INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS ESSENTIAL INFORMATION  ABOUT COMPUTERS
WHAT DOES A COMPUTER DO? <ul><li>Performs four basic operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pr...
INFORMATION PROCESSING <ul><li>Putting data in useable form is INFORMATION PROCESSING  </li></ul><ul><li>The system or gro...
1 ST  STEP  ---  INPUT <ul><li>Data to be processed or RAW DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data written on forms is known as SO...
2 ND  STEP  ----  PROCESSING <ul><li>Calculating arithmetic, making comparisons (graphs & charts), sorting in desired orde...
3 rd  STEP --- OUTPUT <ul><li>Information displayed to the user on the monitor or paper </li></ul><ul><li>Output can be st...
COMPUTER HARDWARE <ul><li>Equipment that makes up the computer hardware fit into five categories:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I...
FIVE CATEGORIES INPUT  DEVICES OUTPUT  DEVICES AUXILIARY  STORAGE MAIN MEMORY PROCESSOR
INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>Used to feed data into the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard – most common </li></ul></ul><ul>...
THE SYSTEM UNIT <ul><li>Computer system unit that receives and carries out the series of instructions known as a PROGRAM <...
MAIN MEMORY  <ul><li>Data/instructions processed by a computer do not remain on the processor “chip”. </li></ul><ul><li>Da...
MAIN MEMORY CONT’D <ul><li>Data/instructions are stored as electronic impulses in specific locations in memory.  </li></ul...
MAIN MEMORY CONT’D <ul><li>RAM  (Random Access Memory) is used as temporary storage while processing is done </li></ul><ul...
STORAGE DEVICES <ul><li>Auxiliary storage devices hold data outside the memory of the computer as long as the user needs. ...
OUTPUT DEVICES <ul><li>A computer MUST have at least one output device </li></ul><ul><li>It records, prints, or displays i...
SYSTEM SOFTWARE <ul><li>Hardware  is the physical equipment parts of the computer.  </li></ul><ul><li>There are steps to f...
OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE <ul><li>Consists of programs necessary to keep the hardware functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>It se...
UTILITY SOFTWARE <ul><li>A  Utility program  is a program that performs routine jobs.  </li></ul><ul><li>Usually part of t...
APPLICATION SOFTWARE <ul><li>Programs designed to solve specific problems for the user.  </li></ul><ul><li>Application sof...
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The Computer System2007

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Primarily used for Business Computer Applications classes for introduction to the computer system

