advertisement strategy of an organization
Name of the Organization: MPUAT, Udaipur
Date of visit: 23/03/2016
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology (MPUAT), Udaipur is an
agricultural university. For advertisement of any information in the printed media they have
given annual contract to Ankit Advertising Agency, Udaipur which is owned by Mr. Rajeev
Murdia. This contract was given after assessment of tenders submitted by different advertising
agencies. This agency deal with all the matters related to designing and publishing of the
newspaper ads of the university. All the advertisement related to job vacancy, recruitments,
admission, tender invitation, admission information and any other are designed and published
by Ankit advertiser in the newspaper which was suggested by the university. The respective
personnel of university send details of the advertising information to the agency and then
agency design the ads. These ads are then send to aforesaid newspaper. Ankit advertising
agency provides a discount of 13 per cent to the university on total cost of ads. For all these ads
university have to pay the cost as per the DPR (Daily periodic Rate) which is specified and
announced by government from time to time.
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PRACTICAL NO. 4
VISIT TO ADVERTISING AGENCY
To study the functioning and organizational set up of advertising agency
To get information about the different departments and their role and responsibility with
in the ad agency.
To acquaint with different services provided by an ad agency and strategies followed to
ensure its sustainability.
Date of visit: 16 April, 2016
Agency visited: Ankit advertiser
Address: Shop No. 003, Circle View Complex, near Sukhadiya Circle, New Fatahpura, Udaipur
Type of Agency: Proprietary based
Owner Name: Mr. Rajeev Murdia
Person interacted during visit: Mr. Rajeev Murdia
Software used for designing: Corel draw
Under the Ph.D. course program HECM 625 Advertising and Marketing Communication, a visit
to ad agency was conducted under the guidance to Dr. Snehlata Maheshwari, Professor, College
of Home Science, MPUAT, Udaipur. The agency visited was Ankit Advertising agency,
located near Sukhariya Circle, New Fatehpura in Udaipur city. The main purpose of visiting the
agency was to get a practical exposure and acquaint ourself with the structure of an ad agency,
its function and management, different departments/ divisions, their role and responsibility etc.
In the discussion with Rajeev Murdia, he told us about the company‟ background, its function
and services provided to clients. The Ankit advertiser have been running from last 27 years
(established in 1990) and since then, the company is providing multiple range of services to its
clients within Udaipur and outside the Udaipur (Jaipur, Jodhpur, Gujarat etc.) with great deal
of satisfaction. The agency take advertisement for different local and national newspapers such
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as Rajasthan Patrika, Danik Bhashkar, Rashtra doot Navjyoti, Pratha Kaal, Punjab Kesari, The
Economics Times, Times of India, The Hindu, Sandesh, Gujarat Samachar and many more and
is providing its services through it. The advertising agencies have annual contract with several
corporate companies, educational institutes and private businesses.
Process of Advertisement publishing
In order to publish the ad in newspaper, client first contact the advertising agency either face to
face, via telephone or e-mail. Client tells specification about the ad to be published, size of
advertisement and date of publishing and the newspaper in which the ad will be published.
Then advertising agency designs the ad as per given specification and send it to the client for
further correction and approval. After approval of the design, the client used to pay money for
the ad. The advertising agency sends the ad to respective newspaper with a release order.
Release order is a document which an advertising agency sends to the newspaper organization
with the design of ad, without R.O. newspaper will not publish the ad. R.O. contains
information regarding name of the client, size of ad, date and newspaper of publishing, rate of
advertisement and signature of the owner.
Organizational set up of Ankit advertising agency was very small. The agency had total five
personnel who are responsible for different activities. The different personnel of the agency
include – the owner, designer, accountant and two field staff. Designer was assigned with the
role of designing ads as per the client requirements like black and white or colour and in varying
size. He prepares the rough layout, also does the proof reading, grammatical correction, prepare
the caption etc. Field staff is responsible for providing the bills to the respective client and he is
also responsible for building and maintaining contact with the client‟s. The accountant is
responsible for maintaining proper accounts, billing and maintenance of register of dues from
the clients, verifying whether the advertisement in the different media actually appeared on the
days it was scheduled, if so whether correctly, and whether the text was properly printed and
also looking after all the routine matters relating to account keeping. The manager or the owner
has the overall administrative responsibility for the organization. He is responsible for establish
and maintain contact with the potential clients and the agencies as well as providing the good
working environment to the employee. He used to make strategies for retaining clients and
takes all crucial decision for the agency.
Shalini Pandey- 2016 Page 21
Functioning and services:-
The working hour of the agency was morning 10 to evening 6 for all other staff excluding owner.
The owner of the agency used to be in the office till 7:30 pm. Owner also used to receive ads
after working hours. Agency mainly provides services related to designing and ensure
publishing of newspaper ads. The owner of the company further acquainted us that the concept
of ad designing is same for every newspaper and mainly two aspects is most important in layout
of ad viz. size and placement.
