Myanmar traditional-medicines

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Myanmar traditional-medicines

  1. 1. r od ol ausmf oGm; od ol azmf pm; oHk; wwf &if aq; r oHk; wwf &if ab;
  2. 2. rmwdum rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm uefawmhyef; aq;ukdtvGeftrif;pm;oHk;rdygvQif txl;rSwfcsuf rSwfpk&SiftrSmpm wkdif;&if;aq;a0g[m&ESifhodzG,f (t"dyÜm,f) u * i # # ! P (1) plvmezmESifhaq;enf;aq;yifr sm; (1) - om*'dk; 1 1/ 2/ (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 3/ (1) (2) 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ plvmezmESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... uGrf;½GufESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 WEEKLY ELEVEN NEWS NO.16, VOL.1 wGifyg0ifaomowif;aqmif;yg; WEEKLY ELEVEN NEWS NO.16, VOL.1 wGifyg0ifaomowif;aqmif;yg;ESifhywfoufí ESvkH;a&m*g (Heart Attack) rsufpda&m*g? a&wdrfa&m*g ... em;xdkif;? em;av;a&m*g ... acgif;ukdufrsm;wJha&m*g ... vdyfacgif;ESifh vdyfacgif;aoG;,dkqif;a&m*g ... tmacgiftzka&m*g? vQmemusifylavmifa&m*g? oGm;zkH;ckH;xem ... vdyfacgif;aysmufaq;enf; (ae0if;vef'efpmtkyfrS) a,musfm;tlusa&m*g ... ajcz0g;qm;yGwfjcif;ESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... ajcz0g;qm;yGwfenf; ... aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... tpmpm;pOf jzpfwwfwJh rl;wl;wl;? qkdYwkdYwkdYa&m*g (tpmqkdY? aoG;qkdY? avqkdY) ... ajcuGJemESifh anmifap; ... aeYpOf tpmtqdyfawG ajzMuyg (xef;vsuf) ... rsufESmwGefYwm? ta&;taMumif;jzpfwm aysmufenf; ... tonf;a&m*gESifh a&zsOf;a&m*g jzpfjcif; ... ESm&nfpdk&TJa&m*g? ESmacgif;a&m*gESifh qm;a&aEG;jzwfoef;enf; ... tqdyfoifhjcif;? "mwfrwnfhjcif;ESifh wif;wdyf ... toufBuD;olrsm; pm;r0if? tdyfraysmfa&m*gESifh av&SLjcif;? avpm;jcif; ... yufvufbdkifpu,fpD;jcif;ESifh ajcaxmuftjrifhwGifxm;jcif; ... qD;csKd? aoG;csKda&m*gESifh eHYomeDrIefY? qefaq;&nf ... ...1... rSwfc suf
  3. 3. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ ukef;aA'gESifh a>rqdyfajz ... ÓmPf&nfwufzdkY jrif;cGm½Guf ... jrif;cGm½Guf aq;zuf0ifykH ... jrif;cGm½Guf&om,e (touf&Snf) aq; tonf;a&m*g? bDykd;? qD;csKdwkdYESifh awmifqD;jzLyif ... rarmatmifawmifwufenf;? c&D;a0;avQmufenf; ... temrD;ESifh ausmufrD;aoG; ... tbdk;BuD;rsm; armarmae&if tkef;ESJ (= OESJ = OEéJ) ½Gufaomuf ... acsmif;qdk;? yef;emESifh &J,dkoD;? ysm;&nf ... urÇmYenf;vrf; udk,fwdkifprf; ... 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 (2) plvmezmESifhaq;enf;aq;yifr sm; (2) - om*'dk; 9 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ aq;bk&ifplvmezmESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... onf;ajcxJu ausmufaMuenf;ESifh rJZvDtjrpf? tkef;&nf ... qD;vGefjcif;ESifh cHwuf½Guf ... iSufzsm;ESifh &Sdef;cdk? uGrf;½Guf? aeZmjruf? Muyfcdk; ... wyifEdkifjreef;ESifh uifqm ... wpfudk,fvHk; qm;yGwfjcif;ESifh udk,fwGif;"mwfaiGU oefYpifenf; ... qm;ESifh tzsm;a&m*g ... ausmufz½kHoD;ESifh aoewf'Pf&m ... &Sm;apmif;vufyyfeJY vnfyif;BuD;a&m*g ... plvmezmESifh vnfyif;BuD;a&m*g ... puúLyef;ESifh aoG;wkd;a&m*g ... acgif;avmif;yef;ESifh ESvkH;a&m*g ... aqmif;ESif;&nfESifh taMuma&m*g ... ysm;&nfESifh yifv,ftlem0rf;avQm .... yifpdrf;ESifh t&ufjzwfaq; ... tlaq;jcif;ESifh ESvkH;a&m*g ... 'defcsOfESifh qD;csKd? uifqm ... wifyg;tem*syfjym;BuD;eJY refusnf;½GufMuyfxkyf ... plvmezmESifh uefYuvm (*efY*vm) jcm;em;csuf ... uefYuvmESifh ywfoufí ... rsufESmrS rSJUuGuf? rSJUrnf;BuD;rsm;ESifh vufonf;? aq;vdyfrS jym ... 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 ...2... rSwfc suf
  4. 4. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ avwGef;tm;enf;yg;aomaMumifh 0rf;csKyf? 0rf;usyf ESifh AkdufavhusifhcPf; ... uGrf;½GufeJY om;tdrfuifqm ... uefpGef;½kd;teDESifh aoG;yspfa&m*g ... 0JESif;claysufaq; ... <uufEkdYaysmufenf; ... 13 13 13 13 14 (3) usef;usef;rmrmtouf ... 100? pmtkyf (1) - armifarmifvdIif (tyfpdkufuk) 15 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ bmomjyefol trSmpm... rodvkdUao&wmyg... odyÜHynm&SifawGtBuHjyKwhJ rdepf0uf(3)rsKd; ... rdepf0ufokH;rsKd;u umuG,fEldifonfh a&m*grsm; ... odyÜHynm&SifawG tBuHjyKwhJ em&D0uf(3)rsKd; ... em&D0uf okH;rsKd;u umuG,fEkdifwJh a&m*grsm; ... usef;rmapzdkY enf;vrf;wus pm;aomufyg ... usef;rmapzdkY oifhawmfwJh tm;upm;vkyfyg ... usef;rmapzdkY aq;vdyfjzwf? t&ufavQmhyg ... usef;rmapzdkY pdwfaeoabmxm;rQwyg ... pdwfom t"du? aq;0g;u 'kwd, ... pdwfcsrf;om r*Fvm (8)yg;aq; ... tzdk;wefaom 'óepmpkrsm; ... uAsm Oayu©m ... 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 (4) usef;usef;rmrmtouf ... 100? pmtkyf (2) - armifarmifvdIif (tyfpdkufuk) 21 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ urÇmhusef;rma&;tzGJUcsKyfaqmifyk'f ... usef;rma&;twGuf aomufp&mt&nf (6)rsKd; ... ESvkH;tckef&yfapjcif; taMumif;&if; ... vlü&dSaom tjrifh (3)yg; ... yef;*sKHrSm&dSaom tcs (3)yg; ... yef;*sKHpm;wJhvlrSm rjzpfwJha&m*g ... ajratmufOawGrSm&dSaom pkyf,ljcif; (3)yg; ... ajratmufOpm;wJhvlrSm rjzpfwJha&m*g ... auGumtkwfaMumifh tqDeJY aoG;wkd;us ... yJEdkYu umuG,fwJha&m*g ... 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 tav;tyifrwJhtvkyfawG rvkyfygeJYaemf? ESvkH;aoG;aMumydwfa&m*gawG jzpfEdkifygw,f ... ...3... rSwfc suf
  5. 5. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ rkefvmOeDu umuG,fwJha&m*g ... a&Tz½kHoD;u umuG,fwJha&m*g ... Muuf[if;cg;oD;u umuG,fwJha&m*g ... c&rf;csOfoD;u umuG,fwJha&m*g ... MuufoGefjzLu umuG,fwJha&m*g ... tufpy&if (Aspirin) awG ... raomufMuygeJYawmh ... <uufem;½GufrdIu umuG,fwJha&m*g ... aoG;yspfcRJwwfwJh vlwef;pm; ... pdrf;jyma&nd§ (Spirulina) u umuG,fay;wJha&m*g ... &,farmjcif; tusKd;oufa&mufrI ... 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 (5) jrefr mhaq;NrD;wkdr sm; - ae0if; (vef'ef) 25 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ <uufEkdYaysmufaq;enf;ESifh cHwufacguf ... acgif;ukduf? ZufaMumwuf? rsuf½kd;ukkdufaysmufaq;enf; ... acgif;rl;aysmufaq;ESifh ysm;&nf? oHyk&m&nf ... csKdif;eHYaysmufaq;ESifh xkH;a&Munf ... acsmif;qkd;yef;emESifh rJZvD½Guf (ayG;ukdif;½Guf)? t&uf ... ajczrkd;a&mif&rf;jcif;ESifh ½Gufusyifayguf ... ajcz0g;tom;rm? uGJtuf? emusifjcif;ESifh qD ... iSufzsm;a&m*gaysmufaq;enf;? aq;cg;BuD; ... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh *kH;cg; ... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh uGrf;½Guf? 'eYfovGef½Guf?aq;½GufBuD; ... qHyifjzL? qHyifuRwfaysmufaq;? iSufaysm ... qD;ausmufwnfa&m*gESifh oHrEdkif? ausmufrEkdif ... qD;ausmufwnfa&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD;? eEGif;? ysm;&nf ... qD;ausmufwnfa&m*gESifh xdu½Hk; ... qD;csKdaysmufaq; ... uif;ykH½Guf ... wdkufzGdKuf (tla&mifief;zsm;) a&m*gESifh yJ&mZm (ac:) yJeDav; ... ZufaMumwufa&m*gESifh a&SmufoD; ... wif;wdyfESifh tkef;rIwfcGH ... wif;wdyfESihf 'EÅokc ... wkyfauG;aysmufaq;? uGrf;½GufESifhtjcm; ... xdckduf? yGef;yJh'Pf&mrsm;ESifh &cdkifiSufaysmoD; ... 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 ...4... rSwfc suf
  6. 6. rmwdum pOf 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ 42/ 43/ 44/ 45/ 46/ 47/ 48/ 49/ 50/ 51/ 52/ 53/ 54/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm xdckduf&SemESifh uGrf;pm;xkH; ... xdyfcwfemESifh r½dk;yif^ ig;jzLBuD;yif ... 'lvm? rD;,yfa&m*gESifh ausmufz½kHoD;? xef;vsuf ... 'lvm? rD;,yfESifh MuufoGefeD? xef;vsuf? refusnf;oD;rSnfh ... 'l;acgif;ESihf tqpftjrpfudkufESifh wrmaphtajcmuf ... em;ydk;aumif0ifESifh qm;&nfMunf ... em;jynf,dkemESifh [if;*vm½Guf ... em;tl? em;avxGufESifh aMumifvQmoD;? aMumifvQm½Guf ... aemufaMumwufjcif;ESifh &Sdef;cdk? xef;vsuf ... ESvkH;aoG;aMumusOf;jcif;ESifh oHyk&moD; ... ESmacgif;ydwfa&m*gESifh MuufoGefjzL ... ESmacgif;aoG;,dkESifh oabmFoD;? oMum; ... yef;em&ifusyf? azma&mifjcif;ESifh yHpif;ikH ... yef;em&ifusyfESifh a&Smuf? t&uf? ysm;&nf ... ayG;? ,m;emESihf ydEJétap; ... zaESmifh½dk;twufxGufjcif;ESifh qm;? uGrf;½Guf ... rD;,yfjzLqif;jcif;ESifh zvHawmifa0S;yif ... rD;,yfaoG;qkH;ESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyfcsufaq; ... rsufpdpGefaysmufenf;? ajcz0g;qm;yGwf ... rsufpd,m;jcif;ESifh qm;Muyfxkyf ... a&aEG;ylavmifjcif;ESifh oGm;wkdufaq; ... a&zsOf;a&m*g ... a&,kefESifh csuft&uf ... avief;? avjzwfaysmufaq;enf; ... avema&m*gESifh qm;rD;zkwf? eEGif;rIefY ... aoG;wkd;? ausmufuyf? ESvkH;aoG;aMumusOf;ESifh avmufao½Guf ... iSufzsm;ESifh avmufao½Guf ... 0Jajcmuf? ,m;emESifh oyGwfcg;oD;? Muuf[if;cg;½Guf ... 0JESif;clajcmufESifh wrm? uGrf;½Guf ... 0JESif;cltpdkESifh qD;jzLoD;? 'kw¬m ... 0ufjcHaysmufaq;enf;rsm; ... 0rf;udkufa&m*gaysmufaq;enf;rsm; ... 0rf;rSef0rf;EIwfaq; ... ...5... 27 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 rSwfc suf
  7. 7. rmwdum pOf 55/ 56/ 57/ 58/ 59/ 60/ 61/ 62/ 63/ 64/ 65/ 66/ 67/ 68/ 69/ 70/ 71/ 72/ 73/ 74/ 75/ 76/ 77/ 78/ 79/ 80/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 0rf;avQma&m*gaysmufaq;enf;rsm; ... 0rf;rSefawaq;ausmf (eef;wGif;okH;) ... ovdyfuyfacsmif;qdk;ESifh yifpdrf;? a&Smuf? xef;vsuf ... oefcsaq;ESifh oabmFaph ouf&Snfusef;rmaq;enf; (1) ouf&Snfusef;rmaq;enf; (2) tzktusdwf? oufwHhESifh &cdkifiSufaysmoD; ... oGm;udkufa&m*gaysmufaq;enf;/ rmvumacguf? eEGif; ... oGm;a&m*gESifh iydvufav;opf ... aoG;tH? aoG;oufESifh c&rf;csOfoD; ... aoG;uifqmaysmufaq;enf;ESif rD;uGif;*rkef; ... aoG;wkd;ESihf awmqD;jzL (0g) a&qD;jzL ... aoG;wkd;ESifh eEGif;cg;? ysm;&nf ... aoG;wkd;ESifh puúLyef; ... aoG;wkd;? tom;0g? tonf;a&mifESifh qD;jzLoD;? zefcg;oD; ... tpmtdrfa&m*gESihf oabmFoD;rSnfh ... tpmtdrfa&m*gESihf oabmF½Guftpdrf;? EG,fcsKd ... tpmtdrfa&m*gESifh eEGif;pdrf;O? ysm;&nf ... tpmtdrfa&m*gESihf eEGif;rIefY? uGrf;pm;xkH; ... temrD;? tempufESifh ½Gufusyifayguf ... t½kd;usKd;? t½kd;tuf? tqpfvGJESifh qifwkH;rEG,ft½Guf ... tom;uGJ? tom;ywfESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... tom;0ga&m*gESifh pyg;vif ... tom;0g? tonf;a&mifa&m*gESifh 'ef;BuD;yif ... tmoD;a&mif (yoda&mif) ESifh ysOf;awmfodrf½Guf ... tufppfylavmifjcif;ESifh uGrf;½GufoMum; ... 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 ½Guf? acguf? jrpf? oD; aq;enf;(1000)? (6) 39 wkdif;&if;jrefr mtdr fokH;aq;rsm; - OD;vScif (qef;ñGefYO D;) 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ c½koif;ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf? zefcg; ... ptkd0,m;jcif;ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... cHwGif;ysufjcif;ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf,dk ... ]]BudwfrSef½Guf,kd}} aq;jzifh aysmufuif;Ekdifaoma&m*grsm; ... ...6... 39 39 39 39 rSwfc suf
  8. 8. rmwdum pOf 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm BudwfrSef½Guf vufokyf ... acgif;ukdufjcif;ESifh eEGif;rIefY? eHYomjzL ... acgif;ukdufjcif;ESifh oHyk&m&nfaph ... iSufzsm;ESifh aMumifyef;½Guf ... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh jrif;cGm½Guf? i½kwfaumif; ... iSufzsm;ESifh jrif;cGg? yifpdrf;? i½kwfaumif; ... qD;usef? qD;enf;? qD;atmifhjcif;? jrif;cGm? oMum; ... qD;yl? qD;enf;? qD;aoG;ygjcif;ESifh 'EÅokc ... qD;csKyfjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... qD;wpfpuf? wpfpufusjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD... qD;atmifh (ausmufwnf) jcif;ESifh xdu½kH;tjrpf ... qifclvnfjywfem ... n§if;aygufvQifESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... ÓmPfaumif;ap&ef (owd? ynmtm;wkd;aq;) ESifh jrif;cGm½Guf? ESrf;qD ... wif;wdyfESifh 'EÅokc... xdyfuyfemESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... em;udkufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD... em;avxGufjcif;ESifh w½kwfpum;yGifh ... em;tlavxGufjcif;ESifh oabFm½Guf ... ESvkH;wkefjcif;ESifh jrif;cGm½Guf? qifwkef;rEG,f ... ESvkH;a&m*gESifh BudwfrSef½Guf,kdaq; ... ESmap;acsmif;qkd; ... ESmydwf? ESmacgif;teUHr&jcif; ... yef;emESifh ausmufz½kHcg;oD; ... yef;emESifh qD;jzLoD;... yef;emESifh aMumifvQmyiftacguf... yef;em&ifusyf'd|aysmufaq;ESifh oabFmoD;... ayG;? 0J?,m;emESifh MuufoGefjzLOwpfvkH; ... raemr,&aohBuD;ODcEÅDenf; (oraxmysm;ayG;) ... rD;avmifemESifh iSufaysmoD;rSnfh... rD;avmifemESifh BudwfrSef? yifpdrf; ... rD;avmifemaMumifhtrm&GwfjzLESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... ,m;emESifh ca&yGifh? jrif;cGm½Guf ... ...7... 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 rSwfc suf
