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History of art

History of art






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    History of art History of art Presentation Transcript

    • GREEK ART  Known as the ancestors of Western civilization (Greeks)  Thought of the world in dualistic terms: fate vs. free will, order vs. chaos, reason vs. irrationality.
    • Geometric-Style Pottery  The Dipylon vase was used as funerary markers over burials.
    • “Kore and Kouros” (stone)
    • Vase Paintings (used in symposia)
    • “Women at a Fountain”
    • “Dancing Revelers”
    • The Classical Age  The Greeks were attacked by the Persians (Darius and Xerxes).  Extends from the end of Persian wars to the death of Alexander the Great.  Characterized by visual harmony and heightened naturalism in human form.
    • “Kritios Boy”  Calculated assymetry, standing at ease  Polished marble, sensuousness, indirect gaze  Representation of movement (hallmark)
    • “Zeus” (bronze)
    • “Discus Thrower” - Myron
    • “Spear Bearer” - Polykleitos  Harmony and beauty based on proportion  Contemplation of harmonious proportions is a contemplation of virtue.
    • “Aphrodite” - Praxiteles  Viewer's role changed, became more complex and invited physical and emotional engagement instead of merely respect.
    •  Portraiture emerged/ individual likeness.  The Hellenistic Period extended from the death of Alexander the Great until Roman rule.
    • ROMAN ART  Drew heavily on Greek art.  Featured “syncreticism”, an art that brings together diverse elements to produce something new with a powerful message- bearing potential.  Greek sculptures became symbols of wealth and status.  Gave rise to “historical relief”, which represented actual events.
    • “Brutus”
    •  Portrait sculptures were in the veristic style.  Made of stone and represented men at an advanced age with the distinguishing marks played up.
    • “Funerary Relief of the Gesii”
    •  Tombs were the focus of funerary rituals.  Stages for displaying feats to elevate family status.
    •  Painted portraits were attached the faces of embalmed mummies.  Wooden panels done in the encaustic technique.
    • “Augustus of Primaporta”  Octavian became the first Roman emperor.
    • Wall Paintings  Paint and stucco were used to imitate expensive colored marble paneling.  This technique is called “incrustation”.
    •  Architectural technique was used to suggest another world beyond the room.
    •  Relief sculpture was found in marble sarcophagi.  Biographical scenes and Greek mythology were popular subjects.  “Horror Vacuii”
    • RENAISSANCE  Interested in reviving the classical approach to art.  New emphasis on glorifying the human figure.  Artists were considered celebrities and geniuses, even divine.
    • “David” - Donatello
    • “Portrait of Ginevra de Benci” - Leonard da Vinci
    • “Embryo in a Womb” and “Vitruvian Man”
    • “David” by Michelangelo
    • “Awakening Prisoner”
    • BAROQUE  A style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance and grandeur.  Dynamic movement and energy in human forms.  Came from the word “barroco” which means contorted or grotesque.  Dramatic lighting and sweeping emotions.
    • “Self-Portrait” and “Medusa” - Caravaggio
    • “The Rape of Proserpina” - Bernini
    • “Santa Cecilia” - Stefano Maderno
    • “David” - Bernini
    • ROCOCO  Preference for gayer, lighter and more decorative effects in sculpture and arts.  Statues were created as pleasant ornaments.  Diversion from real life.
    • NEOCLASSICISM  Deliberate return to classical subject matter and style.  Focused on progress and improvement of life through science and knowledge.  Desire to control nature through science.  Rational and emotional survived side by side in art.  Aggressively rejected Rococo art.
    • “Andromache Bewailing the Death of Hector” - Gavin Hamilton
    • ROMANTICISM - The enlightenment seems to have failed. - Marked by social turmoil and poverty. - “Cult of the Invidual” (in art) - Not really a style but an attitude to follow one's genius.
    • “The Family of Charles IV” - Francisco Goya
    • “The Black Paintings” - Goya
    • “The Third of May 1808”
    • Realism and Impressionism  Realism depicted contemporary or modern life which was unembellished and unidealized.  Subjet matter included peasant life and urban poor. Impressionism was characterized by bold brushstrokes and strong colors. The sketchiness of the works reflects the impermanence of a changing contemporary world.
    • “Burial at Ornans” - Gustave Courbet
    • “The Stone Breakers” - Gustave Courbet Courbet wanted to create an art of the people, not the academy. For Courbet, contemporary social conditions were valid subjects for painting.
    • “Luncheon on the Grass” - Edouard Manet
    • “Olympia” - Edouard Manet
    • “Impression, Sunrise” - Claude Monet Impressionism has a sketchy unfinished look to express the feeling of the moment.
    • “A Bar at the Folies-Bergere” - Edouard Manet
    • SYMBOLISM AND ART NOVEAU - Coincides with the rise of psychology, which influenced key artists. - Decadenced and focused on personal aesthetic.
    • “The Potato Eaters” - Vincent Van Gogh
    • “Starry Night” - Vincent Van Gogh
    • “The Thinker” - Auguste Rodin
    • “The Walking Man” - Auguste Rodin
    • “Burghers of Calais” - Auguste Rodin
    • ABSTRACT/MODERNIST Fauvism was the first major style of the 20th century. Described as an “orgy of pure colors/wild beasts”. “Woman With a Hat” - Henri Matisse
    • Cubism presented a new of thinking about the purpose of art and the language of painting. It aimed to present a new way of seeing. “The Weeping Woman” - Pablo Picasso
    • “The Young Ladies of Avignon” - Pablo Picasso
    • What is art and how does art function? – Marcel Duchamp “Nude Descending a Staircase” - Marcel Duchamp
    • “Bicycle Wheel” - Marcel Duchamp
    • “The Newborn” and “Bird in Space” - Constantin Brancusi
    • The Fountain by Marcel Duchamp Dadaism “Logic and reason only led to war”. The movement was committed to challenging the status quo in politics as well in culture.
    • Surrealism Surrealism seeked to “express the true functioning of thought in the absence of control exerted by reason.” “Dreams are road to the unconscious.” (Sigmund Freud)
    • “The Lovers” - Rene Magritte
    • “The Persistence of Memory” - Salvador Dali
    • By Claes Oldenburg
    • “Untitled” - Kiki Smith
    • Source: Janson, H W, Penelope J. E. Davies, and H W. Janson. Janson's History of Art: The Western Tradition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.