Size- the cost of the ad depends on its size. Advertisement sizes vary from small (4* 3) to full
Appeal- the second factor is appeal, the design of an ad should attract the attention of a reader
at a single glance and the third factor is placement of ad in the newspaper, either it is placed in
front page, back, or in middle, or in classified.
Placement- The placement of the ad means where the ad has been kept on newspaper either
on first page or any other page.
Owner of the agency told, there are three major categories of newspaper ads:
i. Commercial ads: ads which are published with the news stories. Their cost is more
than the other ads. There is a dead line up to 4 o‟clock for national newspaper and upto 5
o‟clock for local newspaper if the ad has to publish next day.
ii. Ads in classified display: it includes all the advertisement that are to be published on
a specific page named “classified”. There is a dead line up to 5 o‟clock for national
newspaper and up to 6 o‟clock for local newspaper if the ad has to publish next day.
iii. Obituary ads: these ads include information related to death and death ceremony.
There was no specific deadline for receiving these types of ads.
Cost of publishing ads: The cost ads vary depending upon the newspaper to newspaper. The
cost for ads in Dainik Bhaskar cost were as follow
Commercial ads: Rs. 515 per square centimeter.
Ads in classified display: Rs. 227 per square centimeter + scheme of publishing 2 ads
free of cost with 2 ads. These ads can be published on different dates as per the client
Obituary ads: their cost was minimum i.e. Rs. 100 per square centimeter
Shalini Pandey- 2016 Page 22
The agency was designing different types of ad for different clients like commercial ads, ad for
corrigendum, tender notices, ad for obituary, ad for entertainment, institutional ads, ad for
electronic media and many more.
Other services offered by the agency includes:-
Ankit advertiser also design ads services for local TV channels like 24 hour channel,
Aradhna channel and sky channel.
For radio advertisement the ad company used to prepare jingles of short duration for the
FM radio channel.
The agency was not providing any services related to outdoor advertising.
Though the agency also used to design ads like radio jingles and TV ads but their demand was
less in the city and less number of clients who want such ads. Owner told us that radio jingle in
FM cost around Rs. 7 per second.
Financial Plan of agency
For each advertisement the agency used to receive a commission from the respective
newspaper. The commission of the agency was 15 per cent of total cost of the advertisement.
The owner told us that in order to retain its clients, agency also provide certain discount to its
client which vary from 2 – 13 per cent. There is a very tough competition in the market. There
are total 11 advertising agencies are in Udaipur. They used to retain customer by providing good
services, maintaining relations and providing discount. For example the agency was providing
13 per cent discount to our university from last eight years.
Designing tips for newspaper ads
Tips for designing of ads as given by Mr. Murdia were as follows:
It should have eye catchy caption.
It should have full product details.
It should not mislead the audience.
It should not contain any ambiguous information.
Further details of the product i.e. the last name, address, affiliation with logo, contact
information should be included in the ad.
Shalini Pandey- 2016 Page 23
Consideration for establishing a news advertising agency
The owner told us that if we want to establish a new advertising agency than we have to contact
the newspaper firm and they will give us certain target of covering some space. And on
completion of the target only they will provide commission to the agency. If the new agency
remains fail in fulfilling the target, then no commission will be given to new ad agency by
Visiting the advertising agency was very learning for us. We got lots of practical information
with the owner of the advertising agency Mr. Rajeev Murdia. He had a huge experience in this
field and had a very good nature. Studying theoretically about ad agency and practically visiting
the agency and seeing the functioning was a new experience for all of us. We came to know that
in the small ad agencies the roles and responsibilities are overlapping and there in not a formal
hierarchal structure. Advertising is a very creative as well as challenging field; we have to use
our imagination in a best possible way to deliver the quality product to the client. Also traits like
patience, good communication skills, simple nature, administrative capability, leadership, quick
decision making and adaptation with changes are essential skills which is required for better
management of an ad agency.
Shalini Pandey- 2016 Page 24
PRACTICAL NO. 4
To plan the strategies and cost of the campaign.
To design the ads for creating awareness through different media.
Topic: Anemia Awareness Camp
Client Group: Adolescent girls and rural women
Date of Campaing: From 25 May to 4 may, 2016
Locale of the campaign: Badgaon, Udaipur
Media used for campaign:
Mouth Publicity: for this organizer will contact with local leader and will inform them
about the campaign. Local leaders will include aaganwadi workers, school teacher, ANM
worker, gram pradhan and other panchayat members. Organizer with local leaders will
go door to door and try to make all families aware about the campaign.
Print Media: pamphlet containing information regarding the basic information related
to campaign will be distributed in the targeted area with the help of local newspaper
vendors to whom certain monetary amount will be paid for doing that.
Radio: A short jingle will be broadcasted on FM radio lake city for ten days, 5 times a
day so it will keep reminding the client group about the campaign.
Television: Due to the heavy cost of advertising, this media will not be used by
Cost Estimation for advertising
Item Rate Quantity Cost (in rupees)
Pamphlet 1/copy 1000*1 1000
Radio jingle 7/sec 7*40*5*10 14000
500/day 500*10 5000
Total Cost 20,000
Designed pamphlet is attached in the next page.