  9. 9. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ 42/ 43/ 44/ 45/ 46/ 47/ 48/ 49/ a&,kefemESifh uif;ykH½Guf ... &ifwkefarmyef;jcif;ESifh a&Smuf? xef;vsuf ... avief;a&m*gESifh &Sm;apmif;? qifwkH;? ysm;&nf ... taMuma&m*gESifh BudwfrSef½Gufvufokyf ... tpmtdrfa&m*gESifh iSufaysmoD;tpdrf; tpmtdrfa&m*gESifh eEGif;O? ysm;&nf ... temaygufvQif ... trm&Gwfaysmufap&ef ... touf&Snfaq;ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf... touf&Snfaq;ESifh jrif;cGm½Guf... touf&SnfEkysKdap&ef qD;jzL? zefcg; ... tlusa&m*gESifh ]]BudwfrSef½Guf,kd}} aq; ... 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 (7) rD;zkdacsmifr Saq;pGr f;aumif;rsm; (yxrwGJ) .../ - OD;vScif (qef;ñGefYO D;) 45 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ MuufoGefjzLESifh aoG;wkd;a&m*g ... MuufoGefjzLESifh vnfyif;BuD;a&m*g ... MuufoGefjzLESifh ayG;0J,m;em ... tm;wkd;aq;ESifh MuufoGefeDaph ... qD;rsm;ap&efESifh MuufoGefeD ... qD;wpfpufwpfpufusjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... vdyfacgif;aoG;ygESifh MuufoGefeD ... BudKUxkd;aysmufaq;enf; ... atmhtHjcif;? BudKUxkd;jcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD? csif; ... acsmif;qkd;&ifusyfaysmufaq;enf; ... tpmtdrfa&m*gESifh eEGif;O? ysm;&nf ... ESmacgif;aoG;,kdESifh oHyk&moD; ... vnfacsmif;a&m*gESifh oHyk&m&nf? ysm;&nf ... rufuavmifa&m*gESifh Muuf[if;cg;½Guf ... qD;ylusOfatmifhESifh ausmufz½kHoD; 'lvmoa&mESifh ausmufz½kHoD; ... yef;em? avemESifh ausmufz½kHoD; ... toH0if? toHuyf? vnfacsmif;emESifh 'efovGefjrpf ... 'lvmoa&mESifh qD;jzLoD;? eEGif;O ... 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 ...8... rSwfc suf
  10. 10. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ qifajcaxmufa&m*gESifh acG;v,m;jrpf ... om;tdrfavQmemESifh acG;v,m;jrpf ... b&if*sDem (*&if*sDem) ESifh [if;Eke,f ... jrif;cGm½Gufaq;ESifh a&m*gpkH ... 0ufjcHaygufjcif;ESifh jrif;cGm½Guf ... BudwfrSef½Gufawaq;ESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... BudwfrSef½GufESifh tpmvnf;aq;? aq;vnf;tpm ... ESif;clESifh 'EÅokc qD;yl? qD;enf;? aoG;ygESifh 'EÅokc 46 47 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 (8) rD;zkdacsmifrSaq;pGrf;aumif;rsm; ('kwd,wGJ) .../ - OD;vScif (qef;ñGefYOD;) 49 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ qD;csKyf? qD;atmifhESifh uñGwfO ... ausmufwnfa&m*gESifh uñGwfO ... rD;,yfa&m*gESifh uñGwfO ... aoG;wkd;a&m*gESifh c&myif ... vQmem (cHwGif;ysufjcif;) ESifh c&rf;csOfoD; ... cHwGif;ysuf (vQmem) ESifh *kHrif; ... qifajcaxmufa&m*gESifh r½dk;yif (ijzLBuD;) ... wif;wdyfESifh ijzLBuD;tap; ... temaygufaq;ESifh ijzLBuD;tap; ... tm;aq;ESifh iSufaysmoD;zD;Murf; ... tom;0gESifh pyg;vif ... &aohBuD;OD;cEÅD (96)yg;aq; ... qD;csKyf? qD;atmifhESifh w½kwfpum;yGifh ... vQmyGwfaq; (cHwGif;ysufa&m*g) ESifh w½kwfpum;yGifh ... qifwkH;rEG,fcsufaq; (ÓmPf&SdovkdokH;) ... rD;,yfjzLESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... ESvkH;wkefjcif;? pdwfacsmufjcm;jcif;ESifh qifwkH;rEG,f? jrif;cGm½Guf ... udk,fa&0ga&m*g (tom;0g) ESifh qifwkH;rEG,ft½Guf? 'defcsOf ... qifclvnfjywfESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... xkHepdka&m*gESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... avief;ESifh qifwkH;rEG,f? &Sm;apmif;vufyyf? ysm;&nf ... rD;,yfydefvsufqm;ESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 ...9... rSwfc suf
  11. 11. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ ava&m*gESifh qD;oD; ... rsufpda&m*gESifh wrmoD; ... qD;a&m*gESifh wrmoD; ... jrif;o½dkufem vu©Pm ... &Sm;apmif;vufywfESifh a&m*gtrsKd;rsKd; ... 'lvm? rD;,yftm;wdk;aq;ESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... wnif;oD;qm;pdrf&nfESifh qD;csKda&m*g... (96)yg;aq;BuD;ESifh xef;vsuf? MuufoGef ... yef;emaq;ESifh MuufoGefeD? yifpdrf;? xef;vsuf ... ausmufwnfa&m*gESifh ukef;xdu½kef; ... vdyfacgif;jrif;o½kdufemESifh ukef;xdu½kH; ... qD;vGefa&m*gESifh ukef;xdu½kH; ... ESif;claysmufaq;ESifh ukef;xdu½kH; ... tazmusaq;ESifh ukef;xdu½kH; ... temyqkyfESifh xdu½kH; ... 0NzKd;vSyapaomaxmywfaq; ... aoG;tm;wkd;aq;BuD;ESifh axmywf ... touf&Snfawaq;BuD;ESifh axmywf ... tdyfraysmfjcif;ESifh axmywf ... 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 (9) aq;NrD;wkda&mifj cnf (1) - eu©wåa&mifj cnfr*¾Zif;? pmwnf;tzJGU 55 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ oGm;zkH;a&mifESifh xkH; ... rkwfa&m*g? abmBuD;a&m*gESifh 'DZ,fqD? ESrf;qD ... oGm;udkufa&m*gESifh &J,kdoD;jym ... ,m;em? wif;wdyf? 0JESif;clESifh oyGwfcg; ... avjzwf? pum;roGufjcif;ESifh oyGwfcg;oD; ... qD;yl?qD;atmifhESifh eEGif;rIefY? qD;jzLoD;? ysm;&nf ... oGm;ukdufa&m*gESifh uyfpD;ESJoD;trIefY ... acgif;udkufjcif;ESifh iSufaysmoD;tpdrf; ... "mwfrwnfhí ,m;,Hjcif;ESifh qefvufwpfqkyf? eEGif;rIefY ... 0rf;avQm? 0rf;ukdufESifh a&aEG;Murf;? ysm;&nf ... oGm;a&m*gESifh wrm½kd; ... 'lvmvdyfacgif;? aoG;0rf;ESifh tifwGJrIefY? xef;vsuf ... 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 . . . 10 . . . rSwfc suf
  12. 12. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ qD;yla&m*gESifh aumuf½kd;jyKwf? oMum; ... om;onfrdcifrsm; EkdYacsmif;ydwfESifh i½kwf½GufjyKwf&nftaiGU ... rD;avmifemESifh iSufaysmoD;rSnfh ... ajcz0g;uGJtufemESifh aq;uwå&m (coata) ... touf&SLusyf? armyef;jcif;ESifh a&SmufoD;tEk ... aq;zuf0ifBudwfrSef ... om;onfrdcifrsm; EkdYacsmif;ydwfESifh &J,dk½Guf ... tckd;ydwf? aMumwif;a&m*gESifh uGrf;½kd; ... ESvHk;tm;aumif;onfh cs&m; (okdY) ca& ... pkdajyjynfhNzKd;? tiftm;wkd;ESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyfcsufaq; ... oGm;ukdufoGm;emESifh qefvGwfeEGif;rIefY ... qD;csKdESifh ykwD;jzLvufzufajcmuf (ykwD;jzL = awmifqD;jzL) ... tpmtdrfava&m*gESifh eEGif;oHowfa& ... av;bufema&m*gESifh ajcaxmufqm;a&pdrf ... tqpfa&mifa&m*gESifh w½kwfpum;yif ... twufa&m*gESifh oHyk&moHowf&nf ... wif;wdyfESifh axmywfoD;aph? ausmufcsOf ... tqpftjrpfxkHusOfukdufcJa&m*gESifh Z0ufom? oHvGifqD ... azma&mifa&m*gESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... qHyifeufaq; (BudwfrSef? qD;jzL) ... tom;rmESifh wrm½Guf? *sKHrIefY ... <uufEkdY? tom;rm? rSJYESifh oabFmyif ... acsmif;qkd;aoG;ygESifh zkHrodef½Guf ... 0rf;ysuf? 0rf;avQma&m*gESifh ydawmufacguf ... xdckduf? zl;a&mif? taMumrsufESifh oHyk&moD; ... cg;udkuf? cg;emESifh oabFm½Guf ... t½kd;usD;aygif;wufa&m*gESifh a&Smuf½Guf? Muuf[if;cg;½Guf ... axmywf&JUpGrf;tm; ... 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 61 (10) aq;NrD;wkda&mifj cnf (2) - eu©wåa&mifj cnfr*¾Zif;? pmwnf;tzGJU 63 ausmufcsOfrD;azguf? tukduftcJaysmuf ... qD;a&m*g? azma&mifjcif;? rsufpda&m*gESifh z&JoD;? oMum; (w½kwfaq;NrD;wkd) ... qD;aMumifhjzpfaomanmif;nmukdufcJa&m*gESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... 63 63 63 1/ 2/ 3/ . . . 11 . . . rSwfc suf
  13. 13. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ rnf;rnf;csdwfcsdwfwif;wdyfESifh y'kr®mMum½kd; ... qD;atmifh? qD;ukdufESifh oHyk&m? ,rf;pdrf; ... jrpfyGm;em? tzktusdwfa&m*gESifh aq;pGrf;aumif; (jrpfyGm;em = uifqm) ... tonf;BuD;a&m*gESifh ay½Guf ... tpm;rSm;í ,m;,Hjcif;ESifh xef;vsuf ... iSufzsm;ESifh &Sdef;ckd ... ,mOfpD;pOf rl;a0? atmhtHvQif ... rsufpdxdckdufrIESifh i½kwfaumif; ... c½koif;ESifh {u&mZfjrpf ... Muyfxkyfxkd;enf; ... rsufpdMunf? tanmif;ajy? taMumajyESifh ajce,fqD... aoG;wkd;? qD;csKd? avief;a&m*g ESifh a&SmufoD; ... vdyfacgif;a&m*gESifh xdu½kH; ... qD;atmifha&m*gaysmufapaom yGJawGUenf;aumif; ... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh &Sm;apmif;BuD;tap; ... tonf;ajcmufa&m*gESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf... oHyk&moD;ESifh csKdif;acR;eHY ... &Sm;apmif;vufyyfcsufaq; ... taMumwufcg;emESifh ouf&if;BuD; ... &Sm;apmif;vufn§Kd;ESifh vdyfacgif; ... uav;rsm;tlus (abmus) a&m*gESifh 'efBuD;½Guf ... trsKd;orD;rsm;tjzLqif;cJhaomf ... 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 (11) aq;NrD;wkda&mifj cnf (3) - eu©wåa&mifj cnfr*¾Zif;? pmwnf;tzGJU 69 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ uav;ESmydwfa0'emESifh uGrf;½Guf ... temrD;? temvQHESifh i&HUywl½Guf ... tqkwf (wDbD) a&m*gESifh i&HUywl½Guf ... trl;a&m*gtrsKd;rsKd;? tpmrSm;? &ifjynfh&ifu,f? aoG;wkd; ESifh {u&mZf... 0rf;oufjcif;?pdwfESvHk;ylyefjcif;? qDeDusOfaemuf a&m*g ESifh a&xdu½kH; ... ydpyfyif (AdZwfyif) udk,fawGUaq;enf;rsm; ... xdckduf&SemESifh ukef;aA'g (qD;csKd? aoG;csKd&dSol) ... yef;em&ifusyfa0'emESifh rk½dk;½Guf ... aoG;Ekom;Ek? xkHusOfudkufcJ/ &if;jym;wpfyJ? xif;wpfvSnf; ... 69 69 69 69 69 69 70 70 70 . . . 12 . . . rSwfc suf
  14. 14. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 0JtpdkESifh a&eHacs;? razmufxkH; ... uif;udkufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... 'l;emjcif;ESifh a&SmufoD;? MuufoGefeD ... qD;a&m*gESifh vufzuftpdk? ausmufcsOf ... rsufpdemESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... udk,fyltjrefusap&efESifh pm;aqmf'g? oMum; ... qD;atmifh? ausmufwnfESifh jynfvkH;csrf;om ... EIwfcrf;uGJ? usD;uef;yg;pyfESifh xrif;tdk;qlvmaom tjrKyf ... avxdk;? avatmifhESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... avjzwfjcif;ESifh usD;tm;oD; ... tdyfraysmfjcif;ESifh 'efYuRJ½Guf ... tylusdwfeJY eEGif;cg;O ... qHyiftwGufenf;wpfvuf ... aq;pGrf;aumif;wpfvuf ... cg;emESifh qifaygif;qD ... 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 (12) azGazG&Sm&Smwdkif;&if;aq;ynm - a'gufwmatmifEdkif (aq;okawoe) 75 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ temaygufjcif;ESifh rmvum½Guf? ysm;&nf ... ESvHk;wkef&ifckef? touf&SLr0wJha0'emESifh emewf? oMum;? ysm;&nf ... oefusapaom emewfoD;ESifh ysm;&nf ... temref;? rD;avmifzk? a&aEG;ylavmifjcif;ESihf emewfoD; ... 0rf;udkufa0'emESifh upfrDuGpf (Kiss me quick) ... 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 tiftm;jynfhNzdK;tvSwdk;apzdkY pHy,fyGifhajcmuf? ESif;qDyGifhvTmajcmuf? vufzufajcmuf ... aoG;om;rrSefanmif;ukdufjcif;? tjzLqif;jcif;? qD;yl? qD;atmifhjcif;ESifh pHy,fyGifh? oMum;? oHyk&m&nf ... iSufzsm;ESifh yifpdrf; ... tpmtdrfa&m*g? tpmtdrftemaygufjcif;? tlodrfOD;tem? tpmraMujcif;? cHwGif;ysufjcif;ESifh EdkudkO ... cg;em? cg;½kd;usD;aygif;wufESifh yifpdrf;½Guf ... temvkH;BuD;awG? tusdwfawGESifh yifpdrf;½Guf ... rdwf? ,m;em? ayG;? 0JajcmufESifh yifpdrf;½Guf ... em;jynf,dk? em;udkufESifh yifpdrf;½Guf ... uav;avxdk;avatmifh? Adkufem? oefaumif? wkwfaumifxESifh yifpdrf;½Guf ... acsmif;qdk;? vnfacsmif;emESifh yifpdrf; ... <uufEdkY? wif;wdyf? rSJUajcmuf? c½koif;ESifh yifpdrf; ... . . . 13 . . . rSwfc suf
