The introduction of coastalinfrastructure as a driver ofchange in marine environmentsBy Fabio Bulleri and Maura G. ChapmanPresented by:Xianbin Liu and Laura FidalgoCourse: Coastal Environment – CIAM 6117Department of Environmental ScienceUniversidad de Puerto Rico, Rio PiedrasThursday, September 27, 2012
Introduction Problem – Diffident ecological – Human settlement near shore impact studies (75% by 2025) – Major tourism destination – Impacted coastal landscape – Alteration of intertidal zone and nearshore estuaries and marine waters habitat Homogeneous topography affects species interactions Unnatural Material affect colonization Fragmentation
Introduction Objectives – Summarize the ecological impact of urban infrastructure on marine habitat know today – Discuss the implication of alternative coastal defense options – Identify the direction of future research
Urban Coastal Infrastructure Breakwaters – Reduce the intensity of waves in inshore waters – Decreases nutrients input and waste wash off – Changes marine life distribution
Management Alternative Incorporating into shoreline stabilization natural elements: – Wetland Vegetation – Seagrasses – Coarse Woody Debris – Shellﬁsh Reefs – Coral Reefs Reduces ecological impacts without impinging on their efficacy in halting erosion.
Urban Coastal Infrastructure Groynes – Reduce along-shore transport of sediments
Management Alternative Small size groynes are less detrimental to shore sediment movement. Sand dunes – Protect beaches from erosion and recruit sand to eroded beaches.
Management Alternative Better collaboration among engineers, managers and ecologists to develop improved ways of building infrastructure. Provide habitat for more species without compromising engineering standards.
Urban Coastal Infrastructure Seawalls Bulkheads – Reduces the impact of waves on shore – Does not support natural communities assemblages – Increases steepness of shore – Deeper nearshore waters
Management Alternative (a) Intertidal ‘rock- pools’ constructed in the vertical face of a seawall in Sydney Harbour (Australia). Mitigates effects of loss or degradation of rocky platforms on intertidal biodiversity. (b) Rock-pool retaining water during low tide.
Urban Coastal Infrastructure Pilings – Sustain infrastructure, such as bridges, piers, docks – Shading and seafloor proximity affects communities assemblages (Glasby, 1999)
Management Alternative Height, orientation, and width of docks, piers, and bridges may reduce impact to vegetation productivity (Shaefer, D. and J. ( Lundin, 1999).
Urban Coastal Infrastructure Ropes-poles/cages- nets – Constituents of aquaculture facilities – Marine water pollution
Management Alternative Onshore fish farms are the most sustainable types of aquaculture. – the self-contained systems do not pollute the marine environment.
Future directions forresearch How fundamental ecological processes are affected Ecological interaction on artificial structures Ecological engineering
Concluding remarks Urban marine novel ecosystem need a closer understanding – Sustaining biodiversity – Successful conservation and management – Mitigate human coastal development and climate change effects
Reference Curran, C. and D. Hoskins. 2006. Assessing the Impacts of Floating Docks on Bottom Character and Benthic Productivity in Coastal Georgia. Kunkel, C. M., R. W. Hallberg, and M. Oppenheimer. 2006. Coral reefs reduce tsunami impact in model simulations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23612, doi:10.1029/2006GL027892. The University of Sidney wed site: http://sydney.edu.au/science/bio/eicc/publications/journal Shaefer, D. and J. Lundin. 1999. Design and Construction of Docks to Minimize Seagrass Impacts. US Army Corps of Engineers WRP Technical Note VN–RS–3.1 June 1999.