History of art

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  • 1. GREEK ART  Known as the ancestors of Western civilization (Greeks)  Thought of the world in dualistic terms: fate vs. free will, order vs. chaos, reason vs. irrationality.
  • 2. Geometric-Style Pottery  The Dipylon vase was used as funerary markers over burials.
  • 3. “Kore and Kouros” (stone)
  • 4. Vase Paintings (used in symposia)
  • 5. “Women at a Fountain”
  • 6. “Dancing Revelers”
  • 7. The Classical Age  The Greeks were attacked by the Persians (Darius and Xerxes).  Extends from the end of Persian wars to the death of Alexander the Great.  Characterized by visual harmony and heightened naturalism in human form.
  • 8. “Kritios Boy”  Calculated assymetry, standing at ease  Polished marble, sensuousness, indirect gaze  Representation of movement (hallmark)
  • 9. “Zeus” (bronze)
  • 10. “Discus Thrower” - Myron
  • 11. “Spear Bearer” - Polykleitos  Harmony and beauty based on proportion  Contemplation of harmonious proportions is a contemplation of virtue.
  • 12. “Aphrodite” - Praxiteles  Viewer's role changed, became more complex and invited physical and emotional engagement instead of merely respect.
  • 13.  Portraiture emerged/ individual likeness.  The Hellenistic Period extended from the death of Alexander the Great until Roman rule.
  • 14. ROMAN ART  Drew heavily on Greek art.  Featured “syncreticism”, an art that brings together diverse elements to produce something new with a powerful message- bearing potential.  Greek sculptures became symbols of wealth and status.  Gave rise to “historical relief”, which represented actual events.
  • 15. “Brutus”
  • 16.  Portrait sculptures were in the veristic style.  Made of stone and represented men at an advanced age with the distinguishing marks played up.
  • 17. “Funerary Relief of the Gesii”
  • 18.  Tombs were the focus of funerary rituals.  Stages for displaying feats to elevate family status.
  • 19.  Painted portraits were attached the faces of embalmed mummies.  Wooden panels done in the encaustic technique.
  • 20. “Augustus of Primaporta”  Octavian became the first Roman emperor.
  • 21. Wall Paintings  Paint and stucco were used to imitate expensive colored marble paneling.  This technique is called “incrustation”.
  • 22.  Architectural technique was used to suggest another world beyond the room.
  • 23.  Relief sculpture was found in marble sarcophagi.  Biographical scenes and Greek mythology were popular subjects.  “Horror Vacuii”
  • 24. RENAISSANCE  Interested in reviving the classical approach to art.  New emphasis on glorifying the human figure.  Artists were considered celebrities and geniuses, even divine.
  • 25. “David” - Donatello
  • 26. “Portrait of Ginevra de Benci” - Leonard da Vinci
  • 27. “Embryo in a Womb” and “Vitruvian Man”
  • 28. “David” by Michelangelo
  • 29. “Awakening Prisoner”
  • 30. BAROQUE  A style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance and grandeur.  Dynamic movement and energy in human forms.  Came from the word “barroco” which means contorted or grotesque.  Dramatic lighting and sweeping emotions.
  • 31. “Self-Portrait” and “Medusa” - Caravaggio
  • 32. “The Rape of Proserpina” - Bernini
  • 33. “Santa Cecilia” - Stefano Maderno
  • 34. “David” - Bernini
  • 35. ROCOCO  Preference for gayer, lighter and more decorative effects in sculpture and arts.  Statues were created as pleasant ornaments.  Diversion from real life.
  • 36. NEOCLASSICISM  Deliberate return to classical subject matter and style.  Focused on progress and improvement of life through science and knowledge.  Desire to control nature through science.  Rational and emotional survived side by side in art.  Aggressively rejected Rococo art.
  • 37. “Andromache Bewailing the Death of Hector” - Gavin Hamilton
  • 38. ROMANTICISM - The enlightenment seems to have failed. - Marked by social turmoil and poverty. - “Cult of the Invidual” (in art) - Not really a style but an attitude to follow one's genius.
  • 39. “The Family of Charles IV” - Francisco Goya
  • 40. “The Black Paintings” - Goya
  • 41. “The Third of May 1808”
  • 42. Realism and Impressionism  Realism depicted contemporary or modern life which was unembellished and unidealized.  Subjet matter included peasant life and urban poor. Impressionism was characterized by bold brushstrokes and strong colors. The sketchiness of the works reflects the impermanence of a changing contemporary world.
  • 43. “Burial at Ornans” - Gustave Courbet
  • 44. “The Stone Breakers” - Gustave Courbet Courbet wanted to create an art of the people, not the academy. For Courbet, contemporary social conditions were valid subjects for painting.
  • 45. “Luncheon on the Grass” - Edouard Manet
  • 46. “Olympia” - Edouard Manet
  • 47. “Impression, Sunrise” - Claude Monet Impressionism has a sketchy unfinished look to express the feeling of the moment.
  • 48. “A Bar at the Folies-Bergere” - Edouard Manet
  • 49. SYMBOLISM AND ART NOVEAU - Coincides with the rise of psychology, which influenced key artists. - Decadenced and focused on personal aesthetic.
  • 50. “The Potato Eaters” - Vincent Van Gogh
  • 51. “Starry Night” - Vincent Van Gogh
  • 52. “The Thinker” - Auguste Rodin
  • 53. “The Walking Man” - Auguste Rodin
  • 54. “Burghers of Calais” - Auguste Rodin
  • 55. ABSTRACT/MODERNIST Fauvism was the first major style of the 20th century. Described as an “orgy of pure colors/wild beasts”. “Woman With a Hat” - Henri Matisse
  • 56. Cubism presented a new of thinking about the purpose of art and the language of painting. It aimed to present a new way of seeing. “The Weeping Woman” - Pablo Picasso
  • 57. “The Young Ladies of Avignon” - Pablo Picasso
  • 58. What is art and how does art function? – Marcel Duchamp “Nude Descending a Staircase” - Marcel Duchamp
  • 59. “Bicycle Wheel” - Marcel Duchamp
  • 60. “The Newborn” and “Bird in Space” - Constantin Brancusi
  • 61. The Fountain by Marcel Duchamp Dadaism “Logic and reason only led to war”. The movement was committed to challenging the status quo in politics as well in culture.
  • 62. Surrealism Surrealism seeked to “express the true functioning of thought in the absence of control exerted by reason.” “Dreams are road to the unconscious.” (Sigmund Freud)
  • 63. “The Lovers” - Rene Magritte
  • 64. “The Persistence of Memory” - Salvador Dali
  • 65. By Claes Oldenburg
  • 66. “Untitled” - Kiki Smith
  • 67. Source: Janson, H W, Penelope J. E. Davies, and H W. Janson. Janson's History of Art: The Western Tradition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011. Print.