  15. 15. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ xl;wJhtmvl; ... xdcdkuf'Pf&m? rkwfqdwf&dwf"m;&SESifh ausmufcsOf... rdwf,m;?ESif;cltpkd? tqdyf&Sdykd;rTm;ukdufESifh ausmufcsOf ... ausmufcsOfESifh tqDus? tom;uspfydefaq; ... rsufpda&m*g? em;a&m*gESifh ausmufcsOf... tdyfraysmfwJha&m*gESifh ausmufcsOf? uRJEkdYrvkdif... cHwGif;eHYraumif;jcif;ESifh ausmufcsOf? pm;qkd'g ... oGm;ykd;pm;? oGm;ukdufESifh ausmufcsOf?y½kwf... temtzkvHk;? tusdwfvHk;ESifh ausmufcsOfysm;&nf... oGm;zkH;a&pD;urf;NydKaoG;xGufESifh ausmufcsOfwrm½Guf... ESmacgif;aoG;vQHESifh ausmufcsOf ... 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 (13) a&m*gokw aq;okw - a'gufwmatmifEkdif (aq;okawoe) 81 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ ÓmPftm;aumif;apjcif;ESifh jrif;cGm½Guf ... OD;aESmuftm;aq;ESifh Am'HoD;ysm;&nf ... ODaESmuftm;aq;ESifh Am'HoD;? axmywf ... rSwfÓmPfaumif;jcif;ESifh Am'HqD ... wkyfauG;ESifh yifpdrf;? csif; ... wkyfauG;ESifh eEGif;rIefY ... avema&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD;? EG,fcsKd ... avema&m*gESifh zD;Murf;iSufaysmoD;tpdrf; ... yef;em&ifusyfESifh acG;ao;yef;½Guf ... yef;em&ifusyfESifh awmMuufarmufaq;vdyf... qD;Budwfa&mifa&m*g (nbuf cPcP qD;oGm;csifwJha&m*g) ESifh cHwuf½Guf ... qD;rxdef;Ekdifaom a&m*gvu©PmESifh owdjyK&rnfhtcsufrsm; ... ausmufuyfa&mifa&m*gESifh Bwdzv ... (opfqdrfhoD;? MupkoD;? qD;jzLoD; = Bwdzv) yoda&mif (tmoD;a&mif) a&m*g ... rsufESmwpfjcrf;aoa&m*gESifh BuD;av;aumifaq; ... 0ufjcHaysmufaq;enf; ... 81 81 81 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 84 84 84 (14) vufawGUtoHk;0if½kd;&maq;yifESifhaq;enf;rsm; .../ - armif,OfEG,f 85 qHyifjzL? qHyifuRwfjcif;ESifh u&ruf ... ESvkH;wkef?&ifckefolrsm;? aoG;yla&m*g&Sifrsm; ESifh u&ruf ... rdwfzkrsm;xGufjcif; ESifh u&ruf... 85 85 85 1/ 2/ 3/ . . . 14 . . . rSwfc suf
  16. 16. rmwdum pOf 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm jynfwnfaomtemESifh u&ruf ... tylBuD;í tjyif;zsm;ESifh u&ufruf... n§if;wif;wdyfESifh yifv,fuopfzk ... ESvkH;wkef? &ifckef? tdyfraysmf? qD;0g csKyf? 0rf;csKyf? ezl;yl? ajczsm;vufzsm;at;ESifh uifyGef;csOf½Guf ... tom;0gESifh uifyGef;csOf½Guf ... aoG;tH? aoG;0rf;? ESmacgif;aoG;,kdESifh uefpGef;O ... qD;yl? anmif;usESifh uefpGef;½Guf ... rD;avmifem? a&aEG;ylavmifemESifh uefpGef;½Guf... tylusdwfrsm;ESifh upGef;½kd;eD ... tqdyfoifhjcif;ESifh uefpGef;½Guf ... yg;pyfeHjcif;? yg;pyfwGiftemaygufjcif;? oGm;zkH;rSaoG;,kdjcif;? aoG;0rf;oGm;jcif;ESifh uefpGef;½kd;eD ... vdyfacgif;a&m*gESifh w½kwfuefpGef; ... oGm;udkufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... ESmacgif;aoG;vQHjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD... em;ukdufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... qHyifjzLjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... acG;ukdufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... uif;? tqdyf&Sdykd;rTm;rsm;ukdufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... qefykd;wG,fjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... xdyfajymifjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... acgif;&SdaAmuf? oef;rsm;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... ausmufuyf? qD;ESifh MuufoGefeD... aoG;wkd;ESvkH;ESifh MuufoGefjzL?ysm;&nf ... acG;ukdufjcif;ESifh MuufoGefjzL ... tqpfa&mifa&m*gESifh Muuf[if;cg;oD;tEk ... qD;csKda&m*gESifh Muuf[if;cg; ... azma&m*gESifh aMumifyef;½Guf? ouf&if;BuD;jrpf ... anmif;usa&m*gESifh aMumifyef;½Guf ... cE¨mukd,fav;vHxkdif;rIdif;jcif;? ukd,fwpfjcrf;av;vHjcif;ESifh aMumifyef;½Guf ... trsKd;orD;rsm; tom;ta&,m;jcif;? trnf;uGufrsm;jzpfjcif;ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... trm&GwftjzLuGufBuD;rsm;ESifh BudwfrSef&Gwf ... qHyifeufjcif;ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... wkwfxkd;jcif; (ptkd0,m;jcif;) ESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... . . . 15 . . . 85 85 85 85 85 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 88 89 89 rSwfc suf
  17. 17. rmwdum pOf 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ 42/ 43/ 44/ 45/ 46/ 47/ 48/ 49/ 50/ 51/ 52/ 53/ 54/ 55/ 56/ 57/ 58/ 59/ 60/ 61/ 62/ 63/ 64/ 65/ 66/ 67/ 68/ 69/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm c½koif;? orifjzL ESifh BudwfrSefjrpf? zefcg;jrpf ... rtkdremaq;ESifh BudwfrSef ... acsmif;qkd;jcif;ESifh csif;pdrf; ... acgif;ukdufjcif;ESifh csif; ... ESmap;? acsmifqkd;? yef;em&ifusyfESifh csif;pdrf;? ysm;&nf ... oGm;ukduf? oGm;emESifh csif;pdrf; ... csif;pdrf;ESifh em;ukdufa&m*g ... tqpftjrpfa&mif cg;ukduf? 'lukdufESifh csif;pdrf; ... qD;atmifh? qD;cJ? qD;csKyfESifh cHwuf ... acG;awmuf½GufESifh tema[mif; ... acG;awmuf½GufESifh a&,kef ... ukd,fylzsm;ESifh acG;ao;yef;½Guf? Muuf[if;cg;½Guf? uGrf;½Guf (uav;rsm;) uav;acsmif;qkd;cRJusyfESifh acG;ao;yef;½Guf? uGrf;½Guf ... tema&mif&rf;jcif;ESifh acG;ao;yef;yif ... acsmif;qkd;yef;emESifh i½kwfaumif;? ysm;&nf ... toH0if? toHrxGufjcif;ESifh i½kwfaumif;? ysm;&nf ... tom;0gESifh ikBuD; (zGm;buf) ... ½kd;&mtm;aq; (0g) obm0tm;aq; ... avaq;vQufqm;ESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... ouf&Snfusef;rmjcif;ESifh qifwkH;rEG,f ... wif;wdyfESifh xif;&SL;ESpf ... rif;wkef;rif; okH;aqmifcJhaomtm;aq; ... aoG;wkd;ESifh 'efYovGef½Guf ... temaqG;? tema[mif;rsm;ESifh 'EÅokc ... oGm;ukduf? oGm;zkH;a&mifESifh 'EÅokc ... qD;a&m*g? anmif;us? tjzLqif;? aoG;wkd;ESifh 'EÅokc ... tylacsmif;ajcmuf? yg;pyfuGJ? eHjcif;ESifh 'EÅokc... aoG;wkd;? qD;csKd? tpmtdrfa&m*gESifh eEGif;cg; ... yef;emESifh y'kdif;½Guf ... tom;t&nfpkdjynfjcif;ESifh aygufyGifh ... trsKd;orD;rsm;udkufcJ? acgif;tHk? Zufav;jcif;ESifh aygufyef;jzLyGifh ... avief;jzpfpESifh zHk;rodef ... ½kd;&mtm;aq;ESifh zkH;rodef ... . . . 16 . . . 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 93 93 93 rSwfc suf
  18. 18. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 70/ 71/ 72/ 73/ 74/ 75/ 76/ 77/ 78/ 79/ 80/ 81/ 82/ 83/ 84/ 85/ 86/ 87/ 88/ 89/ 90/ 91/ 92/ 93/ 94/ 95/ 96/ 97/ 98/ 99/ 100/ qD;? 0rf;? avrSef ESifh abmpukdif;( tqdyfajzyif) aoG;wkd;a&m*gESifh abmpudkif; ... "m;xd? oHpl;? acG;ukdufESifh ucsifra&Smh½Guf ... t&ufrl;vGef? tpmtqdyfjzpf? rIdawmufjcif;ESifh ra&Smh½Guf ... qD;tdrfausmufwnfjcif;ESifh r½kd;yGifh? EGm;EdkY ... ta&jym;a&m*gESifh r½kd;yGifh? EGm;EdkY ... aoG;vHk;a&m*gESifh r½kd;yGifh? ESrfqD ... r½kd;ap;ESifh cg;ukdufjcif;? 'l;ukdufjcif; ... emwm&Snfa&m*grsm;ESifh jrif;cGm½Guf ... aoG;wkd;ESifhjrif;cGm½Guf ... rIdqdyfajzenf; (xef;vsuf? oHyk&m? rIdewdk)... rpm;aumif;aomrIdrsm;.... rIdESifha&mpyfírpm;aumif;aom tpm;tpmrsm; ... 0rf;ukdufa&m*g? aoG;0rf;a&m*gESifh rD;uGif;*rkef;t½Guf.. aoG;tHa&m*gESifh rD;uGif;*rkef; ... tylavmifjcif;ESifh rD;uGif;*rkef; ... tema[mif; temaqG;rsm;ESifh rD;uGif;*rkef; ... trskKd;orD;rsm; aoG;vHk; avvHk; aog;csKyf?avcsKyfESifh rkwfcg;aq; ... &Sm;apmif;vufyyfcsufaq;( trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf) yxrenf;... &Sm;apmif;vufyyfcsufaq; (usm; r yskKd tkdra&G;) 'kwd,enf;... &Sm;apmif;vufyyfcsufaq; (usm; r ysKdtkdra&T;) wwd,enf; .... qD;atmifh? qD;csKyfESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... tema[mif;? temaqG;? ajcpG,fikwfESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf... em;ukdufa&m*gESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... aoG;wkd; avief; tqDwkd; xkHemusOfemESifh a&SmufwpfvHk;aq;&nf ... tzsm;aysmuf? tm;&Sdjcif;ESifh vif;ae? aq;cg;BuD; .... 0rf;csKyf? avcsKyf? qD;csKyfESifh ouf&if;BuD; .... trsKd;orD;a&m*gESifh ouf&if;BuD; ... qkHqkdYem? yg;usdwfa&mifem? vnfacsmif;uGJemESifh oabFmoD;pdrf; oabFm½GufESifh jrif;zkem... qD;vGefa&m*gESifh OoQpf? csif; ... 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 97 97 97 97 97 (15) touf&Snf&mtemrJhaMumif;aq;pGr f;aumif;rsm; - q&mBuD;OD;csrf; 99 . . . 17 . . . rSwfc suf
  19. 19. rmwdum pOf 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm ausmufuyfa&mifESifh 'EÅokc ... ausmufwnfjcif;ESifh cHwufacguf ... ausmufwnfjcif;ESifh Mucwf0g;tqpf ... BudKUxkd;jcif;ESifh &Sdef;ckd?rwfyJ ... BudKUxkd;jcif;ESifh oMum; ... ajcz0g;uGJem ESifh iSufaysmyif... cg;emESifh ukd,f&HBuD;½Guf ... cg;em? cg;udkuf? 'l;ukdufESifh anmifajcaxmuf.... *7if*sDem^ b&if*sDem ESifh MoZmoD;tajcmuf... iSufzsm;ESifh aMumifyef;½Guf... pum;xpfjcif; ESifhjrif;cGm½Guf... qD;&Gifjcif;ESifh tkef;jrpf ... qD;vGefa&m*gESifh uifyGef;½Guf ... qD;csKda&m*g ... qifajcaxmufa&m*g ... qifclvnfjywfem ESifh pG,fawmf½Guf ... qHkqkdYemESifh aMumifyef;½Guf ... wif;wdyf .... tifMuif;qifhtzsm;jzwfaq; ... 'uf ... em;wGif;tem ... em;jynf,dk ... em;yif; ... em;ukduf? em;em .... em;avxGuf ... em;tl ... em;av; ... ESmacgif;aoG;vQH ... ESmacgif;ydwf ... ESm&nf,kd ... emwm&Snf ESmap; ... omrefESmap; .... ESmacgif;teHYr&ESifh eHYomjzL? uifyGef;oD; ... 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 . . . 18 . . . rSwfc suf
  20. 20. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ 42/ 43/ 44/ 45/ 46/ 47/ 48/ 49/ 50/ 51/ 52/ 53/ 54/ 55/ 56/ emwm&Snftzsm;ESifh plvmezm ... ESif;clESifh ikpyf (zGm;zuf) ... yef;em&ifusyfESifh OoQpf½Guf ... yef;em ... azma&mifemESifh OoQpf½Guf ... 0rf;rD;nHhí (tpmrcsufEkdifí) Akdufatmifhjcif; ... avaMumifh Akdufatmifhjcif; ... pjrif;aMumifh Akdufatmifhjcif; ... rsufpdemaysmufaq; ... rsufpd? wdrfESifh atmifrJjzLjrpf ... rsufESmrSJYajcmufESifh uGrf;½Guf? BudwfrSef½Guf ... rsufpdaoG;jcnfwef;ESifh caygif;a&Munfaph ... armyef;? EGrf;vs ... jrpfajcmufem ... jrif;o½kdufemESifh c0JoD;ajcmuf ... a&zsOf; ... vnfyif;BuD;a&m*g ... vdyfacgif;ESifh oyGwfcg;oD; ... temayguftHkaq; ... aoG;wdk; ... toH0if? toHysuf? toHxGufaq; ... tom;0g ... ouf&Snfusef;rmaq; ... 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 105 105 105 105 (16) aq;zuf0ifuGr f;wpf½GufESifhtaray;aomaq;enf;wkdr sm; - OD;cefYausmf 107 uav;acsmif;qkd;&ifusyf? touf½SLusyf? tqkwf? vnfacsmif;a&m*gESifh uGrf;½Guf.... uav; tpmraMu? avem? 0rf;oGm;ESifh uGrf;½Guf ... uav; ESmap;? ESmrGef? ESmydwf? touf½SLusyf ESifh uGrf;½Guf ... acgif;ukduf?rl;a0?Zufxkd;? rsuf½kd;ukdufESifh uGrf;½Guf ... ajcz0g;uGJESifh uGrf;½Guf ... *&if*sDem (b&if*sDem) ponfhtemrsm;ESihf uGrf;½Guf ... pdwfa0'emESifhuGrf;½Guf ... pum;xpfjcif;ESifh uGrf;½Guf ... 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ . . . 19 . . . rSwfc suf
  21. 21. rmwdum pOf 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm qD;csKyfa&m*gESifh uGrf;½Guf ... w&dyf&dyfrl;a0jcif;ESifh uGrf;½Guf ... EkdYtHka&mifwif;jcif;ESifh uGrf;½Guf ... EkdYacsmif;ydwf? EkdYusdwfa&mifjcif;ESifh uGrf;½Guf ... yef;EGrf;jcif;ESihf uGrf;½Guf ... ½kyfysKdukd,fEkaq; ... vdyfacgif;aoG;,kdESifh uGrf;½Guf ... qD;yl? qD;atmifh? qD;csKyfvQif ... toH0if? toHuyfESifh jynfyef;ndK ... 0rf;cPcPysufjcif;ESifh aMumifyef;½Guf ... ZufaMumwufjcif;ESifh csif; ... aoG;aMumusOf;a&m*g? ESvHk;a&m*g? tonf;tqDzHk;a&m*gESihf csif; ... lvm? rD;,yf? 0rf;ysufa&m*gESifh 7Sdef;ckd ... toufBuD;aom trsKd;om;rsm; taMumtm;enf;a&m*gESifh &Sdef;ckd ... rD;zGm;NyD;p trsKd;orD;rsm; om;tdrfukdufjcif;ESifh &Sdef;ckd ... qD;atmifh? ausmufwnfESifh [if;Eke,f ... azma&mifa&m*gESifh ueazmh ... tqpfa&mifa&m*g?avjzwf? avief;a&m*g ESifh yifpdrf; ... yef;em? &ifusyf? acsmif;qkd;? atmhtH? eHab;atmifhjcif;ESifh yifpdrf; ... acgif;ukdufjcif; ESifh yifpdrf; ... 0rf;ysuf? 0rf;avQmjcif;ESifh rif;*GwfoD;(rif;uGwfoD;) ... qD;csKdaMumifh jzpfaomtemESifh qdyfzvl½Guf... aoG;0rf;oGm;jcif;ESifh qD;jzLoD; ... cRJyltzsm;a&m*gESifh rif;*GwfoD;(rif;uGwfoD;) ... qD;vGefa&m*gESifh qdyfzvl;½Guf ... 0rf;oGm;jcif;ESihf qdyfzvl½Guf... trsKd;orD;rsm; rD;,yfaoG;vGefemESifh qdyfzvll;yGif ... ESmacgif;aoG;vsHjcif;ESifh qD;jzLoD; ... qD;ykyfa&m*gESif qD;jzLoD; ... avema&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD; ... tom;0ga&m*gESifh awmifqD;jzL ... anmif;usa&m*gESifh awmifqD;jzL ... tm;ukefvQif ... . . . 20 . . . 107 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 108 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 rSwfc suf
