General Information 1) Define Revolve: The circling of a smaller object around a larger object. 2) Define Rotate: The spinning of an object on its axis. 3) How many planets have been found in our solar system?8 planets 4) Which planets are the inner planets? Mercury ,Venus ,Earth, Mars 5)Which planets are the outer planets?: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune 6) What is the difference between the inner and outer planets? The inner planets were bombarded by some asteroids and meteorites. The Outer planets have rings and they are large gaseous spheres. 7) Why are more craters found on the inner planets compared to the outer planets? Because the inner planets were bombarded by some asteroids and meteorites. 8) Define orbit: A specific path followed by a planet, satellite, etc.
General Information (Cont.) 9) What are three requirements to be considered a planet? There are 3 requirements to considered a planet, the planet has to orbit around the sun. It has to have enough mass to become round. It also have its own orbit path around the sun. 10)What is a dwarf planet? Dwarf planet is a new class of astronomical objects. 11)List 3 dwarf planets: Pluto, Ceres, and Eris.
Mercury Average Solar Distance:57.8 million km Revolution Period: 87.9 Earth days Rotation Period :58.6 Earth days Diameter:4878 km
Mercury (Cont) What causes Mercury’s atmosphere? Mercury has no substantial atmosphere. What two elements can be found in the atmosphere? Mercury’s atmosphere is made out with helium and sodium. What three processes shaped Mercury? Impact catering: some large objects struck the surface. Volcanism: the lava flooded the surface. Tectonic activity: when the planet’s crust move and collide each other.
Venus Average Solar Distance :108.2 million km Revolution Period :224.7 Earth days Rotation Period :243 Earth days Diameter :12,100 km
Venus (Cont) Why is Venus referred to as the “Evening Star”? It is because Venus is the brightest planet that can be seen from the earth. What two elements can be found in the atmosphere? Carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid. What is retrograde rotation? Rotation which is having a direction which is opposite that of similar bodies. Why is a day on Venus longer than a year on Venus? Because it rotate in retrograde rotation and rotation takes 243 days but the orbit around the sun takes 225 days. If you were standing on Venus, why would the Sun appear to rise in the west and set in the east? Venus has retrograde rotation which means it rotates in the opposite side from the earth. In addition, the sun rise in the west and set to the east side. Why is Venus the hottest planet in our solar system? There is greenhouse effect which traps the heat.
Earth Average Solar Distance: 152 million km Revolution Period:365.26 Earth days Rotation Period: 23.93 hours Diameter: 12,756 km
Earth (Cont) What elements make up our atmosphere? 21% Oxygen, 78% nitrogen 9% argon 0.1% water vapor, carbon dioxide, neon, methane, krypton, helium, xenon, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. What two things does our atmosphere protect us from? 1)Harmful solar radiation 2) meteors. What is the rotational tilt of the Earth? 23.5 degrees What produces the magnetic field on earth? The rapid spin of the earth and the liquid. Hot core. What is the satellite of the Earth? The Moon.
Mars Average Solar Distance: 228 million km Revolution Period: 686.98 Earth days Rotation Period: 24.6 hours Diameter:6786 km
Mars (Cont) What evidence do scientists have to life on Mars? Scientists found some pieces of meteorites of mars. What is the primary element of the atmosphere? Carbon dioxide Why does the planet appear to be red? There are the Martian surface and this surface is covered by rocks and soil which appears to be red. What is Olympus Mons? The largest volcanoes in the solar system. Over 600km wide and 26km high. What are the two satellites of Mars? Phobos and Deimos.
Jupiter Solar Distance: 778.3 million km Revolution Period:11.78 Earth years Rotation Period: 9 hours 55 minutes Diameter:143,000 km
Jupiter (Cont) How is the shape of Jupiter affected by the planets rotation? This causes the planets to flatten at the poles at the equator. What elements make up Jupiter’s atmosphere? Hydrogen, helium, sulfur and nitrogen. What is the Giant Red Spot? It is a hurricane-like storm in the southern hemisphere. How many know natural satellites does Jupiter have? About 63 What is interesting about Jupiter’s satellite Io? Io has the highest surface temperature.
Saturn Solar Distance: 1.429 billion km Revolution Period: 29.46 Earth years Rotation Period: 10 hours 40 minutes Diameter:120,660 km
Saturn (Cont) What elements make up Saturn’s atmosphere? Hydrogen and helium. What may have caused Saturn to have rings? The rings are made out of some particles from the satellites. What is the composition of the rings? Particles from the satellites. Why could Saturn float in water? Saturn has the lowest density in our solar system. How long do the seasons last on Saturn? Each season lasts more than seven Earth years.
Uranus Solar Distance: 2.871 billion km Revolution Period: 84.01 Earth years Rotation Period: 17 hours 14 minutes Diameter: 51,118
Uranus (Cont) What is different about Uranus’s rotation? Uranus is tilted 98 degrees and when we view from the earth, it appears to rotate on its side. What elements make up Uranus’s atmosphere? Hydrogen, helium and methane. How many known satellites does Uranus have? 27 natural satellites.
Neptune Solar Distance: 4.501 billion km Revolution Period: 164.79 Earth years Rotation Period: 16.11 hour Diameter:49,528 km
Neptune (Cont) What elements make up Neptune’s atmosphere? Ammonia, helium and methane. How many known satellites does Uranus have? 13 natural satellites. What is Triton? Explain how astronomers believe Triton became a satellite. Triton is the largest satellite. They believe Triton was captured by Neptune’s gravitational pull.
Pluto Average Solar Distance: 6 billion km Revolution Period: 248 Earth years Rotation Period: 6.4 Earth days Diameter:2400 km
Pluto (Cont) What are the names of Pluto’s three moons?Charon, Nix, and Hydra. What have scientists learned about Pluto by using a spectroscope? They have detected methane frost on Pluto and water frost on Charon. What is so unusual about Pluto’s moon Charon? Charon appears to be more blue in color than Pluto.
Ceres Solar Distance: 415 million km Revolution Period: 4.6 Earth years Rotation Period: 9.074 hours Diameter: 950 km
Ceres (Cont) How long is one revolution? 4.6 Earth years. Why was Ceres once considered an asteroid? Because some additional objects were also found to be orbiting in the same area. So Sir William Herschel labeled these are asteroids. What can be found on Ceres’ surface? There will be mixture of water ice, carbonates, and clays.
Eris Average Solar Distance: 10.12 billion km Revolution Period:557 Earth years Rotation Period: unknown Diameter:2400 km
Eris (Cont) What was Eris’ original name? Xena How long does it take Eris to orbit the sun? 557 Earth years. What is the name of Eris’ moon? Dysnomia Why is Eris not considered to be a planet? Because Eris didn’t not have enough requirements that the planets must have about its orbit.