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The Computer System2007

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS ESSENTIAL INFORMATION ABOUT COMPUTERS
  2. 2. WHAT DOES A COMPUTER DO? <ul><li>Performs four basic operations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These operations comprise the INFORMATION PROCESSING CYCLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing data into useable information and storing it for future use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All computer processing requires data. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA is a collection of unprocessed items </li></ul>
  3. 3. INFORMATION PROCESSING <ul><li>Putting data in useable form is INFORMATION PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>The system or group of devices and procedures that changes data into a useable form is called an INFORMATION SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Data that enters the system is known as INPUT </li></ul><ul><li>Data in useful information that leaves the system is known as OUTPUT or processed information </li></ul><ul><li>Steps set up to make sure everything that should be done to the data is called PROCESSING </li></ul>PROCESSING INPUT OUTPUT
  4. 4. 1 ST STEP --- INPUT <ul><li>Data to be processed or RAW DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data written on forms is known as SOURCE DOCUMENTS </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2 ND STEP ---- PROCESSING <ul><li>Calculating arithmetic, making comparisons (graphs & charts), sorting in desired order </li></ul><ul><li>Each step toward the desired result MUST be completed in a specific and correct order or desired results will not occur </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3 rd STEP --- OUTPUT <ul><li>Information displayed to the user on the monitor or paper </li></ul><ul><li>Output can be stored on a storage device such as a diskette </li></ul>
  7. 7. COMPUTER HARDWARE <ul><li>Equipment that makes up the computer hardware fit into five categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INPUT DEVICES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESSOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUXILIARY STORAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAIN MEMORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OUTPUT DEVICES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setup remains same regardless of computer size </li></ul>
  8. 8. FIVE CATEGORIES INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES AUXILIARY STORAGE MAIN MEMORY PROCESSOR
  9. 9. INPUT DEVICES <ul><li>Used to feed data into the computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard – most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse – selects, moves or draws items on screen </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. THE SYSTEM UNIT <ul><li>Computer system unit that receives and carries out the series of instructions known as a PROGRAM </li></ul><ul><li>The MOTHERBOARD, sometimes called the system board, is the main circuit board of the system unit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The processor, memory and expansion slots are some of the electronic components that are attached to the motherboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sound card and video card are adapter cards that enhance the system with add-on products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All systems regardless of size have a PROCESSOR or CPU -central processing unit </li></ul><ul><li>Processing circuits are in one piece known as an integrated circuit “chip”. </li></ul><ul><li>Other “chips” support the work of the processor chip in a variety of ways. </li></ul>
  11. 11. MAIN MEMORY <ul><li>Data/instructions processed by a computer do not remain on the processor “chip”. </li></ul><ul><li>Data/instructions are stored in memory chips. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory consists of “chips” on a memory module that fits in a slot on the motherboard </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of memory chips make up main memory or main storage . </li></ul><ul><li>Data being processed spends most of its time in memory. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MAIN MEMORY CONT’D <ul><li>Data/instructions are stored as electronic impulses in specific locations in memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is like a post office with mail boxes </li></ul><ul><li>These mailboxes have a number known as its NUMERIC ADDRESS. </li></ul><ul><li>A memory chip may be either RAM or ROM memory. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MAIN MEMORY CONT’D <ul><li>RAM (Random Access Memory) is used as temporary storage while processing is done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This memory is “volatile” --- its contents are lost when the computer is turned off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of RAM is measured in units called “bytes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One byte is amount of memory to store one character – typically in “kilo” (1,000), “mega” (million), or “giga”(billion) – 512Mg represents 512 million characters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ROM (Read only memory) holds data permanently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ nonvolatile” – its contents are not lost when the computer is turned off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores instructions to start computer and since it is “Read-Only” new information cannot be added to this type of memory </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. STORAGE DEVICES <ul><li>Auxiliary storage devices hold data outside the memory of the computer as long as the user needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Four common types of storage devices are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic disks (two types – floppy and hard disks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical discs – CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD – written on and read by a laser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape – primarily used for long-term storage and backup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miniature mobile storage media (USB flash drives) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disks have to be FORMATTED (dividing the disk into “tracks” and “sectors” so the computer can locate the information on the disk) </li></ul><ul><li>A diskette is made of flexible, magnetic plastic and frequently referred to as a “floppy”. The diskette is 3.5” and holds 1.44Mg of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently CD’s have become a storage device for new computers that have CD “burners” which records or “burns” data onto round, 4.5” disks that hold 600Mg or more of data. </li></ul>
  15. 15. OUTPUT DEVICES <ul><li>A computer MUST have at least one output device </li></ul><ul><li>It records, prints, or displays information into useable form. </li></ul><ul><li>The most frequently used output devices are the Video Display or Monitor and the Printer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inkjet printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of printers determined by number of ppm – pages per minute </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. SYSTEM SOFTWARE <ul><li>Hardware is the physical equipment parts of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>There are steps to follow to process data entered into a computer. These steps are known as a Program . </li></ul><ul><li>Programs in general are known as Software . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control the operations of computer equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are 3 basic categories of software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE <ul><li>Consists of programs necessary to keep the hardware functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>It sets up and maintains communication between the processor, auxiliary storage, input devices, and output devices. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls copying of data and feeds data to the processor </li></ul><ul><li>When computer is turned on, the operating system is loaded from the auxiliary storage. This process is called “BOOTING” </li></ul><ul><li>Most operating systems have GUI (graphical user interface) or icon symbols to help user. </li></ul>
  18. 18. UTILITY SOFTWARE <ul><li>A Utility program is a program that performs routine jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually part of the system’s software, but can be bought separately with additional capabilities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall software and Virus Protection software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norton’s Disk Doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scandisk and Defragmenter (part of the system that is used frequently to “clean” the hard drive and fix errors) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. APPLICATION SOFTWARE <ul><li>Programs designed to solve specific problems for the user. </li></ul><ul><li>Application software are available for almost any task imaginable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerized banking (Quicken, QuickBooks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processing, spreadsheet, database programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphing programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DeskTop Publishing programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated software combines several of these into one program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Office Suite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corel WordPerfect Suite </li></ul></ul>

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