  22. 22. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 42/ qD;yl? qD;atmifhjzpfvQif ... 111 (17) yGJawGUukxHk; - atmifukdEkdif 113 0domcgaq;ESifh MoZmaph ... yef;em&ifusyfESifh jy'g; ... ,m;emESifhaeZmjruf... (aeZmjruf = xdyfqDrSmtoD;zkwkwkeJYjruf) wif;wdyfESifh Muufql½Guf? bl;aph ... tmoD;a&mif(yoda&mif)? vnfacsmif;emESifh 'efovGefjrpf .... vdyfacgif;jrif; o½kdfufESifh awmoyGwfcg;oD; ... qD;csKda&m*gESifh ausmufcJa&pdrf ... 113 113 113 113 113 114 114 (18) pm;yifoHk;yif aq;zuf0if - OD;vS'if 115 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ csif;,dkjyKvkyfenf;(1) vnfyif;a&m*gESifh csif; ... csif;,kdjyKvkyfenf;(2) toHysuf? toH0ifa&m*gESifh csif; ... BudKUxkd;a&m*gESifh csif; .... acsmif;qkd;yef;em ESifh csif;ajcmuf?zefcg;oD;rIefY .... tat;rdESmap;ESifh csif;&nf? ysm;&nf .... ESm½SLap; ESifh (csif;ESifhxef;vsuf)... em;ukdufjcif;ESifh csif;... qifajcaxmufa&m*gESifhcsif; ... qHkqkdYemESifhMuufoGefjzL... MuufoGefjzL*kkPfowdå ... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh MuufoGefjzL... ta&jym;a&m*gESifh MuufoGefjzL... temaygufa&m*gESifh MuufoGefjzL ... qHyifESifh MuufoGefjzL ... ESmacgif;a&m*gESifh MuufoGefjzL... toHysuf? toH0if? toHwdrfESifh MuufoGefjzL ... tm;wkd;aq;ESifhMuufoGefjzL ... avcsKyfjcif;ESifh MuufoGefjzL ... MuufoGefeDwGifyg0ifaom "mwfrsm; ... MuufoGefeDpm;jcif;tusKd; ... 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 115 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 117 117 117 117 117 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ . . . 21 . . . rSwfc suf
  23. 23. rmwdum pOf 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ 42/ 43/ 44/ 45/ 46/ 47/ 48/ 49/ 50/ 51/ 52/ 53/ 54/ 55/ 56/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm qD;a&m*gESifh MuufoGefeD ... uav;qD;csKyfjcif;ESifh MuufoGefeD ... uav;rsm;qD;roGm;Ekdifaomf... qD;a&m*gESifh ZD&mjzL ... BudKUxkd;a&m*gESifh ZD&mjzL ... vdifOa&mifjcif;ESifh ZD&mjzL ... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh ZD&mjzL ... vdyfacgif; tjyifxGufjcif;ESifhZD&mndK ... om;tdrfa&mifjcif;ESifh ZD&mndK ... OD;aESmuftm;aq;ESifh ZD&mndK ... acgif;rl;jcif;ESihf ZD&mndK ... acgif;rl;jcif;ESifh ZD&mndK ... ukuúdK ... rsufpOfaq;ESifhukuúdK ... usyfykwD;emESifh ukuúdKaph ... acsmif;qkd;a&m*g ... acsmif;qkd;aysmufaq;ESifh ukuúdK ... tpmtdrfopf? tonf;a&mifjcif;ESifh ukuúdK ... tzsOf;a&mifa&m*gESifh ukuúKd ... jrif;o½kdufa&m*gESifhukuúKd ... qD;atmifha&m*gESifh ukuúKd ... *Ekda&m*gESifh ukuúKd ... azma&mifjcif;ESifh ukuúKd ... ta&jym;a&m*gESifh ukuúKd... orifjzLa&m*gESifh ukuúKd... vdifOa&mifjcif;ESifh ukuúKd... ESmydwfjcif;ESifh ukuúKd... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh yifpdrf; ... a>rukdufjcif;ESifh yifpdrf; ... onf;ajczsm;ESifh yifpdrf;... acgif;ukduf? ESmacgif;a&m*gESifh yifpdrf; ... acsmif;qkd;yef;ema&m*gESifh yifpdrf; ... vQmcifusa&m*gESifh yifpdrf; .... 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 118 119 119 119 119 120 120 120 120 121 121 121 121 121 122 122 122 122 122 123 123 123 123 123 . . . 22 . . . rSwfc suf
  24. 24. rmwdum pOf 57/ 58/ 59/ 60/ 61/ 62/ 63/ 65/ 66/ 67/ 68/ 69/ 70/ 71/ 72/ 73/ 74/ 75/ 76/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm ta7jym;a&m*gESifh yifpdrf; .... tdE´d,ESifh wrm .... EkdYacsmif;ydwfjcif;ESifh wrm½Guf ... onf;ajcaMumifhjzpfaoma&m*gESifh wrm½Guf .... OD;acgif;&Sdykd;ESifh wrm½Guf.... qD;ausmufwnfjcif;ESifh wrm½Guf... tqpfrsm;ukdufjcif;ESifh wrm ... qD;a&m*gESifh wrm ... vdyfacgif;ESifh eEGif;rIefY ... EkdYa&mifjcif;ESifh eEGif;rIefY ... acsmif;qkd;a&m*gESifh eEGif; ... tom;0gESifh eEGif; ... qD;a&m*gESifh eEGif; ... jrif;cGm½Guf... BudKUxkd;a&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD;... qD;atmifha&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD; ... qD;vGefa&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD; ... rD;,yfjzLESifh qD;jzLoD; ... 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 125 125 125 (19) ckepfaeYom;orD;rsm; xkdokdYj zpfvQifþokdYvkyfyg .../ - okawoDj rifhxGef; 127 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ cg;emESifhawmifqD;jzL ... aoG;uifqmESifh BudwfrSef½Guf ... wefaq; vGefab;... n§if;aysmufaq; ... BudKUxkd;a&m*gaysmufaq; ... qD;tdrfwGif;&Sdausmufrsm;aMuuGJ&ef... BudwfrSef½Guf,kdESifhaysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... cg;emcg;udkufaysmufaq; .... csdeJY ydefcsKH; a&m*gESifh c&rf;csOfoD; ... clemESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf... iSufzsm;a&m*gESifh &Srf;aq;cg;BuD; ... qDcsKda&m*gaysmufaq; .... 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 128 128 128 128 128 qifajcaxmufa&m*gESifh eEGif;rIefYukdEGm;usifi,f7nfESifh a&maomufcJhaomf qifajcaxmufa&m*g? 0Jem? . . . 23 . . . rSwfc suf
  25. 25. rmwdum pOf 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ 20/ 21/ 22/ 23/ 24/ 25/ 26/ 27/ 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/ 42/ 43/ 44/ 45/ taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm qD;atmifh a&m*gaysmufaq; ... qD;csKyf? qD;atmifha&m*gESifhrJZvD½Guf .... qD;tdrfydwfqkdYa&m*gESifh rkefvmO ... qifajcaxmufa&m*gaysmufaq; ... qHkqkdemESifhoabFmoD; ... anmif;usa&m*gESifh aMumifyef;½Guf ... xdyfuyfemaysmufaq; ... 'lvmjrif;odkYr[kwf½kdufESifh oabFmoD; ... om;zGm;NyD;p rdcifrsm; ESvHk;tm;ay;aq; ... yef;emaysmufaq; ... yef;em&ifusyfaysmufaq; ... zGwfptkdemaysmufaq; ... vnfacsmif;a&m*gaysmufaq; ... rD;,yfaoG;vGefa&m*gaysmufaq; ... jrif;zkemESifh oabFm½Guf ... jrpfajcmufem(tqkwfem) ESifh uif;ykHyif ... vnfyif;BuD;a&m*gaysmufaq; ... vnfyif;uifqmaysmufaq; ... vQmema&m*gaysmufaq; ... 0rf;csKyfa&m*gESifh qD;jzLoD; ... 0rf;a&m*gaysmufaq; ... 0rf;rD;EkHY aysmufaq; ... 0rf;ykyfcs 0rf;Ekwfaq; ... onf;ajcysufa&m*gaysmufaq; ... 0rf;trnf;oGm;aysmufaq; ... oHpl;emaysmufaq; ... om;jrwfukdufaysmufaq; ... om;tdrfacgif;uRHaysmufaq; ... rD;,yfaoG;qHk;aysmufaq; ... aoG;avn§daq; ... om;tdrfuifqmaysmufaq; ... om;zGm;vG,faq; ... tpmtdrfuifqmESifh aq;tkd;ykwfyif ... 128 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 131 131 131 131 131 132 132 132 132 132 132 132 . . . 24 . . . rSwfc suf
  26. 26. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 46/ 47/ 48/ 49/ 50/ 51/ 52/ 53/ 54/ 55/ 56/ 57/ tqpftjrpfa&mifaysmufaq; ... tqpftjrpfukdufa&m*gaysmufaq; ... tazmta&mif a&m*gESifh plvmezm ... tom;0ga&m*gaysmufaq; .... tlusa&m*gaysmufaq; .... &om,etouf&Snfaq; ESifho&ufoD;pdrf;tcGH ... tonf;BuD;a&m*gESifh oabFmoD; ... tjrHKaysmufaq;ESifh rkefnif;aph ... tom;ywfaysmufaq; ... OD;aESmufemusifukdufcJa&m*gESifh csif;ajcmuf ... OD;aESmuftm;enf;a&m*gESifh yef;oD;,kkd ... tarma&m*gaysmufaq; ... 132 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 134 134 134 (20) trsKd;orD;a&m*godaumif;p&mESifhumuG,fukoenf;rsm; - q&mjrifh (pMumrif;) 135 rD;,yfa&m*gtrsKd;rsKd;ESifh aoG;qHk;a&m*gtwGuf.... om;tdrfusaysmufaq; ... wif;wdyf? 0ufjcH? rSJYajcmufESifh tom;vSoeyfcg; ... tysKdttkd tvScsufaq; ... 135 135 135 136 rpm;wwfvQifab;jzpfonfESifhtrsKd;orD;rsm;vufpGJ - aroBuFef (ynma&;) 137 tpmvnf;aq;? aq;vnf;tpm a&m*geJYaq;? wnfhatmifay; ... 137 aq;ukd&SmtpmrSmawGU - 0PÖr mvm 139 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ (21) 1/ (22) B.A. (History) 1/ 2/ 3/ jrif;cGg½Guf ... uefpGef;½kd;eD ... aeYpOfxrif;yGJrSm pm;oifhaom[if;tr,f ... 139 139 139 (23) qD;csKdqkdaomxkda&m*g - rauG;0if;jrifh 141 qD;csKda&m*gESifh oajyacguf ... 141 aoG;wkd;? avjzwf? OD;aESmufaMumjywf&jcif;taMumif;&if; - rauG;0if;jrifh 141 0aomol aoG;wdk;twGuf ... ydefaomol aoG;wkd; twGuf ... aoG;wkd;ESifh eEGif;cg; wnfhol^rwnfhol ... aoG;wkd;ESifhoHyk&maph ... tzsm;av;rskKd; (a&cJtkyfoifh? rtkyfoifh) ... 141 141 141 141 141 1/ (24) 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ . . . 25 . . . rSwfc suf
  27. 27. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 6/ 7/ 8/ aoG;wkd;aysmufaq; ... aoG;wkd;ESifh rSefuefaom owd&SdrI ... aoG;wkd;? avief;eJY vHk;0rwnfh ... 141 142 142 (25) vlxJuaq;ynm - rauG;0if;jrifh 143 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ pdwfaMumifh ... wif;wdyfaysmufaq; ... vdifOa&mifaysmufaq; ... ysm;&nfppf^ rppfcGJjcm;enf; ... pwkr"l ... xHkem? usifemESifh tqkwfemaysmufaq; ... tom;0ga&m*g aysmufaq; ... qD;yljcif;ESifh ausmufz½kH ... qD;eD? qD;enf;? qD;yl? qD;aoG;ygaysmufaq; ... tonfa&mif? tom;0gESifh ukef;xdu½kH; ... qHyifeufatmif? axmywfESifh qifwHk;rEG,f ... qifwHk;rEG,fvQufqm;... r,SOfEkdifaom aq;wpfzHk ('[wfoukdkif;ESifh EG,fcsKd) ... 143 143 143 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 144 144 144 (26) uRefawmfESifhaq;avmu aq;avmuESifhuRefawmf - rauG;0if;jrifh 145 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ avjzwfjcif;ab;uif;a0a&; ... BuKdUxkd;jcif;aysmufaq; ... avjzwfjcif;ESifh a&Smufaygif;&nf ... wkwfauG;zsm;aysmufaq; .... 0rf;udkufa&m*gaysmufaq; ... tqkwfa&m*gppfwrf; ... tqkwfa&m*g (jrpfajcmufem) aysmufaq; ... qD;usOf? qD;atmifhESifh ausmufysOf ... teEÅokccsufaq;ESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... rkwfcg;xkwfvkyfenf;ESifh &Sm;apmif;vufyyf ... 145 146 146 146 146 146 147 147 147 147 (27) usef;usef;rmrm csrf;csrf;omom - rauG;0if;jrifh 149 "mwfav;yg;n§daq; (qD;? 0rf;? aoG;? av) ... "mwfAl;ESifh qefjyKwf (*syefenf;ynm) ausmufwnfa&m*gESifh ql;yef;yGifh ... 149 149 149 1/ 2/ 3/ . . . 26 . . . rSwfc suf
  28. 28. rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11/ 12/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 19/ rsufpdtjyifwdrfaysmufaq; xdcdkuf'Pf&mtemrsm;ESifh csif; ... 'PfaMuvdrf;aq; ... um;rl;aysmufaq; ... qD;cPcPoGm;jcif;ESifh qD;usefa&m*g ... qD;oGm;aoG;yg ... om;onfrdcif EkdYrxGufaomf ... qD;csKdESifh Bwdu#Kwf ... ausmufuyfa&m*gESifh zvl;rawmifa0S;ukd,fa7mifaysmufaq; ... EG,fcsKd ... cHwGif;a&m*gESifh EG,fcsKd ... BudKUxkd;jcif;ESifh EG,fcsKd ... avxkd;avatmifha&m*gESifh EG,fcsKd ... a,musfm;taMumtm;enf;jcif;? yef;aoyef;ñId;jcif;ESifh &SOfhrwufO ... om;tdrfü tvHk;7SdolESifh wkdif;&if;aq;eHygwf (11) rkwfuJaq; ... yef;em&ifusyfESifh tpmukdavQmhpm;jcif; ... 149 150 150 150 150 150 150 151 151 151 152 152 152 152 152 153 (28) tkef;rIwfcGufeif;a&m*guif; - rauG;0if;jrifh 155 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ tkef;rIwfcGufeif;yHkeif;enf; ... tkef;rIwfcGufeif;vQif a&SmifMuOf&rnfhudpörsm; ... tkef;rIwfcGufeif;í yGJawGUaysmufaoma&m*grsm; ... ukd,fawGU MuKHrS ... odrfjzLq&mawmf Mo0g' ... qD;a&m*gvHk;0uif;pifapzkdY ... 155 155 155 156 156 156 ukd,fawGUa&m*gaysmufuif;jcif;rsm; 157 awmifvHk;jyefyif ... acG;ukdufcH&jcif;ESifh awmifvHk;jyefyif ... uifqmusdwfESifh awmifvHk;jyefyif ... taxGaxGa&m*grsm;ESifh awmifvHk;jyefyif ... oHpl;jcif;ESifh oMum;rIdif; ... a&,kefESifh oGm;wkdufaq;tjzL ... 157 158 158 159 159 160 a&m*gaysmufaq;enf;rsm; tu©&mpOftñTef; 161 (29) 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ (30) . . . 27 . . . rSwfc suf
  29. 29. rmwdum pOf (31) taMumif;t&m pmrsufESm pmudk;pm&if; 177 . . . 28 . . . rSwfc suf
