Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures

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Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures

  1. 1. Ecological Enhancement of Coastal and Marine Infrastructures: An OverviewShimrit Perkol-Finkel, PhD Ido Sella, MSc August 2012 shimrit@searc-consulting.com
  2. 2. Coastal waters support the richest most divers ecosystems naturallykim.com Photo: Jonathan Wilker,Photo: Tim Laman Purdue University
  3. 3. Coastal zones occupy less than 15% of Earths land surface but they house more than 60% of the worlds populationEarth at night: Mayhew & R. Simmon (NASA/GSFC), NOAA/ NGDC, DMSP Digital Archive
  4. 4. Coastal populations and shoreline degradation Over 22,000 km2 of European coastlines are “artificialized”
  5. 5. Natural coastlines replaced by Coastal & Marine Infrastructures Transportation Energy Industry Urbanization
  6. 6. Environmental Impacts of coastal developmentMarine Pollution• Marine sources (vessels, platforms)• Terrestrial sources (sewage, runoff, solid waste)• Urban marine structures as waste traps Ashdod Port, Israel
  7. 7. Environmental Impacts of coastal developmentInvasive Species Main vectors: Impacts:  Ballast water  Changes in species assemblages  Biofouling  Habitat modification  Aquaculture  Nuisance  Pests  Financial cost Wiki.orgDreissena polymorpha www.daff.gov.au Sea Grant
  8. 8. Environmental Impacts of coastal developmentHabitat loss Harlem swamp Harlem 1820 Harlem 2010 Pre settlement
  9. 9. Problem:Coastal infrastructures create severe stress on natural ecosystems Habitat loss Reduced biodiversity Invasive speciesCoastal Challenge:Bridging Development and SustainabilitySolution: Decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures
  10. 10. Strategies for decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures:Environmental Compensation:A governmental management tool aimed at compensating foranthropogenic damage to an environmental resource or serviceApplied in several countries (US, Germany, NZ, Brazil)Policies differ from country to country, e.g.;Monetary compensation – donating >0.5 % of project cost to environmental NGOsService/Resource compensation (Ecological currency)Restore/rehabilitate habitats instead of the one damaged/lost https://www.soils.org/membership/compensation-survey
  11. 11. Strategies for decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures:Ecological Engineering:Combining science, design, and engineering for creating sustainable ecosystemsthat integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both(Mitsch 96)Advantages: Coastal defense Ecosystem services Creation of natural habitats Accessibility Living shorelines Hybrid structures http://www.wetlands.org Shoreline Design LLC
  12. 12. Strategies for decreasing the ecological footprint of coastal & marine infrastructures: > 100 km breakwaters Sustainable management of urban > 60 km seawalls marine structures > 40 km of jetties (MarUrbe EU – FP7-PEOPLE-2007-2-1-IEF-219818) Using infrastructures as a scaffold for enhancement of species with conservation value Canopy forming algae Cystoseira spp. Perkol-Finkel et. al., 2010 12 10Size (cm) of juveniles 8 6 4 Natural 2 Transplanted 0 Jul. 08 Sep. 08 Oct. 08 Feb. 09
  13. 13. Urban Marine Environments - Cities do not end at the waterline… Urban marine environments are an integral part of urban nature BUT…Coastal and marine infrastructures do not function as natural habitats
  14. 14. Ecological Design???Main problems with current coastal & marine infrastructures:Design & Material:Vertical reliefLow complexityHomogeneitySurface chemistry
  15. 15. Environmentally Active InfrastructuresTropical reef environment - Red SeaHarnessing an active jetty for enhancement of corals, filter feeders & fish
  16. 16. Environmentally Active InfrastructuresTropical reef environment - Red SeaHarnessing an active jetty for enhancement of corals, filter feeders & fish
  17. 17. Environmentally Active InfrastructuresDesigning the Edge Harlem River, USAMarcha Johnson, NYC Parks Department
  18. 18. Environmentally Active InfrastructuresSeattle WaterfrontJason Toft & JC Field Operations“A mosaic of sloped surfaces and textures integrated into seawall designs may provide benefits tothe largest range of algae and invertebrates, increasing taxa richness, and food web resilience”(Goff, 2010)
  19. 19. Environmentally Active InfrastructuresIncreasing biodiversity with no reduction to structural integrity
  20. 20. Biology and Concrete Poor substrate for biological recruitment:  Alkalinity  Toxicity  Smoothness Commonly associated with nuisance and invasive species Seawall with invasive zebra mussel 20 y old sinker in a coral reef environment www.flickr.com/photos/chriss
  21. 21. The Next Step: Ecologically Active Construction ElementsSupporting biological productivity and ecological efficiency whilecomplying with requirements of standard marine construction Composition Surface texture Macro-design img8.imageshack.us www.stripes.com
  22. 22. Advantages of Ecologically Active Construction ElementsEnhanced biogenic build-upStructural advantages: Bioprotection• Strength and durability• Reduced corrosion• Absorption of wave energy• Reduce maintenanceBiological advantages:• Biological niches• Ecosystem services• Water quality (filter feeders)• Reduce ratio between NIS/native species• Esthetics exeter.ac.uk/bioprotection/
  23. 23. The Next Step: Ecologically Active Construction ElementsSurface texture Coombes 2011
  24. 24. The Next Step: Ecologically Active Construction ElementsConcrete Composition Settlement of Bugula neritina on various concrete matrices 25 20 % Settlement 15 10 5 0 M1 M2 M3 M4 Portland P< 0.01 Cement
  25. 25. Riprap Habitats in the Med SeaTexture, Design & Composition
  26. 26. Assessing ECOncreteTM matrices in different marine environments Great lakes Alpenashipwrecktours.com Mediterranean sea Atlantic Ocean Red sea In collaboration with: Google earth lostreefadventures.com
  27. 27. Assessing ECOncreteTM matrices in different marine environments Mechanical testing - Field examination - Lab experiments
  28. 28. Assessing ECOncreteTM matrices in different marine environments
  29. 29. Making coastal infrastructures biologically and ecologically active withoutcompromising their original function
  30. 30. ECOncreteTM Ecological Armor Units
  31. 31. ECOncreteTM Ecological Armor Units
  32. 32. ECOncreteTM Active Seawalls
  33. 33. ECOncreteTM Riprap Habitats
  34. 34. Biologically active ECOncreteTM wall, Eco-Tower, Tel-Aviv, Israel 2011
  35. 35. Versatility, scalability & applicabilityAny infrastructure both new and existing can be enhanced Transportation  Industry  Urbanization  TourismModular pre-cast unitsApplicable world-wide especially in light of: Global warming  Sea level rise  Increased storminess
  36. 36. Summary: Ecologically Active Infrastructures Scientists, engineers, landscape architects and policy makers need to worktogether from conception to construction and monitoring Enhancement of existing infrastructures using “add-ons” Proper design of new infrastructures: Material, Texture, Complexity Further research: from material to biology Promote legislation (“LEED” in the sea)Atlas of Possibility for the Future of New York SeArc & dlandStudio
  37. 37. Ecological Design??? Growing Awareness
  38. 38. Thank you! www.searc-consulting.comShimrit@searc-consulting.com Ido@searc-consulting.com

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