Seatrains for the Marine Highway:The Spectrum of Configurations, Operations            and Performance             William...
Outline•   The train idea is widely applied•   Used on inland waterways•   Would work on coastal marine highways too•   La...
Here’s the general idea:a ship composed of segments that can beadded on or dropped off as necessary.
Earlytrains
Modern railroad trains
Trucktrains
So what does a train do for us? •   Power/crew unit + unmanned cargo units •   Acquire units as needed •   Assemble only u...
The train idea works on water too • Most tons moved relative to power applied • Barge trains evolved • But ... on protecte...
What aboutunprotected coastal waters?Our coastal marine highways are where  – Major ports are  – Ocean freight must be tra...
Open waters arechallenging, barge trains are     • Waves can move hullsavoided                            wildly        ca...
• Operable in open ocean – tug  Articulated       locked in place in a notchtug/barge (ATB)   • Numerous train-like attrib...
Our evolving    marine freight transport system•   Steadily rising ocean trade•   Steadily larger ships, fewer ports able ...
We have those ports                                    • Present ports too few                                      and fa...
http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/USA.php
Seatrain characteristics•   Power and crew in a tug/pusher unit•   A number of unmanned cargo units•   Reduced draft, beam...
Seatrain technology• Builds on ATB technology & experience   – Connectors   – Operations• All basic ship types/configurati...
Seasnake (by Seasnake LLC)                                     • Extensively engineered &                                 ...
SeaTrain SES (surface effect ship)by Keck Technologies LLC• High-speed design for   • High-value time-sensitive goods   • ...
4,000 tons Ro-Ro cargoSeaTrain SES         5,000 nm at 43 kts in Seastate 4High-Speed SeaLift   16 ft draft off-cushion   ...
Connecting complete ships             • Small ships linked to get big-               ship powering & seakeeping           ...
The British ship “Connector ”built by the Jointed Ship Company in 1858            From the Illustrated London News, August...
Seatrain benefits•   A huge range of locations become accessible•   Smaller local land-side impacts•   Reduced crew in pow...
To Albany            Seatrains in             New York              Harbor
Deciding about a seatrain• Every transport service is unique; but seatrains  offer adaptability to match a broad range of ...
Conclusions• The train approach is widely applied• Seatrains can be a  practical, efficient, economical coastal marine  hi...
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Seatrains for Marine Highway

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Seatrains for Marine Highway

  1. 1. Seatrains for the Marine Highway:The Spectrum of Configurations, Operations and Performance William A. Hockberger Independent Consultant Marine Systems PlanningTransportation Research Board Annual MeetingSession 381: New Technologies for the Marine Highway 14 January 2013 – Washington, DC
  2. 2. Outline• The train idea is widely applied• Used on inland waterways• Would work on coastal marine highways too• Large ship capability with small ship virtues• Part of solution of coastal freight problems• Technology feasible and available• Total-system simulation & business case analysis• Highly beneficial for many aspects of economy
  3. 3. Here’s the general idea:a ship composed of segments that can beadded on or dropped off as necessary.
  4. 4. Earlytrains
  5. 5. Modern railroad trains
  6. 6. Trucktrains
  7. 7. So what does a train do for us? • Power/crew unit + unmanned cargo units • Acquire units as needed • Assemble only units required • Mix & match unit types and cargoes • Any unit from/to anywhere on the network • Don’t transload cargo, just reconnect unit • Individualized unit maintenance & repair • Most problems affect units, not whole train • Load/unload each unit where convenient • Load/unload each unit on own schedule • Units can serve as temporary storage
  8. 8. The train idea works on water too • Most tons moved relative to power applied • Barge trains evolved • But ... on protected inland waters so far
  9. 9. What aboutunprotected coastal waters?Our coastal marine highways are where – Major ports are – Ocean freight must be transshipped – Highway relief is most needed – Cargoes must move fasterWe need trains there too
  10. 10. Open waters arechallenging, barge trains are • Waves can move hullsavoided wildly causing great damage & loss • Single big barge preferred • If towed, barge must be well separated from tug • Barges increasingly pushed – less power, better control
  11. 11. • Operable in open ocean – tug Articulated locked in place in a notchtug/barge (ATB) • Numerous train-like attributes – good starting basis for a coastal freight seatrain
  12. 12. Our evolving marine freight transport system• Steadily rising ocean trade• Steadily larger ships, fewer ports able to receive them• Growing need to distribute freight from ports• Growing freight movement of domestic origin• Rapidly worsening highway congestion• Much talk about using marine highways, but studies keep showing they aren’t competitiveTime for a different approach:• Seatrains could in effect provide many more ships (units) of smaller size capable of accessing many more ports
  13. 13. We have those ports • Present ports too few and far between • Drayage & trucking add greatly to cost • Large ports slow and costly • Seatrains could bypass them to serve many smaller locations near freight destinations • Worldportsource says 531 ports in US • Other business & industry locations also possible http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/USA.php
  14. 14. http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/USA.php
  15. 15. Seatrain characteristics• Power and crew in a tug/pusher unit• A number of unmanned cargo units• Reduced draft, beam, unit length• Reduced structure weight due to joints• Reduced power & fuelAt the cost of:• Joints and connectors• Ballasting system in units• Way to propel units when separate• Reduced maneuverability when long
  16. 16. Seatrain technology• Builds on ATB technology & experience – Connectors – Operations• All basic ship types/configurations – monohull, catamaran, trimaran, SES, hovercraft, etc.• Any desired size, speedAt this point:• No off-the-shelf designs ready to build• Conceptual designs ready for trade-offs, model testing, design & engineering
  17. 17. Seasnake (by Seasnake LLC) • Extensively engineered & model tested • Flexible for turning • Semicircular cross-section • Intended as tanker (slow) but suitable for other usesPower ( a general phenomenon ) per ton Ship size/length Propulsor
  18. 18. SeaTrain SES (surface effect ship)by Keck Technologies LLC• High-speed design for • High-value time-sensitive goods • Time-definite delivery• Catamaran side hulls + air seals at ends, rises on cushion for 35-55 kts (well-developed technology)• Conventional materials & systems, Intercon ATB connectors
  19. 19. 4,000 tons Ro-Ro cargoSeaTrain SES 5,000 nm at 43 kts in Seastate 4High-Speed SeaLift 16 ft draft off-cushion 6 ft draft on-cushion
  20. 20. Connecting complete ships • Small ships linked to get big- ship powering & seakeeping when transiting • Multiple systems & crews Concept by Maritime Applied Physics Corp.
  21. 21. The British ship “Connector ”built by the Jointed Ship Company in 1858 From the Illustrated London News, August 1863
  22. 22. Seatrain benefits• A huge range of locations become accessible• Smaller local land-side impacts• Reduced crew in power unit, none in cargo units• Buildable in more, smaller, lower-cost yards• All total-system operational benefits of trains• Adapt existing fleet operations management systems• Reduced construction of highways, bridges, tunnels
  23. 23. To Albany Seatrains in New York Harbor
  24. 24. Deciding about a seatrain• Every transport service is unique; but seatrains offer adaptability to match a broad range of service requirements• A total-system, long-term matter, not one seatrain vs. one conventional ship for one unique service• Need to model and simulate the whole system (including related land systems) across many uses over many years• Long-term company profitability is the metric
  25. 25. Conclusions• The train approach is widely applied• Seatrains can be a practical, efficient, economical coastal marine highways solution• Technology is feasible & available• Seatrains would be highly beneficial overall for • Transportation system • Business & economy • US marine industry

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