  30. 30. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; uefawmhyef; • wif;ykyf? wJukyfxJwGifaeNyD; ... 'ku©qif;&JtrsKd;rsKd;cHum ... owå0grsm; toufukdu,fí ... a&m*ga0'emtrsKd;rsKd;wkdYukd ukoay;cJhaom ... wkdif;&if;jrefrmorm;awmfBuD;rsm;tm; ... ]] þpmtkyfjzifh }} vIdufvSJpGmOD;ESdrfcsí ... uefawmhyg .../ (okawoDjrifhxGef;) pmukd; ! okawoDjrifhxGef; ... 2003 Zefe0g&Dv? 'kwd,tBudrfxkwf ... ]] ckESpf&ufom;orD;rsm;? xkdodkYjzpfvQif þokdYvkyfyg }}... pmtkyfaumufEkwfcsuf .../ • 0oka`E´? þajraomfvnf; apmifpnf;rkom;? usifhaomtm;jzifh pum;opöm? rSefaomcgum; MoZmav;euf? ay:qDwufí EG,fjrufopfyif? aq;buf0if .../ &Sifr[moDv0Ho ( yg&rDcef;ysKdU ) • u½kPm? arwåmjzpfaomcgum; MoZmav;euf? ay:qDwufí EG,fjrufopfyif? aq;buf0if .../ u
  31. 31. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; c
  32. 32. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; 25.1.2006 WEEKLY ELEVEN NEWS NO.16, VOL.1 wG i f y g 0 if a omowif ; aqmif ; yg ; ... tcsKdUaom jrefrmaq;NrD;wdkrsm;onfa&m*ga0'emrsm;udk tvG,fwul oufomaysmufuif;aponf[k rD'D,m tcsKdUwGif usk,fus,fjyefYjyefY a&;om;azmfjyaeMujcif;ESifh pyfvsOf;í uRrf;usifaom taemufwkdif;aq;ynm&Sifrsm;u jrefrmaq;NrD;wkdrsm;ukd pepfwus okawoe jyKvkyfNyD;rSom rD'D,mrsm;wGif us,fus,fjyefYjyefY a&;om;azmfjyoifh aMumif; tMuHay; pum;ajymMum;vkdufonf[k owif;&&Sdonf/ ,cktcg jrefrmaq;zuf0if tyifwpfrsKd;jzpfaom plvmezmukda&m*gaygif;pkHaysmufuif;oufomonf[kqkdum t&nfuskdKaomufjcif;rsm; jrefrmEkdifiH wpfeHwpfvsm;wGifjyK vkyfvsuf&Sd&m ,if;taetxm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í &efukefNrKdU&Sd wkdif;&if;aq;½kHBuD;rS 'k - aq;½kHtkyfBuD; jzpfol a':pef;,katmifu ]]plvmezm aq;zuf0ifwmawmh rSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh aq;zHkawGxJrSm a&mNyD; azmfpyfwmrsKd;yJ toHk;jyKavh&Sdygw,f/ olYcsnf;oufoufoHk;zkdY uRefrwkdYbufu wpfcgrS rñTefMum;cJhzl;ygbl;/ a&&SnfpGJpGJNrJNrJ aomuf&if bmjzpfvmEkdifovJ qkdwm tcktcsdefxd rod&ao;ygbl; tckrS okawoejyKvkyfaewJh tqifhrSmyJ &Sdygao;w,f}} [kajymMum;cJhonf/ ,if;tjyif plvmezmyiftm; wpfqifhpum; wpfqifhem;jzifh vGefuJpGm oHk;pJGaeMujcif;rsm;tay: 0g&ifhwkdif;&if;aq;orm;awmfBuD; wpfOD;jzpfol OD;armifÓmPfu ]]wefaq;vGefab; qkdaompum;yHkt& rnfonhf t&mukdrQ vGefuJpGmroHk;oifhaMumif;? rdrdaeYpOf pm;aomufaeaom xrif;ESifh[if;ponfh t[m&rsm;ukdyifrsm;pGm pm;oHk;ygu tpmraMu &ifjynfh&ifu,f jzpfEkdifojzifh tjcm;rnfonfh t&mukdrQ tvGeftuRHroHk;pGJoifhaMumif;}} owday;pum; ajymMum;cJhonf/ ,cktcg tcsKdUaomrD'D,mrsm;ü jrefrmaq;NrD;wkdrsm;ukd aomufoHk;jcif;jzifh a&m*ga0'emrsm; oufomaysmufuif;apEkdifonf[k a&;om;azmfjycJhNyD; tcsKdUaoma0'em&Sifrsm;bufrSvnf; ,if;aq;NrD;wkdrsm;ukd tvG,fwul0,f,laomufoHk;vsuf&Sd&m tqdkygtaetxm;rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í tonf;a&m*gXme? ygarmu©Xmerª; a'gufwmcifarmif0if;u ]]tcktcsdefrSm rD'D,mu t&rf; powerful jzpfw,fav/ rD'D,mxJrSm xnfhNyD;a&;vdkuf&if jynfolvlxk&JU ESvHk;om;ukd ukdifvIyfoGm;wmrsKd;qkdawmh 'DtaMumif;t&mwpf&yfukd a&;r,fqkd&if 'D[mrSefw,f trsm;vufcHEkdifw,f/ odyHÜenf;us acwfrSDw,f/ acwfrDprf;oyfNyD;om;qkdwJh taxmuftxm;rsKd;&SdrS a&;oifhw,f/ vlwpfOD;wpfa,mufukd prf;oyfaysmufuif;½kHeJY a&;vkdYr&bl;/ okawoeqkdwm&Sdw,f/ tJ'grSefovm;? rSm;ovm;qkdwm okawoevkyfNyD;rS a&;oifhw,f/ tJ'Dvkd r[kwfbJ ukd,fwpfOD;wpfa,muf&JU BuKHawGU&wmukd tajccHNyD;a&;r,fqkd&if rD'D,mtay:rSm opömr&SdovkdjzpfoGm;r,f/ ukd,fhukd,fukd ,HkMunfukd;pm;wJhpmzwf y&dwfowff tusKd;ukd t&rf;owdxm; aqmif½Gufoifhw,f/ tJ'Dvkd r[kwfbl;qkd&if pmzwfy&dwfowftusKd;ukd trsm; BuD; xdckdufepfem oGm;apEkdifw,f}} [k&Sif;vif;ajymMum;oGm;cJhonf/ ½ku©aA' tac:t& Oldenlandia Corymbosa Linn [kac:aomplvmezmtyifrsm;rSm jrefrmEkdifiH ae&mtESHYtjym;wGif tavhusaygufa&mufavh&Sdaom tyifrsKd;jzpfNyD; ,cifu rnfolrQ tav;rxm;rdcJhaomfvnf; ,ck tcg wpfqifhpum; wpfqifhMum;&mrS a&m*gaygif;pkH aysmufuif;onf[k qkdum ,HkMunfrIvGefuJpGmjzifh vlwef;pm;ra&G; aomufoHk;vsuf&Sdonf[k avhvmolrsm;uqkdonf/ ,ckuJhokdY vltrsm;pku plvmezmyiftm; ,HkMunfrIvGefuJpGmjzifh 0,f,loHk;pGJaeMuaomfvnf; trSefwu,f tm;jzifh plvmezmyiftm; pepfwus "mwfcGJprf;oyfrIrsm; rjyKvkyf&ao;aMumif; wkdif;&if;aq;okawoeESifh zGHYjzdK;a&; OD;pD;XmerS 'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rª; OD;0if;jrifh ajymMum;csuft& od&Sd7onf/ xkdYtjyif tqkdygXmerS OD;pD;rª;wpfOD;jzpfol q&mr a':aeaeekdif&nf uvnf;aq;ynmuRrf;usifolrsm;r[kwfbJ wkdif;&if;aq;rsm;tMumif;ukd rD'D,mrsm;wGif azmfjy aeMujcif;ukdaq;ynm&Siftrsm;pku BudKufESpfoufjcif;r&Sd[kqkdonf/ wkdif;&if;aq;ynm&Siftrsm;pkESifh taemufwkdif;aq;ynm&Sifrsm;uyg obm0 twkdif;aygufaeonfh y&aq;yifrsm;tm;tvG,fwul aomufoHk;aeMujcif;rsm;tay: pkd;&drfaMumifhMurI &SdaeMuaomfvnf; rD'D,mtcsKdUwGif azmfjyyg&SdcJhaom taMumif;t&mrsm;rS wpfqifh plvmezmukd ,cktcg a&&SnfaomufoHk;aerIrsm; qufvufjzpfay: aeqJyifjzpfonf/ *
  33. 33. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; ,if;uJhodkY toHk;jyKrIaMumifh acgif;rl;í rtDromjzpfonfh a0'emukdcHpm;&um taemufwkdif;aq;ay;cef; wpfckokdY vma&mufaq;ukorI cH,lcJhol vlemwpfOD;u ]]plvmezm reufwpfcGuf nwpfcGufaomufNyD; &ifxJrSm tDvnfvnfBuD; jzpfvmygw,f/ olrsm;awGaumif;w,fqkdvdkY vkdufaomufMunfhwm reufu aq;cef;oGm;jyawmh ty:aoG; 100? atmufaoG; 50 yJ&Sdw,f/ tcknaeykdif;rSmvnf; rtDromBuD; qufjzpfaewmeJY aq;ceff;ukd vmcJhwmyg}} [k olrBuHKawGUcHpm;&orQukd taxGaxGa&m*gukq&m0efwpfOD;tm; &ifzGifhajymMum;cJhonf/ plvmezm aomufoHk;jcif;aMumifh ,ckuJhokdY rvkdvm;tyfonfh ab;xGufqkd;uskdK;rsm; BuHKawGUae&onf rsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í taxGaxGa&m*gukq&m0efwpfOD;u uRefawmfhaq;cef;ukd plvmezmaomufNyD; rtDromjzpfvkdY vmwJh vlem&Sdovkd qD;eDNyD; 0rf;trnf;oGm;vkdY vmwJhvlemawG oHk;OD;avmuf &SdcJhygw,f/ 'geJY uRefawmfvnf; plvmezmtaMumif; jynfhjynfhpkHpkHodcsifvkdY &SmMunfhwJhtcg WHO SEARO pmMunfhwkdufrSm odrf;qnf;xm;wJh plvmezmeJY ywfoufwJh pmwrf;wpfapmifukd zwf½IcJh&ygw,f/ tJ'Dpmwrf;[m 1986 ckepf? rwfvu csKvmavmifuGef aq;ynm*sme,frSm azmfjyxm;wJh pmwrf;yJjzpfygw,f/ pmwrf;&JU tqkdt& plvmezm wkdufauR;jcif;ukd <uufrsm;ESifh prf;oyfcJh&mrSm plvmezmwkduftNyD; 12 ywftMumrSm tJ'D<uufawG&JU o&uf½GufawG[m rlvxuf BuD;vmNyD; tonf;tifZkdif;rsm; wufvmwmukdvnf; awGU&w,fvkdYqkdygw,f}} [k ajymMum;cJhonf/ ,if;tjyif jrefrmEkdifiH aq;okawoeXmerS wkdif;&if;aq; "mwfcGJuRrf;usifolwpfOD;u ]]obm0ayguf tyifawGqkdayr,fh tyifwkdif;rSm rvkdvm;tyfwJh "mwfypönf;awG yg0ifaeavh&dSygw,f/ wcskKdUtyifawGrSmqdk&if oH"mwfawG vkdtyfwmxuf trsm;BuD; ykd, yg0ifaewwfygw,f/ EGm;EkdYwkdY bmwkdYeJY tckd;owfNyD;rS oHk;pGJvdkY&wJh tyifrsKd;awGvnf; &Sdygw,f/ wcsKdUusjyefawmh okH; av;cgavmuf jyKwfNyD;rS okH;pGJvkdY&wJh tyifrsKd;awGvnf; &dSaewwfygw,f/ aq;NrD;wkdukd oHk;pGJr,fqkd&if em;vnfwwfuRrf;wJhol wpfOD;OD;eJY wkdifyifNyD;rS oHk;pGJoifhygw,f tJ'Dvkdr[kwfbJ ukd,fhoabmeJYukd,f tvG,fwul 0,f,loHk;pGJr,fqkd&if rvkdvm;tyfwJh qkd;usKd;awG 7ifqkdif&Ekdifygw,f}} [k tMuHay;pum; ajymMum;cJhonf/ ,cifumvrsm;twGif;u jreffrmEkdifiHwGif aq;okawoeOD;pD;Xme[lí Xmewpfckwnf;om &SdaecJhaomfvnf; ,cktcg aq;okawoeOD;pD;Xme jreffrmjynf atmufykdif;? tv,fykdif;ESifh txufykdif;[lí XmeoHk;cktxd wkd;csJU zGJUpnf;EkdifcJhNyD;jzpfNyD; ,if;aq;okawoeOD;pD;XmeBuD;oHk;ckwGif a&m*grsm; umuG,fukoEkdifonfh y&aq; trskKd;rsKd;ukd &SmazGpkaqmif;xm;&Sdum okawoevkyfief;rsm; pepfwus aqmif½Gufvsuf&SdaMumif; od&Sd&onf .../ owif;t,f'DwmtzGJU? "mwfyHk - C SN /
  34. 34. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; 25.1.2006 WEEKLY ELEVEN NEWS NO.16, VOL.1 wG i f y g 0 if a omowif ; aqmif ; yg ; ES i f h y wf o uf í ... plvmezmeJY ywfoufvkdY om*'kd;u a&m*gawG awmfawmfaysmufuif;aMumif; a&;xm;wmeJY ywfoufNyD; wkdif;&if;aq;½HkBuD;rS 'kaq;½HktkyfBuD;u ]]plvmezm aq;zuf0ifwmawmhrSefygw,f/ 'gayr,fh aq;zHkawGxJrSm a&mNyD; azmfpyfwmrsKd;yJ toHk;jyKavh&Sdygw,f ... olUcsnf;oufouf oHk;zkdY uRefrwkdYbufu wpfcgrS rñTefMum;cJhygbl; .../ a&&SnfpGJpGJNrJNrJaomuf&if bmjzpfvmEkdifovJqkdwm tckcsdeftxd rod&ao;ygbl; tckrS okawoejyKvkyfaewJh tqifhyJ &Sdygao;w,f}} [k ajymMum;cJhygw,f wJh/ ]]plvmezmcsnf; oufoufoHk;zkdY wpfcgrS rñTefMum;cJhzl;yg}} qkdwmeJYywfoufNyD; ajymvkdwmuawmh usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme? wkdif;&if;aq;ynmOD;pD;Xmeu 2003ck? Zefe0g&DvrSm ]]ukd;um;usrf;tjzpf toHk;jyKvkdolrsm; arQmfvifhawmif;wrIrsm;ukd jznfhqnf;ay;Ekdifa&;twGuf qkdNyD; ]]vufawGUtoHk;cs aq;zuftyif rsm;aygif;csKyf}} tjzpf jyKpkxkwfa0cJhwJh yxrtBudrfxkwfpmtkyf pmrsufESm (448)rSm plvmezmeJY ywfowfNyD; azmfjy xm;csuf tcsKdUukd atmufygtwkdif; avhvmzwf½IcJh&ygw,f .../ ]]plvmezmyifukd tajcmufjzpfap tpkdjzpfap oHk;cGufwpfcGufwif jyKwfí &uf&SnfrSD0Jjcif;jzifh ptkdü aygufaom rufuavmifemrsm;ukd aysmufuif;apygonf/ cE¨mukd,fwGif;&Sd temrsm;ukdvnf; ref;aMuí oufom aysmufuif;apygonf .../ ]]plvmezmjyKwf&nfonf qD;ukd &Tifaponf/ ukd,fa&0ga&m*g (tonf;a&miftom;0ga&m*g) ukdoufom aysmufuif;apygonf}} .../ a&&SnfpGJpGJjrJjrJ aomufzkdYawmh r[kwfbl; &uf&SnfrSD0JzkdYyg wJh .../ 'gayr,fh wkdif;&if;aq;½HkBuD;u ñTefMum;xm;wmawmh r[kwfbl;cifAsmh/ usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xme? wkdif;&if; aq;ynmOD;pD;Xmeu a&;om;azmfjyxm;wJh ]]vufawGUtoHk;cs aq;zuftyifrsm; aygif;csKyfpmtkyfrSm azmfjyxm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm wkdif;&if;aq;½HkBuD;eJY wkdif;&if;aq;ynmOD;pD;Xme rwlbl;qkd&ifawmh xm;vkdufygawmhav .../ plvmezmeJY ywfoufvkdY om*'kd;[m plvmezm (2) pmtkyfxJrSm ajymjyoGm;wm wpfck&Sdygao;w,f/ vnfyif;BuD;a&m*gukd plvmezm (wpfrsKd;wnf;) BudKaomuf&ef ... q&mBuD;OD;OmPfvGifukd,fwkdif oifMum;?ñTefjy cJhwmygcifAsm (jrefrmEkdifiH wkdif;&if;aq;aumifpD0if jrefrmEkdifiH wkdif;&if;aq;q&mtoif; Ouú| jzpfonfh q&mBuD;OD;OmPfvGif) 'Dae&mrSmq&mBuD; OD;OmPfvGif ajymjycsufukd jyefvnf azgufonfcs&rnfqkd&if .../ ]]'DvkdAs ukd'kd;& plvmezmyif&JU *kPfowådu tylukdEkdifNyD; acszsufwwfwJh owådxl;&Sdw,f/ ukd,fwGif;tylNidrf; apNyD;? ukd,fwGif;tyleJY ywfoufvkdY jzpfwJha&m*grSeforQukdacszsuf aysmufuif;apw,f/ oljyKwfaomufwmukdu a&m*gtrsm;BuD;aysmufwm/ vnfyif;BuD;vmwmawGvnf;aysmufw,f/ tpmtdrfvrf;aMumif;udpöawGvnf;aysmuf w,fAsm}} / q&mBuD;qufvufrdefYonfrSm ... ]]uRefawmfwkdY jrefrmorm;awmftzGJU w½kwfjynfoGm; avhvmMunf½IMuawmh [kdrSmvJ 'D ... plvmezmowådukd ,HkMunfod&SdNyD; odyfukdoHk;aeMuwmukd;Asmh/ olwkdYodwm oHk;wm usKyfwkdY twkdif;yJ aq;awGrSm plvmezmxnfhoHk;wmrsm;pGm&Sdw,f/ NyD;awmh w½kwftrsKd;om;rsm; ukd,fwkdifuvnf; usKyfwkdY ½kd;&mtwkdif;yJ plvmezm ukd a&m*gpHk twGuf tawmfukd jyKwfaomufw,f/ usKyfwkdY odovkdyJav uifqmtwGuf? tpmtdrfvrf;twGuf? vnfyif;twGuf jyKwfaomufwmukdawGUodvmcJhwmygyJ ..../ usKyfwkdYu plvmezmvkdYac:wmukd olwkdYu a>rjzLyif (ykdufcsJ½Sf) vkdY a&S;½kd;tac:eJY ac:w,fav/ tac:uGJaomfvnf; tyifuawmh 'DtyifygyJav}} .../ ponfjzifh q&mBuD;OD;OmPfvGif u&Sif;vif;rdefYMum;oGm;ygonf .../ NyD;awmh 'Daq;NrD;wkdawGeJY ywfoufvkdY okawoejyKNyD;rS oHk;pGJ&r,fqkd&if wpfckawmhar;csifygw,f... taemufwkdif; aq;0g;awGtm;vHk;[m okawoejyKNy;rS xGufay:vmMuwmvm; okawoejyKNyD; aocsmrS D xkwfvkyfjzeYfjzL; oHk;pGJMuw,f qkd&ifvnf; ar;cGef;wpfck xyfar;csifygw,f/ tJ'Dpdwfcs&wJh aq;0g;awGeJY uko&if oHk;pGJolwkdif; a&m*grS vGwfajrmufMuygovm; a&m*groufomwJh vlema7m r&SdEkdifbl;vm; pOf;pm;p&mygyJ .../ i
