Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures
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Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures

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Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures Presentation Transcript

  • Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures: An OverviewShimrit Perkol-Finkel, PhD Ido Sella, MSc August 2012 shimrit@searc-consulting.com
  • Coastal waters support the richest most divers ecosystems naturallykim.com Photo: Jonathan Wilker,Photo: Tim Laman Purdue University
  • Coastal zones occupy less than 15% of Earths land surface but they house more than 60% of the worlds populationEarth at night: Mayhew & R. Simmon (NASA/GSFC), NOAA/ NGDC, DMSP Digital Archive
  • Coastal populations and shoreline degradation Over 22,000 km2 of European coastlines are “artificialized”
  • Natural coastlines replaced by Coastal & Marine Infrastructures Transportation Energy Industry Urbanization
  • Environmental Impacts of coastal developmentMarine Pollution• Marine sources (vessels, platforms)• Terrestrial sources (sewage, runoff, solid waste)• Urban marine structures as waste traps Ashdod Port, Israel
  • Environmental Impacts of coastal developmentInvasive Species Main vectors: Impacts:  Ballast water  Changes in species assemblages  Biofouling  Habitat modification  Aquaculture  Nuisance  Pests  Financial cost Wiki.orgDreissena polymorpha www.daff.gov.au Sea Grant
  • Environmental Impacts of coastal developmentHabitat loss Harlem swamp Harlem 1820 Harlem 2010 Pre settlement
  • Problem:Coastal infrastructures create severe stress on natural ecosystems Habitat loss Reduced biodiversity Invasive speciesCoastal Challenge:Bridging Development and SustainabilitySolution: Decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures
  • Strategies for decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures:Environmental Compensation:A governmental management tool aimed at compensating foranthropogenic damage to an environmental resource or serviceApplied in several countries (US, Germany, NZ, Brazil)Policies differ from country to country, e.g.;Monetary compensation – donating >0.5 % of project cost to environmental NGOsService/Resource compensation (Ecological currency)Restore/rehabilitate habitats instead of the one damaged/lost https://www.soils.org/membership/compensation-survey
  • Strategies for decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures:Ecological Engineering:Combining science, design, and engineering for creating sustainable ecosystemsthat integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both(Mitsch 96)Advantages: Coastal defense Ecosystem services Creation of natural habitats Accessibility Living shorelines Hybrid structures http://www.wetlands.org Shoreline Design LLC
  • Strategies for decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures: > 100 km breakwaters Sustainable management of urban > 60 km seawalls marine structures > 40 km of jetties (MarUrbe EU – FP7-PEOPLE-2007-2-1-IEF-219818) Using infrastructures as a scaffold for enhancement of species with conservation value Canopy forming algae Cystoseira spp. Perkol-Finkel et. al., 2010 12 10Size (cm) of juveniles 8 6 4 Natural 2 Transplanted 0 Jul. 08 Sep. 08 Oct. 08 Feb. 09
  • Urban Marine Environments - Cities do not end at the waterline… Urban marine environments are an integral part of urban nature BUT…Coastal and marine infrastructures do not function as natural habitats
  • Ecological Design???Main problems with current coastal & marine infrastructures:Design & Material:Vertical reliefLow complexityHomogeneitySurface chemistry
  • Environmentally Active InfrastructuresTropical reef environment - Red SeaHarnessing an active jetty for enhancement of corals, filter feeders & fish
  • Environmentally Active InfrastructuresTropical reef environment - Red SeaHarnessing an active jetty for enhancement of corals, filter feeders & fish
  • Environmentally Active InfrastructuresDesigning the Edge Harlem River, USAMarcha Johnson, NYC Parks Department
  • Environmentally Active InfrastructuresSeattle WaterfrontJason Toft & JC Field Operations“A mosaic of sloped surfaces and textures integrated into seawall designs may provide benefits tothe largest range of algae and invertebrates, increasing taxa richness, and food web resilience”(Goff, 2010)
  • Environmentally Active InfrastructuresIncreasing biodiversity with no reduction to structural integrity
  • Biology and Concrete Poor substrate for biological recruitment:  Alkalinity  Toxicity  Smoothness Commonly associated with nuisance and invasive species Seawall with invasive zebra mussel 20 y old sinker in a coral reef environment www.flickr.com/photos/chriss
  • The Next Step: Ecologically Active Construction ElementsSupporting biological productivity and ecological efficiency whilecomplying with requirements of standard marine construction Composition Surface texture Macro-design img8.imageshack.us www.stripes.com
  • Advantages of Ecologically Active Construction ElementsEnhanced biogenic build-upStructural advantages: Bioprotection• Strength and durability• Reduced corrosion• Absorption of wave energy• Reduce maintenanceBiological advantages:• Biological niches• Ecosystem services• Water quality (filter feeders)• Reduce ratio between NIS/native species• Esthetics exeter.ac.uk/bioprotection/
  • The Next Step: Ecologically Active Construction ElementsSurface texture Coombes 2011
  • The Next Step: Ecologically Active Construction ElementsConcrete Composition Settlement of Bugula neritina on various concrete matrices 25 20 % Settlement 15 10 5 0 M1 M2 M3 M4 Portland P< 0.01 Cement
  • Riprap Habitats in the Med SeaTexture, Design & Composition
  • Assessing ECOncreteTM matrices in different marine environments Great lakes Alpenashipwrecktours.com Mediterranean sea Atlantic Ocean Red sea In collaboration with: Google earth lostreefadventures.com
  • Assessing ECOncreteTM matrices in different marine environments Mechanical testing - Field examination - Lab experiments
  • Assessing ECOncreteTM matrices in different marine environments
  • Making coastal infrastructures biologically and ecologically active withoutcompromising their original function
  • ECOncreteTM Ecological Armor Units
  • ECOncreteTM Ecological Armor Units
  • ECOncreteTM Active Seawalls
  • ECOncreteTM Riprap Habitats
  • Biologically active ECOncreteTM wall, Eco-Tower, Tel-Aviv, Israel 2011
  • Versatility, scalability & applicabilityAny infrastructure both new and existing can be enhanced Transportation  Industry  Urbanization  TourismModular pre-cast unitsApplicable world-wide especially in light of: Global warming  Sea level rise  Increased storminess
  • Summary: Ecologically Active Infrastructures Scientists, engineers, landscape architects and policy makers need to worktogether from conception to construction and monitoring Enhancement of existing infrastructures using “add-ons” Proper design of new infrastructures: Material, Texture, Complexity Further research: from material to biology Promote legislation (“LEED” in the sea)Atlas of Possibility for the Future of New York SeArc & dlandStudio
  • Ecological Design??? Growing Awareness
  • Thank you! www.searc-consulting.comShimrit@searc-consulting.com Ido@searc-consulting.com