  35. 35. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; 'gqkd&if azmfjyyg owif;aqmif;yg;rSmygwJh plvmezm aomufoHk;rIaMumifh aq;cef;awGukd a&mufvmwJh vlem oHk;av;ig;OD;avmuf &Sdw,fqkd&ifvJ 'g[m jzpf½kd;jzpfpOf jzpfwwfavh&SdwJh udpöjzpfoGm;ygNyD/ aocsmwdusygw,fqkdwJh okawoejyKxm;NyD; jzpfygw,fqkdwJh aq;0g;awGeJY ukowmawmifrS a0'em&Sifwkdif; roufom raysmufuif;Mubl; qkd&if NyD;awmh pdwfcs&ygw,fqkdwJh aq;awGaMumifh ab;xGufqkd;usKd;awGukd a&m*g&SifawG cHpm;Mu&ygw,f qkd&if 'DplvmezmeJY uko&mrSmvJ tJ'DvkdyJjzpfwm bmrStjypfwifp&mr&Sdygbl; .../ NyD;awmh owif;aqmif;yg;xJrSm a&;xm;wmu]]aq;NrD;wkdukd oHk;pGJr,fqkd&if em;vnfwwfuRrf;ol wpfOD;OD; eJYwkdifyifNyD;rS oHk;pGJoifhygw,f}} wJh .../ 'Dtqkdukdawmh uRefawmfwkdYvJ axmufcHaMumif;yg/ aq;NrDwkdrS r[kwfygbl; b,faq;rsdK;ukdrqdk aoaocsmcsm *CeP rodbJ a&m*gaysmufcsifaZmBuD;vkdY 'grSr[kwf ukd,hfrSmvJ a&m*gaxGaxG xl;xl; r&SdbJ vlajymrsm;vkdY a,mifawmifaygifawmifeJY oHk;pGJwmqkd&ifawmh rvkdvm;tyfwJh qkd;usKd;awG&Ekdifygw,f qdkwm [kwfrSefaMumif;yg .../ 'gqdk&if olUtvkdvkd &Sif;oGm;ygNyD;/ tckjzpfwJhudpörSmvJ plvmezm&JU tjypfr[kwfyg/ aq;oHk;pGJol&JU tjypfom jzpfaMumif;yg/ pmtkyfa&;ol&JU tjypfr[kwfyg/ pmzwfol&JU tjypfom jzpfaMumif;ygcifAsm .../ 'Dudpöukd qufajym&r,fqkd&if plvmezm vufwpfqkyukd oHk;cGufwpfcGufwif usKdNyD; wpfaeYwpfzefcGuf f aomuf&rSm tJ'Dvkdr[kwfbJ plvmezm ig;q,fom;avmufukd usKdxm;NyD; reufwpfcGuf nwpfcGuf tukefESufrdNyDqkd &ifawmh b,folrS wwfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;/ NyDawmh ñTef;Mum;csufu oHk;cGufwpfwifusKd&rSm a7oHk;cGufxnfhNyD; a&wpfcGufpmom usefonftxd pdwf&Snfvuf&SnfeJY usKd&rSm 'gukd rD;aoG; (avmifpm) ESajrmNyD;a&ql½Hk usKdaomufrd&ifvnf; tajzu wpfrsKd;jzpfoGm;rSm a&qlatmifusKdw,fqkd&if awmfao;wmaygh a&urqlao;bl; yl½HkusKdNyD; aomufrd&ifvJ xGufvmr,fh &v'fu wpfrsKd;jzpfoGm;jyefa&m .../ NyD;awmh ajrBuD;xJu tyifaygif;pHkxJu Ekwfvm&wJhtwGuf tjcm;rvkdvm;wJh tyifawG? oefY&Sif;rI&dSatmif a&pifpifMu,fMu,f raq;wmwkdY aq;usKdwJhtkd; roefYwmwkdY ponfjzifh rvkdvm;tyfwJh qkd;usKd;awGu trsm;BuD;yg/ 'guawmh plvmezmwpfrsKd;wnf;omr[kwfbJ aq;yif? aq;½Guftm;vHk;eJY oufqkdifygw,f/ 'gaMumifh plvmezmwif ruygbl;/ b,faq;aomufaomuf rvkdvm;tyfwJh qkd;usKd;[m &SdpNrJyg .../ NyD;awmh azmfjyxm;wJh owif;aqmif;yg;xJrSm aq;ynm uRrf;usifolrsm; r[kwfbJ wkdif;&if;aq; taMumif;ukd rD'D,m wGifazmfjyaejcif;ukd aq;ynm&Siftrsm;pku BudKufESpfoufjcif; r&SdMuyg/ 'Dae&mrSm aq;ynm&Sif trsm;pk (vlenf;pk) uom rBudKufwmyg/ tajccHvlwef;pm; awmfawmfrsm;rsm; (vlrsm;pk) uawmh BudKufESpfoufMuygw,f/ bmaMumifhvJqkdawmh pmtkyfBuD;twkdif; r[kwfbJ vufawGUvlUabmifBuD;eJY aoaocsmcsmukd vkdufavsmnDaxG&SdaevkdYygyJ/ pmtkyfwpftkyf atmifjrifwm[m rD'D,mu powerful jzpfwm r[kwfygbl;/ jynfoltrsm;pkaMumifh powerful jzpfvmwmyg/ jynfoltrsm;pku tm;ay;vkdY csD;ajr§mufvkdY powerful jzpfvmwmyg/ jynfolubmvkdY tm;ay;&wmvJ jynfol&JU wu,fvkdtyfcsufukd vufawGUusus jznfhqnf;ay;EkdifvkdYygyJ .../ pmzwfol trsm;pk[m aq;ynm&SifawG r[kwfygbl; (aq;ynm&SifawGvnf; yg0ifaumif;yg0ifEkdifygw,f) aq;ynm&SifawG r[kwfovkd evydef;wHk; awGvnf;r[kwfygbl; [kwfrSausmfwmyg/ plvmezmaMumifh tqifrajyol av;ig;OD; &SdEkdifNyD; plvmezmeJY tqifajy pdwfcsrf;omoGm;olawGvnf; rsm;pGm&SdMuygw,f/ xkdenf;wlyJ taemufwkdif; aq;eJY ukvdkY tqifrajyol av;ig;OD; &SdEkdifovkd tqifajyolrsm;pGmvnf; &SdMurSmtrSefyg/ uavmift&Sdeft0g ukd tm;ukd;NyD; r[kwfwmukd [kwfoa,mif a&;aewmygqkd&ifvnf; pma7;jcif; twwfynmeJY uavmift&dSeft0geJY vlwpfa,mufukd vdrfvkdY&r,f ... ESpfa,mufukd vdrfvdkY&r,f wpfEkdifiHvHk;rSm&SdwJh pmzwfy&dwfowfukdawmh vdrfvdkYr& Ekdifygbl;cifAsm/ 'gaMumifh om*'kd;qkdwJh uavmift&Sdeft0gaMumifh vdkufvkyfMuwm r[kwfygbl; wu,fa&m*gawG aysmufuif;NyD; ukd,fusef;rm pdwfcsrf;omoGm;olawGrsm;vkdY vdkufvkyfMuwmyg .../ ykyfrSay:wmyg ... [kwfrSausmfwmyg .../ owif;aqmif;yg;xJrSm a&;xm;wmu ]]vlwpfa,mufukd prf;oyfaysmufuif;½HkeJY a&;vkdYr&bl; rSefovm;rSm; ovm; okawoejyKvkyfNyD;rS a&;oifhw,f/ tJ'DvkdrSr[kwfbJ ukd,fwpfOD;wpfa,muf&JU awUGMuHK&wmudk tajccHNyD; a&;r,fqkd&if rD'D,mtay: opömr&Sdovkd jzpfoGm;r,f/ ukd,fhukd ,HkMunfukd;pm;wJh pmzwfy&dwfowf tusdK;ukd t&rf;owdxm; aqmif½Gufoifhw,f/ tJ'DvkdrS r[kwfbl;qkd&if pmzwfy&dwfowftusKd;ukd trsm;BuD; xdckdufepfem oGm;apEkdifygw,f}} vdkdY a&;xm;wm zwf&ygw,f .../ p
  36. 36. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; 'gqkd&if jrefrmEkdifiHrSm&SdwJh aq;jrD;wdkpmtkyfaygif; ajrmufrsm;pGma&;wJh pma&;ol awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m rD'D,mtay: opömr&Sdovkd jzpfoGm;NyDayghaemf/ olwdkY&JU pmzwfy&dwfowftay: opömr&Sdovdk jzpfoGm;NyDayghaemf .../ bmaMumifhvJqkdawmh olwdkY[m okawoeynm&SifawG r[kwfvkdYygyJ .../ olwkdY[m rdrdwkdYodwmav;udk rdrdodovdk ½kd;½kd;av;yJ pmzwfy&dwfowfukd wifjyoGm;wJhoabm/ okawoe vkyfxm;wmawG uRefawmfawmh rawGUzl;yg/ pmzwfy&dwfowfuvnf; okawoevkyfwm rvkyfwmawG pDppfraeygbl;/ aq;enf;av;wpfck rdrdwkdYeJY tyfpyfoGm;NyDqkd&if pma&;oltay: aus;Zl;wifMuwmygyJ/ tJ! rtyfpyfbl; qkd&ifvnf; b,folY b,fol ukdrS tjypfwifraebJ uHw&m;twkdif;bJqkdNyD; oabmxm;vdkufMuygw,f/ cGifhvGwfvkdufMuygw,f/ 'g[m jrefrmwkdY&JU cspfp&m"avhyg .../ 'DudpöeJY ywfowfNyD; wpfzuftjrift& opömr&Sdovkd ajymMuqkdMuayr,fhvnf; pmzwfoluawmh aus;Zl;&Sifwpfa,mufvkd jrifrSmtrSefygyJ/ bmaMumifhvJqkdawmh ESpf&Snfvrsm; ESdyfpufcHae&wJh a&m*ga0'emtwGuf rdrdwkdY twkdif;twmt& ykdufqHawGuvnf; aomufaomufvJukef a&m*gjzpfolomru rdompk0iftm;vHk;rSmvnf; pdwfqif;&JMu/ tJ'Dvkd 'ku©qif;&J tcuftcJ trsKd;rsKd;eJY BuHKawGUae&pOfrSmyJ rdcifajrBuD;ay:u tvum;eD;yg; &&dSvdkufwJh t½Gufav; wpfrsKd;xJeJY wu,fa&m*gawG aysmufuif;oGm;w,fqkd&if (wu,fa&m*gaysmufwJholawG trsm;BuD;&Sdygw,f/) a&m*gonf wpfa,mufxJrS r[kwfygbl;/ olYrdom;pk aqGrsKd; todkif;t0kdif;yg b,favmuf pdwfcsrf;omMurvJ ... ajymay;wJYol a&;wJholukdvnf; jrefrmyDyD aus;Zl;&SifvdkY owfrSwfMurSmyg/ aus;Zl;&SifvdkY rowfrSwfrdwmawmifrS ]]aMomf ... olajymvkdY a&m*gaysmufwm armifrif;BuD;om; usef;rmygap csrf;omygapawmf}} qdkNyD; &ifxJtonf;xJuae arwåmykdYrdrSmawmh trSefyg}} (tJ'DvkdarwåmrsKd;u pl;pl;&S&S jzpfwwfw,faemf ... ayghao;ao;rxifeJY) .../ NyD;awmh tJ'Dvkd vlrsKd;awGuyJ vlowif; vlcsif;aqmifcJhvdkY 'Dplvmezm[m emrnfBuD; vm&wmyg .../ 'DtaMumif;awGukdvnf; tcsKdUq&m0efawG ukd,fwkdif odukefMuygNyD/ a'gufwmatmifEkdifwkdY ZeD;armifESHqkd&if t½Gufav; (4)½GufpD 0g;pm;Mu½kHeJY ZeD;armifESH ESpfOD;pvHk; cHpm;ae&wJh 0rf;ukdufa&m*g wpfcgpm;½HkeJY wpfcsufwnf; aysmufoGm;wm wpfOD;wpfa,muf&JU tawGUtBuHK r[kwfbl;aemf ... ZeD;armifESH ESpfa,mufpvHk;&JU tawGU tBuHKqkdawmh ykdNyD; aocsmoGm;wmaygh/ 'Dudpöukdvnf; a'gufwmatmifEkdifu ESpfOD;ESpfa,muf&JU tawGtBuHKt& a&;wmyg/ okawoeawmh vkyfcJh[ef rwlygbl;/ 'gqdk a'gufwmatmifEdkifvnf; om*'dk;vkdyJ rD'D,mtay: opömr&dSovdk jzpfoGm;NyDayghaemf/ pum;quf&&if a'gufwmatmifEkdifwkdY pm;okH;cJhwJh t½Guf[m plvmezmawmh r[kwfygbl;/ ,ckacwf a&yef;pm;aewJh Kiss me quick qdkwJh tyif&JU t½GufygyJ/ ½ku©aA'tac:t0: uawmh ]]&Sm;apmif;od*Feduf}} yg .../ 'Dae&mrSm wpfckvmwkdufqkdifaewmu a'gufwmatmifEkdifwkdYukd 'Dt½Gufpm;zkdY vrf;ñTefvkdufoluawmh om*'kd;&JU aus;Zl;&Sif wkdif;&if;aq;aumifpD0if q&mBuD;OD;ÓmPfvGifyJ jzpfygw,f cifAsm (a'gufwmatmifEkdif azGazG&Sm&Sm wkdif;&if;aq;ynmpmtkyfrS) .../ NyD;awmh owif;aqmif;yg;rSm a&;xm;wm &Sdygao;w,f ]]tifwmeufxJrSm &SmMunfhwJtcg tJ'DplvmezmaMumifh <uufawG&JU o&uf½Guf[m rlvxuf BuD;vmNyD; tonf;tifZdkif;rsm; wufvmonfukdvnf; awGU&ygw,f}} wJh/ o&uf½GufBuD;vm&if tifZdkif;wufvm&if <uufawG bmjzpfwwfvJ/ aumif;wmvm; raumif;bl;vm;/ <uufawG tJovdkjzpf&if vlawGa&m bmjzpfwwfvJ/ pmu ynm&Sifqefaew,f/ vltrsm;pk bmrSvJ em;vnfrSm r[kwfbl;/ NyD;awmh tifwmeufvdk BuD;us,f us,fjyefYvSwJh urÇmBuD;xJrSm &Smwmawmif 'gav;yJ awGUovm;Asm .../ wu,fhurÇm? wu,fhobm0 avmuBuD;xJrSm qif;&SmMunfhprf;yg/ vufwpfurf;rSmyJ &Sdygw,f/ trsm;BuD; trsm;BuD; &Sdygw,f/ plvmezmaumif;aMumif;a&m? plvmezm raumif;aMumif;a&m e,fryg? rEÅav;ryg? 7efukefrSmwif taMumif;t&m tcsuftvufawG trsm;BuD; &Ekdifygw,f/ vufawGUqefwJh tzkd;wef okawoe vkyfief;oabmrsKd;vnf; vkyfvkdY&ygw,f/ trSefawmh jrefrmhaq;ynm[m trSefw&m;jzpfw,fqkdwm vufawGU oabmaygufoGm;rSmyg .../ NyD;awmh plvmezmvdk jyóemrsKd; a&SUykdif;umvrSmvnf; jzpfcJhzl;ygw,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u jzpfcJhwm plvmezmawmh r[kwfbl; uGrf;½Gufudpöyg/ rsufpduGrf;uyfwJhudpöyg/ 'DuGrf;½GufuyfwJh udpöjzpfcJhwmukd plvmezmeJY EIdif;,SOfNyD; trSefw&m; (opömw&m;) wpfckay:vGifatmif om*'kd;&JU plvmezm (1) xJutwkdif; a&;jy&r,fqkd&if .../ q
  37. 37. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; *sme,fwpfapmifrSm rsufpda&m*gtwGuf uGrf;uyfwm tEÅ&m,fygvkdY a&TbHkomtxl;ukaq;cef;u txift&Sm; q&m0efBuD;wpfOD;u ]]uavmift&Sdeft0gukd txifBuD;NyD; vlawGu ,Hkxif aMumifxif txifwBuD; jzpfum rsufvHk;uGrf;uyfwJh tavhjzpfMuwm awmfawmfrSm;aew,fwJh/ uGrf;½Gufqkdwm rsufvHk;jyefaumif;zkdY bmtmedoifrS r&Sdbl;}} wJh .../ 'Dtqifhtxd zwfMunfhNyD;MuNyDqkd&if 'Dq&m0efBuD;[m taemufwkdif;aq;ynmawGukd rD;ukef,rf;ukef wwfuRrf;csif wwfuRrf;r,f/ uGrf;½GuftaMumif;ukdawmh *CeP rodbl;qkdwm xif&Sm;aeygNyD/ NyD;awmh uGrf;½GuftMumif;a&;xm;wJh pmtkyfawGukdvnf; rzwfzl;aMumif; xif&Sm;aeygNyD/ NyD;awmh uGrf;½GuftaMumif; wwfuRrf;em;vnfwJh ynm&SifawGeJYvnf; awGUqHkaqG;aEG; ar;jref;pHkprf;jcif; r&SdcJhbl; qkdwm xif&Sm;aeygNyD/ 'gu jrefrmwkdY&JU 7GufacgufoD;jrpf aq;ynmtMumif;ukd tenf;tusOf; zwfzl;wJhvlawmif aq;ynm&Sif r[kwf wmawmif odEkdifwJh ay:vGifxif&Sm;wJh tcsufwpfcsufygyJ/ om*'kd;a&;wJh q&m0efBuD;ajymw,fqkdwJh pum;[m trSefjzpfcJh&ifayghav .../ uJ! qufzwfMunfhr,faemf ... ]]rsufvHk;jyefaumif;zkdY bmtmedoifrS r&Sdygbl;wJh/ vlawGrSm tEÅ&m,fawmif &Sdw,fwJh/ a&wdrf&Sdolukd jrefjrefrukjzpfbJ uGrf;uyfaeMur,fqkd&if ysufqD;zkdYyJ&Sdw,f/ ab;rsm;w,fwJh/ pifppf i,fpOfrSm tEkwfvu©Pm rsufrSefwyfcJh&ol[m toufBuD;vm&if tvkdvkd rsufvHk;jyefaumif;wmeJY uGrf;½Gufuyf rdwmeJY wdkufqkdifNyD; rsufvHk;jyefaumif;vmwmukd rSm;,Gif;NyD;awmY vlawGuvnf; uavmift&Sdeft0geJY t[kwfxifum vdkufvkyfMu}} .../ 'Dae&mrSm om*'kd;a&;wJhpmukd cP&yfNyD; jzwfajym&r,fqkd&if ]]vlawGuvnf; uavmift&Sdeft0geJY t[kwfxifum vkdufvkyfMu}} qkdwJh q&m0efBuD;&JU a&;om;csufuawmh om*'kd;wifrubl; pmzwfy&dwfowfukdyg 0g;vHk;&SnfeJY odrf;½kdufvdkufwm ½kdufcsufemoAsm/ rsufpuGrf;½Gufuyfjcif; pmukdzwfrdwJh pmzwfolukdyg apmfum; d xm;jyefNyD/ txifao;wJh pum;vHk;awG oHk;xm;jyefNyD .../ 'Dq&m0efBuD;&JU qkdvdkwJh t"dyÜg,fu om*'kd;u olYuavmif t&Sdeft0geJY r[kwfwmawG a&;xm;wmawmif pmzwfolu rsufuef;,HkMunfrIt& ... uavmift&Sdeft0geJY vdkufvkyfMuwJhoabm/ aocsmoGm;jyefNyD 'Dq&m0efBuD;[m &efukefNrdKU&JU pmtkyfa&mif;&wJh oabmw&m;ukd rodjyefbl;/ pmtkyfwpftkyf&JU atmifjrifausmfMum;rI? pmzwfol&JU yg;pyfzsm;a&mufvmrI qkdwmawG[m uavmift&Sdeft0g wpfckwnf;eJY r&ygbl;/ pmaumif;zkdYt"duyg NyD;awmh uavmift&Sdeft0gaemuf pmzwfolu vkduf&atmifvnf; 'DpmawG[m taysmfzwfpmayawG r[kwfygbl; .../ NyD;awmh om*'kd;ajymwkdif; ,Hk&atmifuvnf; pmzwfolawGrSm trSm; trSefukd qHk;jzwfEkdifwJh qifjcifwHkw&m; r&Sdawmhbl;rsm; xifaea&mhovm;Asm/ pmzwfolawGukd odrf;BuHK;NyD; vufvGwfpy,f txifrao;oifhygbl; .../ om*'kd;a&;cJhwJh pum;vHk;twkdif; q&m0efBuD; ajymcJh&ifayghav .../ uJ! om*'kdk;&JU pmukdqufMu&atmifyg ... ]]vlawGuvnf; uavmift&Sdeft0geJY ... t[kwfxifum vkdufvkyfMu/ tJ'g uGrf;uyftavh jzpfwmygyJ/ trSefu bmrSrqkdifbl; wJh/ rsufvHk;aumif;zkdY uGrf;½GufrSm bmtpGrf;rS r&Sdbl;wJh/ trSm; rvkdufzkdY owday;ygw,f}} qkdNyD; a&TbHkom txl;ukaq;cef;BuD;u a&;ajym ajymNyD; wD;vdkufwmygyJ .../ 'gu q&m0efBuD; wpfa,muftaMumif; .../ aemufxyf q&m0efBuD; wpfa,mufuvnf; ajymygao;w,f.../ aemufxyf ... rsufpdtxl;uk q&m0efBuD;wpfOD; uvnf; ... ]]bm ... bm ... uGrf;½Gufuyf? bmuyf qkdwmawGukd vkyfaeMuwmvJ .../ tJ'g vHk;0r[kwfbl;/ uGrf;½GufeJY rsufvHk;rIefwm jyefraumif;Ekdifbl;/ wu,f rsufvHk;rIefwm jyefaumif;&if ... 'gukd vkyfjyEkdifol[m ... urÇmYEkdb,fqk ay;cH&rSm {uef{uefyJ}} wJh/ 'Dvdk ... uvsmr*¾Zif;rSm cyfaxmifaxmif ajymifajymifa&;wm cH7zl;ygw,f .../ EkdY 'Dq&mBuD;rsm;u uGrf;uyfwmukd bmvdkdY? tjyif;txef uefYuGuf? qefYusifawG vkyfae&wmvJ .../ t"du uawmh uRefawmf (om*'kd;) ukd bmrod nmrod vlajymolajym wkdvDrkdvD vkyfpm;aew,fvdkY txifwao; awG;NyD; ckvdk cyfjyif;jyif; eif;aeMuwm jzpfykH&wmygyJ/ ck ... rsufvHk;uGrf;uyfwmukd uRefawmf ('kd;) wkdvDrkpöeJY vkyfwm r[kwf&yg .../ Z
  38. 38. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; þokdY ... uGrf;uyfí rsufpd'D*&Dcs&efukd oifjyay;olrSm jrefrmwkdif;&if;aq;orm;awmfBuD; q&mBuD;OD;ÓmPfvGif jzpfygw,fcifAsm/ q&mBuD;OD;ÓmPfvGif[m tck jrefrmhwkdif;&if;aq;aumifpD tzGJU0ifwpfOD;vnf; jzpfygw,f/ a&TbHkomtxl;ukaq;cef;u q&m0efBuD;u ukd,feJY ra0;vSwJhae&m&dS q&mBuD;OD;ÓmPfvGifxH oGm;NyD; ]]uGrf;½GuftpGrf;}} udpö ... aqG;aEG; avhvmr,fqkd&ifjzifh tusKd;rsm;zkdY&Sdr,f xifygw,f/ tJ jrefrmAkdufu arG;xGufaomfvnf; jrefrmhaq;ukd arG;uwnf;u txifwao; qkd&ifawmhvnf; ravQmufcsifawmhbl; ayhgAsm .../ tcsdefumv ... 1980ckESpf? pufwifbmvrSm ... twdtuseJYukd ajymyg qkdygw,fAsm/ uRefawmfom*'kd;eJY OD;cspfarmifqkdwJh yk*d¾KvfwkdY q&mBuD;OD;ÓmPfvGifxHrSm qHkrdMuygw,f/ OD;cspfarmifqkdwm b@a7;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD;yg/ q&mBuD;u ]]cifAsm;wkdY rsufrSefxlBuD;awGeJYAsm ... 'D*&DusNyD; rsufrSefawG uRwfoGm;atmif cifAsm;wkdYukd enf;vrf; ay;OD;rSyJ}} qkdNyD; ... uGrf;½Gufuyfenf;ukd ay;cJhwmyg .../ (1980r[kwf ... 1988 jzpfEkdifygonf) .../ 'Dtcsdefwkef;u 'kd;[m vkyfom;jynfolUaeYpOfowif;pmrSm 'kwd,t,f'DwmcsKyfyg/ uRefawmfwkdY ESpfa,mufvHk; jyu©'defrSm trSwftom;awGvkyfNyD; tNydKif uGrf;uyfcJhMuygw,f/ OD;cspfarmifu tHhMop&m uGrf;uyfí 7SpfvtMum (89? arv) rSm vGwfvyfNyD; rsufrSef uRwfoGm;ygawmhw,f/ uRefawmfuawmh owif;pmtvkyfukd nOfheufoef;acgif txd tvkyfvkyfae&í rsufrSeftuRwf aemufus&vm;yJ rodygAsm .../ uGrf;uyfonfESifh uRefawmf'kd;onf r[mAE¨Kvvrf;? yef;yJwef;or0g,r ... rsufrSefqdkifoGm;NyD; pepfwus rSwfwrf;vkyfygw,f/ xkdqkdif&Sd rsufrSefuRrf;usifynm&Sif ukdwifxGef; (aomfwmaqGUwl) u usepGm rSwfwrf;vkyfay;NyD; wpfv ESpfBudrf 'D*&D ppfay;cJhygw,f/ rSwfwrf;t& uRefawmf'kd;&JU rsufvHk;[m oHk;vwpfBudrf rSefrSefBuD; 'D*&DusNyD; ukdaomfwmaqGUwlu rsufrSeftopf vkyfay;cJh&ygonf/ q&m0efBuD;awG ayghaygh vG,fvG,f xifovdk uRefawmfwkdY ayghaygh vG,fvG,f rvkyfbJ tav;teuf vkyfcJhwmjzpfygw,f .../ a7TbHkomtxl;ukaq;cef; q&mBuD;ajymonfY ]]toufBuD;vm&if tvkdvkd rsufvHk; jyefaumif;w,f}} qkdjcif;ukd uRefawmf ('kd;) vJ rSwfzl;? zwfzl;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ... tckxd xkdokdY jyefaumif;olukd wpfOD;rS rqHkawGU&zl;ao;yg/ uRefawmf ('kd;) i,fpOfuyif owif;pmrsKd;pkHü vkyfchJ&m ... aeol&def? tkd;a0? jrefrmhtvif;? Armacwf? vkyfom;jynfolYaeYpOfeJY aMu;rkHxd tzGJUqHkvkyfcJhzl;&m olwkdYxJrSm rsufvHk;jyefaumif;olqkdvdkY wpfa,mufrS rawGUcJ&bJ ]]Mumav ... tkdav ... uef;av}} csnf; awGUcJh&wmygyJ/ 'kd;rSmu touf (75) rS (77) xd tbdk;tkdaygif;(40)ausmf tygif;toif;&SdcJh&m oif;wkdYxJrSmvnf; BuD;vkdY rsufvHk; jyefaumif;vmolukd rBuHK rqHkzl; vdkuf&ao;yg/ 'Dtbkd;awG[m *syefacwf wuúokdvf ausmif;aebufawGyg .../ 'Dq&m0efBuD;rsm;[m &efukefwuúokdvfavmufom a&mufzl;onfh 'kd;ukd ESdrfcsKd;í txifao; awG;Ekdifaomfvnf; atmufpzkdYu trfatatmifvmonfh OD;cspfarmifukdawmh txifwao;awG; ab;xm;vkdY r&Ekdifyg/ olu olUtcsdeftcgwkef;u urÇmYtpnf;ta0;awG? aqG;aEG;yGJawGukd wpfESpf oHk;acgufavmuf oGm;oGm;aecJh&NyD; urÇmYbPf? tm&SbPf q&mwkdYeJYvnf; vHk;vm; axG;vm;yg/ OD;cspfarmif[m 89? arv aemufykdif;rSm urÇmYtpnf;a0;rsm; oGm;wuffcJh&m tm;vHk; tm;vHk;[m rsufvHk;jyL;í txl; tHhMooGm;ukefMuygawmhw,f .../ tJ'DtcsdefrSm OD;cspfarmifrsufESmay:rSmu bmrsufrSefrS rygawmhvdkYygbJ .../ olwkdY tHhMoMuw,f/ ar;Muw,f pyfpkMuw,f/ rsuvHk;rsufrSef jyefaumif;apwJhynm/ 'DvdkynmrsKd; f jrefrmjynfrSm &Sdovm;wJh/ tJ'DrSm aocsmwmuawmh ]]cifAsm;[m toufBuD;vmvdk rsufvHk; jyefaumif;wmvm;}} vkdY ... wpfa,mufrS rajymMubl;av .../ olwkdYodwmaygh/ tcsdefwkdwkdeJY tvdkdvdk rsufrSefuRwfoGm;zkdY rjzpfEkdifbl; qkdwm odwmaygh .../ NyD; .... q&m0efBuD;u ajymwm wpfck&Sdao;w,f ]]uavmift&Sdeft0geJY uGrf;uyf tavhjzpfvmwm[m trSm;BuD;ukd pGJwmjzpfukefNyD; a&wdrform; tzkdY&mqkd rsufvHk;ysufpD;&m rkcsjzpfukefawmhr,f}} wJh .../ 'Dae&mupNyD; om*'kd;a&;xm;wJh pmawGukd jyefvnf azmfjy NyD;oGm;ygNyD .../ uRefawmfuawmh qufNyD; ajymvkdygao;w,f/ taemufwkdif; aq;ynmpmtkyfawGxJrSm uGrf;uyfenf; rygwmeJYyJ uGrf;½Gufudpöukd y,fcs vdkufava&mh ovm;Asm/ taemufwkdif; aq;ynmpmtkyfawGxJrSm rygwJh jrefrmh"avhaq;ynm tjrmuftrsm; vlawGxJrSm usefygao;w,f/ aemufwpfenf; ajym&&if uGrf;½Gufvkd t7GufrsKd; trsKd;trnf tajrmuftrsm;eJY py,f&S,fvpfBuD;awG r&SdwJh aus;vufu jynfolawG[m rdrdwkdYjzpfwJh aoG;wkd;wkdY qD;csKdwkdY uifqmwkdYvkd a&m*grskKd; ps
  39. 39. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; awGukdawmifrS rdrdwkdYbmom t½GufjyKwfaomuf&if; t&nfn§pfaomuf&if;eJY aysmufuif;oifhoavmuf aysmufuif;ukefaMumif; oufomoifhoavmuf oufomukefMuaMumif;/ xkdenf;wlpGmyJ avmurSm jzpfavh jzpfx&SdwJh ed,mrtwkdif;yJ raysmufwJhol roufomwJh olawGvnf; &SdwwfygaMumif; .../ aemufwcku q&m0efBuD;ajymovdk plvmezm? uGrf;pwJh pmtkyfawGukd om*'kd;&JU uavmift&Sdeft0gaMumifh vltrsm;pku zwfMuNyD; tJ'Duavmift&Sdeft0gaMumifh uGrf;uyfMuwmr[kwfygbl; tJhovkdrsKd; om*'kd;u a&;? vlawGu [kwfwm r[kwfwm tyxm; uavmift&Sdeft0gaMumifh vkdufvkyfaew,fqkd&if tJ'Dpmzwfy&dwfowfawG tm;vHk;[m cyfwHk;wHk;? cyfacsmifacsmifawG jzpfoGm;rSmaygh .../ obm0rusygbl;cifAsm; ... pmzwfy&dwfowfawGxJrSm cyfayghayghav; NyD;NyD;a&mqkdNyD; zwfoGm;wJh vlawGvnf;ygEkdifygw,f/ wu,fukd av;av;eufeuf zwfwJhvlawGvnf;ygEkdifygw,f/ wu,ftodynm&Sif twwfynm&SifBuD;awGvnf; ygEkdifygw,f/ NyD;awmh jrefrmhaq;ynm&yfudk avhvmvkdufpm;NyD; vufawGUtoHk;csaewJh q&m0ef a'gufwmawGawmifrS ygvmEkdifygw,f/ NyD;awmh omoemh0efaqmif yk*¾KdvfBuD;rsm;awmif ygvmEkdifygw,f cifAsm; .../ 'gaMumifh pmzwfy&dwfowftm;vHk;ukd uavmift&Sdeft0gaMumifh qkdNyD; 0g;vHk;&SnfeJY odrf;BuHK; r&rf;oifhaMumif;yg .../ NyD;awmh ... uGrf;½GuftMumif;ukd om*'kd;wpfa,mufwnf; a&;wmr[kwfbl;/ uGrf;½GuftMumif; a&;xm;wJh tjcm;pmtkyfawGvnf; &Sdygao;w,f/ 'gaMumifh jrefrmEkdifiHrSm&SdwJh tyifawGtaMumif; a&;csif&if tJ'D tyifawGtaMumif; t&ifodatmif avhvmNyD;rS a&;ygvkdY wkdufwGef; ajymMum;vkdygonf cifAsm; .../ uJ ed*kH;csKyf a&;&&if uRefawmfuawmh uGrf;½GufeJY plvmezma&;wJh om*'kd;ukd twdtvif; axmufcHygaMumif;/ om*'kd;wifrubJ 'DvdkrsKd; aq;NrD;wkd pmtkyfawGa&;wJh pma&;ol (aq;ynm&Sif [kwfonfjzpfap? r[kwfonfjzpfap/ okawoeynm&Sif [kwfonfjzpfap? r[kwfonfjzpfap/ pma&;q&m [kwfonfjzpfap? r[kwfonfjzpfap/ v,fawmxJu OD;BuD;awGyif jzpfygap/ NyD;awmh rdom;pktm;vHk;twGuf wm0ef,lxm;&wJh rtm;vyfwJhMum;xJu aq;NrD;wkdtMumif; ajymjywJh? usef;rma&;raumif;wJhtcg rD;zkdacsmif usyfckd;pifay:u toD;t½GufawGeJY aq;azmfNyD;wkdufcJhwJh tarawGyifjzpfygap/) tm;vHk;ukd aus;Zl;wif BudKqkd axmufcHygaMumif;/ 'Dvdk tarhtaMumif;ukdyg bmvkdY xnfhajymjzpfoGm;wmvnf;qkdawmh ]]aq;zuf0ifuGrf;½Gufwpf½GufESifh taray;aom aq;enf;wkdrsm;}} qkdwJh pmtkyfwpftkyfukdyg zwf½IavhvmcJh&vdkygyJ cifAsm; .../ &ifxJrSm uvduvdeJYrkdY qufNyD; azmufonfcscsifygao;w,f/ tJ'D ]]uGrf;wpf½GufESifh tarhaq;enf;wkdrsm;}} pmtkyfrsufESmzHk;[m awmfawmhukd t"dyÜg,f ay:vGif vGef;vSygw,fAsm .../ pmtkyfa&;ol&JU tBuHÓmPfvm;? 'DZdkif;q&m&JU tBuHÓmPfvm;awmh rodbl;/ tawmfhukd t"dyÜg,f ay:vGif vGef;vSygw,f/ uRefawmf awUGzl;zwfzl;wJh pmtkyf (60) cefYrSm awGUcJ&wmu aq;q&mBuD;eJY vlawG&JUykH 'grSr[kwf toD; tyGifh t½Guf tyifawG&JU ykHawGyJ xyfcgxyfcg awGUcJh 7ygw,f/ tck uRefawmf ajymr,fh pmtkyftzHk;&JU o½kyfazmfyuawmh uGrf;wpf½GufxJyHk&,f NyD;awmh a7TawG aiGawG kH '*Fg;awG ywåjrm;awG yHkukd o½kyfaz:xm;jcif;ygyJ .../ pmtkyf&JUemrnfu ]]aq;zuf0ifuGrf;wpf½GufESifh taray;aomaq;enf;wkdrsm;}} .../ qGJxm;wJh o½kyfazmfyHku uGrf;wpf½GufeJY a&G? aiG? '*Fg;Nym;awG ywåjrm;awG&JUyHk}} .../ taray;wJh aq;wpfcGufpm[m a&T? aiG? ausmufoH? ywåjrm;awGavmuf wefzkd;&dSw,ff/ a&T? aiG? ausmufoH? ywåjrm;awG&JU wefzkd;eJY EIdif;qr,f qkd&ifawmif wkEIdif;vkdY rrDatmif wefzkd;&Sdw,f qkdwJh ... t"dyÜg,f trsKd;rsKd;awG[m ÓmPfuGef&ufukd jzefYawG;vkdufwkdif; rGefjrwfoefYpifwJh t"dyÜg,f trsKd;rsKd;awG xGufaewm[m tHhMop&mwpfyg;ygyJAsm .../ tarwkdY ay;wJh arwåma&jynfh0aewJh usyfckd;wdkufxm;wJh aq;yifav;[m ao&awmhr,fqJqJ a&m*gaysmufuif;oGm;&if tJ'Dtaray;wJh aq;enf;av;&JU wefzkd;ukd bmeJYjzwfrSmvJ/ a7Tvm; aiGvm; pdefvm; .../ tkd pm½IolrdwfaqG wefzkd;jzwfMunfhprf;ygavmh .../ 'gaMumifhrkdY uRefawmfwkdY jrefrmawG&JU aq;NrD;wkd awmfawmfrsm;xJrSm jrefrmwkdY vufcHusihfoHk;aewJh uHeJY uH&JU tuskKd;awG arwåm opömpwJh yg&rDpGrf;tm;awG[m a&ukd om;vkdYMum;rxif a'G;a&m,Sufwif yg0ifaeygw,f/ 'gukd jrefrmwpfa,muftaeeJY jrefrmvkdawG;NyD; wifjyjcif; pdwfapwemtay: pmzwfolwkdY&JU pdwfapwemeJY wpfxyfwnf; usEkdifygapvkdY qE´jyK&if; ed*kH;csKyfygw,f .../ (v,fuGufxJu rIdewkd ...)• n
  40. 40. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; l aq;ukdtvGeftrif;pm;oHk;rdygvQif L aysmufvkdaZmjzifh aq;tcsdeftqukd ykdí toHk;rjyKtyfyg .../ tu,fí tvGeftrif; pm;oHk;rdygvQif ... (u) aoG;? avrsm; vIyf&Sm;vmNyD; ukd,fta&jym;rsm; eDjref;vmwwfjcif;/ (c) ykd;&Grsm; ukdufouJhokdY cHpm;&jcif;/ (*) tom;ta&ay:wGif tzktydefYrsm; jzpfwwfjcif;/ xkdokdY jzpfay:cJhvQif pm;aeus aq;tcsdeftqudk avQmhpm;oifhonf/ 0rf;Ekwfay;jcif;ukdvnf; jyKoifhonf .../ (pm? 37) pmukd; ! okawoDjrifhxGef; ckESpf&ufom;orD;rsm; ... xkdokdYjzpfvQif þokdYvkyfyg ... pmtkyfaumufEkwfcsuf .../ 'kw,tBur/f 2003 JAN. prf;oDwmpmay .../ d d k txl;rSwfcsuf K 1/ (eEGif;cg;ESifhysm;&nf) = eEGif;cg;aq;vHk;ü ysm;&nfajcmufcef;jcif;/ "mwfaysmufjcif;wdkY jzpfvQif ysm;&nfu xdef;xm;aom eEGif;cg;rSm aoaq;yrm jzpfoGm;wwfonf/ owdjyK .../ d 2/ bkr®&mZmwdkY? eEGif;cg;wdkY? qifwkH;rEG,fwdkY? 0gZDu&PwdkY? eHYomeDwdkY? EG,fcsKwdkY? rjcpfO ponfwdkYrSm txdef;tuGyf rygbJ roHk;oifhaom aq;trnfrsm; jzpfygonf/ ¤if;trnfrsm;ESifh wGJzufí rdrdwdkYzmom aq;azmfawmhrnf qdkvQif wwfuRrf; em;vnfaomolrsm;ESihf wdkifyifNyD;rS azmfpyfyg .../ (pmudk;/ / om*'dk;? plvmezm (3) pmtkyfrS) #
  41. 41. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; X
  42. 42. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; # rSwfpk&SiftrSmpm # vlawGxJu ... vlaygif;ajrmufrsm;pGmu azmfxkwfa&;om;wJh ]]jrefrmaq;NrD;wkd}} pmtkyfaygif; rsm;pGmukd rnfrQyif txyfxyf tcgcg zwfxm;ygaomfvnf; wu,f toHk;jyKvkdwJhtcg ]]b,faq;enf;[m ... b,fpmtkyfxJrSm}} qkdwmukd twdtus rajymEkdifawmhyg/ pmtkyfawGrSmygwJh rmwdumt& jyef&Smaomfvnf; ae0if;(vef'ef) &JU pmtkyf wpftkyfu vGJvkdY usefwJhpmtkyfu aq;enf;awG ... jyef&Sm&wm rvG,fulawmhyg .../ ae0if;(vef'ef) &JU pmtkyf uawmh pmtkyfaemufykdif;rSm aq;enf; tu©7mpOftñTef; yg&SdvkdY vkdcsifwJh aq;enf; jyef&Sm&wm vG,fuklcJhygw,f/ 'gaMumifh .... pmtkyfwpftkyfxJrSm pkaygif;jyeful;xnfhNyD; tu©&mpOf tñTef;eJY vkyfxm;&ifawmh &SmvkdY vG,fulr,f? vkdtyfolawGtwGuf trsm;BuD; toHk;wnfhvdrfhr,f qkdwm pOfpm;rdvkdY aq;NrD;wkdpmtkyf (28) tkyfxu J rdrd pdwfBudKufenf;av;awGukd a&G;xkwf.../ NyD;awmh pmtkyfwpftkyfxJrSm pkpnf; rSwfpkxkwfcJhygw,f/ a&Sykdif;rSm rmwdumpOfNyD; aemufykdif;rSm tu©&mpOf tñTef;eJY &SmvkdY vG,fatmif pepfwus pkpnf;EkdifcJhygw,f .../ tJ'DtcsdefrSm aq;enf;awGeJY ywfoufvkdY tjrif rwlnDrIukd wifjyMuwJh owif;aqmif;yg; ESpfyk'f xyfrH zwf½IcJh&vkdY 'DrSwfpkzwfr,fh yk*¾dKvfawG ykdNyD; vGwfvGwfvyfvyf qHk;jzwfEkdifatmif 'Dpmtkyf tprSm jyefvnf azmfjy ay;xm;ygw,f/ NyD;awmh vloHk;rsm;wJh pum;yHk (2)ck ukdyg xnfhoGif; pOfpm;vkdY&atmif atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f .../ tkd pm½Iol ... cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmí .../ pm½Iol pdwfwkdif;us vGwfvyfpGm qHk;jzwfygavmh .../ uRefawmf ESpfjcdKufwJh pum;yHk (2)ck uawmh ... $ rod o l a usmf o G m ; ... od o la zmf p m; .../ $ oH k ; wwf & if a q; ... roH k ; wwf & if a b; .../ xyfrH yefMum;vkdwmu 'DrSwfpk&JUtp owif;aqmif;yg (2)yk'fukd zwf½INyD;vkdY pdwf0ifpm;w,f qkd&if om*'kd;&JU plvmezm (1) eJY plvmezm (2) tjyif 'DrSwfpkrSm rygao;wJh plvmezm (3) ukdyg &SmazG zwf½IoifhaMumif;yg .../ aqGpOfrsKd;quf ... om;pOfajr;quf ... rsKd;qufopfwkdYtwGuf ... aq;rSwfpkxkwfol ... 23.7.2006 we*FaEGaeY !
  43. 43. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; ¡
  44. 44. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; e wkdif;&if;aq;a0g[m&ESifhodzG,f (t"dyÜm,f) uvkdifokwfonf (rvkdifokwfonf) = usyf = usyfykwD;em = usyfckd; = ukd,fa&0ga&m*g = Muufwuf&nf = MuufoD;aEG; = <uufrD;wef; = uifqm = e aMu;tkfd;? aMu;cGufrsm;ukd okwfvdrf;aom oHjzLrvdkif (tdEd´,)/ vnfyif;ü tzktusdwfxGufaomtemwpfrsKd;/ vnfyif;ürmaMumaomtzkwGJrsm; wGJvsm;usaejcif; (ykwD;vHk;rsm;ESifhwl)/ usyfc;pifwGifuyfaeonfh rD;ckd;rSjzpfonfhtrIefY/ kd tonf;a&mif? tom;0ga&m*g/ t&nf? tzwfa&mae&mrS te,fxkdifapNyD;? ty:,HrS,lxm;aom t&nfMunf/ a&ryl ... aEG;½HkrQom/ aumfcyfvkdufaomtcg t&nfyspfyspfwef;í ygvmonf/ qJ(vf)awG tuefYtowfr&Sd uGJyGm;oGm;NyD; cE¨mukd,f&JU tjcm;tpdwftykdif;awGrSm topftajcwnfum topfxyfrHBuD;yGm;jcif;/ (jrefrm = jrpfyGm;em) ukuúKd (jrefrm) ukuúKd (oabFm) unGwf clem csif;ajcmuf = = = = = cs&m;yif cs&m;yGifh *Ekda&m*g *&if*sDem ikBuD; ijzLBuD; = = = = = = qm; (½ku©rlqm;) = ukuúKdoD;rSm jym;í t0ga&mifoef;onf/ (aq;zuf0ifukuúKd) ukuúKdoD;rSm vHk;í tndKa&mifoef;onf/ (EGm;BudKuf) &SOfhrwuf (xGufcgptyifEk = unGwf/ tyifBuD;vQif = &SOfhrwuf) vufacsmif;xdyfwGif aygufaomtem/ oabmFcsif;ajcmuf = oabFmjzifh tdE´d,rS vmaomcsif;ajcmuf (tpkdr[kwf)/ csif;ajcmufr&EkdifvQif csif;tpkdukd tajcmufcHNyD; xnfhoHk;í r&yg .../ csif;ajcmufvkyfenf;twkdif; pDrHjyKvkyfrS&onf .../ tajcmufcH½kHESifh csif;ajcmufrjzpfyg .../ (&Sifem*odef twGJ (1)? pm? 182) ca&yif/ ca&yGifh/ qD;yl anmif;usESifh wloovm;rod .../ (jyefppf&ef) b&if*sDem = ptkdt*FgpyfwGif wGif;uav;jzpfí aygufwwfaomtem/ zGm;zuf/ (aq;azmf&mwGif oHk;aomikyif) EGm;jzLBuD; = rk½kd; = r½kd;yif/ (¤if;tyifonf t½Guf? ½kd;wHutp jzLonf) tpdrf;a&miftEkonf tjzLa&mifzufodkY vkaeonf? tjzLrsm;aeonf/ tyif yOöig;yg;ukd jymcs? jymukd a&ESifhazsmf? jymazsmf&nfrS t&nfMunfukd ,lí BudKcsuf? a&cef;vQif ½ku©rlqm;ukd &rnf/ (½ku©rlqm;onf twkdif;tqtenf;i,fomoHk;&ojzifh aq;nm&Sif r[kwfaom t&yfom;rsm; roHk;oifh/ okHk;rdvQif a&m*gaysmufcsifaZmjzifh aq;vGefwwfonf/) (wefaq; vGefab;) qm; (odaE¨mqm;) qm;rD;zkwf qD;ylanmif;us qifclvnfjywfem aqmif;ar;cg;em qHkqkdYem (qkHZkdYem) = aq;zuf0if tnKda&mifqm;/ (tdE´d,EkdifiH odE¨Ke,frS xGuf&Sdonfukd tpGJjyKíac:aomtrnf .../) = uGr;½GufuawmhwGif xnfhí rD;zkwfxm;aomqm;/ f = rdef;rukd,fjzpfap? a,mufsm; usifacsmif;rSjzpfap tusdtcRJrsm;usonfha&m*g/ *Ekda&m*gESifh wlovm;rod .../ (jyefppf&ef) = vnfukyf qH&if;wGif aygufaomtem/ = ESmap;? ESmydwf? ESm,kdaoma&m*g/ = vnfacsmif;twGif;ü jzpfaomtemwpfrsKd; P
  45. 45. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; qifwHk;rEG,f = qiforEG,f = qifpmrEG,f = qif½kd;rEG,f = qifidkrPd/ (vlodrsm;aom trnfig;rskKd;) qefyHk;&nf = qefaq;&nftm; oHk;&ufcefY xm;aomt&nf/ (rauG;0if;jrifh vlxJuaq;ynm/ pm? 94) qefyHk;&nf aq;NrD;wkd = qefaq;&nf? xrif;&nfESpfyg; qwla&m? xrif;Murf;cJxnfh/ qm;vnf; tenf;i,f xnfhNyD; (10)&uf cefYxm;yg/ t&nfMunf iSJY ,lyg/ qefyHk;&nf&/ (OD;vScif (qef;nGefYOD;)/ rD;zkdacsmifrSaq;pGrf;aumif;rsm;/ twGJ(1)? pm? 21) = tema&m*grsm;udk aq;tr,f wpfrsKd; ESpfrsKd;avmuf (aq;trnf tenf;i,f) ESifh aysmufuif;apEkdifaomaq;/ (aq;tr,f av; ig;q,favmuf ygwJh aq;enf;awGusawmh tNrD;&SnfwJh oabmygyJ aq;trnfenf;&if aq;NrD;wkd? aq;rnfrsm;&if aq;NrD;&Snf .../) qifajcaxmufa&m*g Bwdzv Bwdu#Kwf awmqD;jzL xdyfuyfem (xdyfcwfem) xHkempkd (xHkeZkd) = = = = = = ykd;wpfrsKd;aMumifh ajcaxmufBuD;vmaoma&m*g/ opfqdrhfoD;? MupkoD;? qD;jzLoD;/ i½kwfaumif;? ydwfcsif;oD;? csif;ajcmuf/ awmifqD;jzL = ajrqDjzL = a7qD;jzL = ykwD;jzL / ESmacgif;ydwfqkdYa&m*g/ wpfenf; pm;aumif;? tdyfaysm?f "mwfcsKyf? toHrxGuf? ukd,fum,atmufykdif; xHkusifukdufcJ? av;vHazma&mif (orm;awmfpmapmif 7-10/ OD;xGef;vIdif rtlyifNrdKU wkdif;&ifaq;ynm ESD;aESmyGJwGif zwfMum;onfhpmwrf;) (wpfenf;) tm[m& "mwfcsKdUwJhrIaMumifh azma&mifaom xHkusifemwpfrsKd;/ (q&mBuD;OD;csrf; touf&Snf&mtemrJhaMumif; aq;pGrf;aumif;rsm;) 'EÅokc 'lvm 'lvmoa&m 'defcsOfvkyfenf; eEGifcg; = odMum;rukd#f = ref;av;yif/ = tqpftjrpf ukdufcJaom a,mufsm;a&m*g/ = usifacsmif;ukdufNyD; qD;ESifh a&mí tjzLzwfrsm; xGufusaoma&m*g/ qD;oGm;cg;ukduf/ = EkdYukd em&D0ufavmuf BudKNyD;awmh oefYjyefwJhae&mrSm (2)&ufavmuf 'Dtwkdif; xm;vdkuf&if tcsOf0ifí 'defjzpfvm/ 'D ... 'defxJu wpfZGef;avmuf EkdYxJ xnfYvdkuf&if wpf&ufxJeJY 'def jzpfwmaygh .../ = 0aomaoG;wkd;orm;ESifh wnfh? ydefaomaoG;wkd;orm;ESifh rwnfh/ yifv,ftlem (rauG;0if;jrifh aoG;wkd;avjzwfpmtkyfrS) = (yifv,ftlavQufem) 0rf;jyif;xefpGm &pfNyD;? atmhtH 0rf;oGm; a&m*g/ txufvSefatmufavQm[kvnf; ac:onf / yg'&uf ('lvmyg'7uf) yOöig;yg; zsOf; zGwfptkdem (zGwfokdem) rufuavmif rkwå jrif;o½kdufem = = = = = = = ajcaxmufatmufykdif; aoG;av tvdkufrnDaoma&m*g/ toD; tyGifh t½Guf tacguf tjrpf (wpfyifvHk; tm;vHk;yg)/ aoG; av t&nfaMumifh 0rf;Akdufyl? azmif;aomt&m/ ESmacgif;twGif;ü ESmykwfwnfí ESmacgif;tHk yGeDaewwfaoma&m*g / tjyif;zsm;í ptkd0wGif jynfzki,frsm; jzpfay:aejcif;a&m*g/ uyfy,ftdwfa&mifa&m*g/ (wpfenf;) ptkd0wGif tom;ykdxGufí jzpfaoma&m*g/ (0rf;roGm;bJ avcsKyfjcif;? wpfcgw&H 0rf;AkdufESifh &ifrSm jynfhu,faejcif;? NrD;an§mifhESifhcg;qpfukdufjcif; 0rf;rSmyspfcRJ? aoG;ovdyfuJhokdY oGm;jcif;? &Hzef&Hcg pjrif;? &Hzef&Hcg aoG;qif;jcif;wkdYonf jrif;o½kdufem vu©Pm .../) w
  46. 46. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; jrpfcsif;NyD; jrpfajcmufem jrif;zkem rSu©½k (ru©½k) rD;uGif;*rkef;t½Guf jrpfyGm;em &Sm;apmif;od*Feduf &om,eaq; ½ku©rlqm; ½SOfrwuf av;zufem (av;bufem) vdyfacgif; owåK&nf oHowf&nf = tjcm;aq;tr,f a&mpGwf&efrvkdbJ aq;tr,f wpfrsKd;wnf;jzifh a&m*g temukd ukoEkdifaomaq; .../ = acsmif;qkd; aoG;yg tqkwfa&m*g (TB)/ taoG;tom; cef;ajcmufonfh a&m*g .../ = vlukd,fwGif; azmif;rkdY <uplaeaom tusdwfvHk;/ = uav;i,fwkdY vQm? Ekwfcrf; twGif;ykdif;ü tjzLpuf? taysmufrsm;ay:ü emusifaeaoma&m*g = wpfzufpdrf;? wpfzufc&rf;a&mif/ = uifqm (u. tu©&m uifqmwGif½I) = kiss me quick = b,fvdrfnmvdrf (awmifBuD;tc:)/ = vlom;wkdYtm; touft&m taxmif&Snfap&ef? wnfwHhap&ef taoG;tom;ESifh tm;wkdYukd wkd;yGm;apaomaq; .../ = tyif yÍöig;yg;ukd rD;½IdIU jymcsí &aomjymtm; a&pdrfNyD; t&nfMunfu,l? Jh ,if;t&nfMunftm; usKdcsuf/ aemufqHk; a&cef;oGm;vQif ½ku©rlqm;&rnf/ ½ku©rlqm;onf twkdif;tq tenf;i,fomoHk;&ojzifh aq;ynm&Sif r[kwfaom t&yfom;rsm; roHk;oifh/ oHk;rdvQif a&m*gaysmufcsifaZmjzifh aq;vGefwwfonf/ (wefaq;vGefab;) = unGwf (xGufcgp = unGwf? tyifBuD; = ½SOfhrwuf) = txkdiftx cufonfh ajcqpfvufqpf emusifaoma&m*g/ = ptkd0 taMumrsm; a&mif7rf; plxGufaoma&m*g / = aq;yif t½Guf (okdY) yÍöig;yg;ukd Budwfajc axmif;n§pfí 7aom (a&ra&m7ao;onfh a&rygonfh) yuwdt&nf/ = ,if;owåK&nfukd rD;ylay;xm;aom oHjym;ay:avmif;csvQif oHowf&nf7rnf/ ,if;owåK&nfxJokdY oHacsmif;rD;zkwfukdxnfhvQif oHowf&nf&rnf/ (Oyrm ... oHyk&moD; n§pfí &aomt&nfukd owåK7nf[kac:NyD; ,if;a&ra&m&ao;aom oHyk&mowåK&nfukd rD;tylay;xm;aom oHjym;ay: avmif;csvkdufvQif oHyk&moHowf&nfukd &rnf .../) oabFmrJZvD orifjzLa&m*g odaE¨mqm; = rJZvDBuD; = ayG;ukdif;/ = tjzLqGwfqGwfrsm;? tjzLuGufrsm; (ukd,fcE¨may:ü)/ = aq;zuf0if tndKa&mifqm;/ (tdEd´,EdkifiH odE¨Ke,frS xGuf&Sdonfukd tpGJjyKí ac:aomtrnf) Oy'´a0g temrD; temvQH tifysOf tmoD;a&mif = = = = = = ab;&ef? ab;Oy'?f tEÅ&,f/ ykdrkd &SyfaxG;aomtajctae jzpfvmatmif jyKvkyfaomt&m tajctaeykdqkd;vmatmif xyfwkd;aomt&m/ ta&jym;ay:wGif rD;avmifzkuJhokdY eD&JpGm jzpfay:aeaom tem/ ta&jym;ay:wGif teDtydefYrsm; ysOfvkdufxGufaom ,m;emwpfrsKd;/ yoda&mif/ x
  47. 47. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; (1) plvmezmESifhaq;enf;aq;yifrsm; (1) om*'dk; yxrtBudrf? 2005? ar/ wefzdk; 700usyf/ pmayavmu .../ 1/ plvmezmESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... yÍöig;yg; ... vufwpfqkyfcefY okHcGufwpfcGufwif? usKdaomuf .../ (1) a&zsOf;a&m*gaysmuf ... (2) tonf;a&m*gtwGufvnf; odyfudkaumif;ygw,f ... (3) uifqma&m*gyg aysmufonf[k Mum;zl;xm;onf (a&m*gEk&ifaysmuf) ... (4) t&ufaomufcsifpdwf ukefvmNyD;aemuf t&ufjzwfvdkufonf ... (5) tanmif;a&m*gaysmuf ... (6) ESm&nfpdk&TJa&m*gaysmuf ... (qm;a&aEG;jzwfoef;enf;eJYvJaysmufonf) (pm? 27) (7) vdyfacgif;? aoG;,dk? b&if*sDem aysmuf ... (8) acgif;&Sif;oGm;onf? acgif;MunfoGm;onf? acgif;½Iyfwmaysmuf ... (9) tyludkajczsufEdkifaom *kPfowdå&dSonf .../ (pm? 1-167) 2/ (1) uGrf;½GufESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... ESvkH;a&m*g (Heart Attack) ESvkH;aoG;aMumydwf? touf&SL&yf? touf&SLMuyfjzpfvkdufwmeJY ½kwf½kwfoJoJawG rvkyfrdatmif owdxm;yg/ udk,feJYpdwfudk NidrfNidrfxm;yg/ pdwfukd owdeJY xdef;xm;yg/ touf&SLjcif;ukd r&? &atmifBudK;pm;yg/ 'DA[kokwav;ukd csufcsif;ajy;owd&NyD; ... uRefawmf ... NidrfEkdiforQ Nidrfum toufukd r&? t& BudK;pm;&SLygonf/ vGefpGm yifyef;ygonf/ &ifbufay: wif;ykwfzdxm;ovkd ... rcsdonfhMum;u wtm;Budwfum BudK;pm;NyD; touf&SLawmhrS ... tifrwefrQifrQifav; p &SLEkdifonf .../ (pm? 7) þwGif ukd,fhtoufukdukd,f ... jyefatmifyGJcHwm jzpfygawmhonf/ wkdvDrkdvDA[kokwu tusKd;ay;jyefygNyD/ touf&SLvkdY tenf;tyg;&oGm;NyD;aemuf ukd,fhESvkH; taMumydwfESufonfh ]][wf twwf}} ukd? csufususuyfí ausmfjzwfEkdifygNyD .../ (pm? 7) eHeufa&csKd;NyD;wkdif; &ifbufESvkH;wnfhwnfhae&m vuf0Jbuf&iftkHrSm aeYpOfuGrf;½Gufwpf½Guf uyfygonf/ ,aeY 15ESpf &SdygNyD ... xkdESvkH;u wpfcgom'ku©ay;NyD; ckxd touf&Sif? touf&SnfcJhonfrSm xkduGrf;½GuftusKd;? uGrf;½Gufwefckd;[k uRefawmf{uefxifygonf .../ (pm? 8) uGrf;av;wpf½Guf[m ... ESvkH;eJYqkdifaom a&m*gtEÅ&m,frSeforQ vkH;0ruyfNidapzkdYtwGuf taumif;pm; pufuav;wpfvkH; wyfxm;ovkdygyJ/ 'Davmufukd aumif;ygonf .../ (pm? 10) (2) rsufpda&m*g? a&wdrfa&m*g ... nwkdif; uGrf;½Gufuyf&if (8)vESifh (14)vtwGif; rsufrSefuRwfEkdifygonf/ rsufvkH;axmifhrsm;ü vufrcGHt½G,f uGrf;½Gufukd a&pGwfíuyfyg/ t"durSm ... rsufvkH;ESmacgif;buf axmifhESpfckukd *½kjyKuyf&ef/ aeYtcg vnf;uyfEdkifygonf/ Computer Munfholrsm;? pavmif; TV Munfholrsm;vnf; uyfoifhygonf/ rsufvkH; tvkH;vkdufBuD;ukdufwJh a&wdrfa&m*g? rIefwJha&m*g? rl;wJha&m*gESifh Ekaomwdrfrsm; aysmufuif;ygonf/ (pm? 13-21) (3) em;xdkif;? em;av;a&m*g ... uGrf;½Gufukd '*Fg;0kdif;yrmPcefY qkyf,lNyD; cyfvHk;vHk;av;vkyfum? em;0wGif xnfhay;xm;vQif ESpfvavmuf xnfhay;½kHjzifh ododomomukd jyefaumif;ygonf/ w,fvDzkef;ESifh prf;vQif vG,fvG,fodomygonf/ ta&;wBuD; owday;vkdonfrSm ... em;ukd jrufxdyf? owif;pm? *Grf;? wkwponfjzifh ZdrfcHum t,m;ajzwmrsKd; vkH;0rvkyfygESifh/ f 1
  48. 48. rodolausmfoGm; odolazmfpm; vkyfvQiftusifh ygoGm;NyD; qufumqufum vkyfjzpfoGm;um {uefem;yif;awmhrSm jzpfygonf/ em;xJrS tm½kHcH? toHMum; trQifav;rsm; ysufpD;oGm;aomaMumifhjzpfygonf .../ (pm? 23) (4) tmacgiftzka&m*g? vQmemusifylavmifa&m*g? oGm;zkH;ckH;xem ... tmacgifrSm tylzkawGjzpfvm&if vufESpfvHk;avmufuGrf;½Gufukd uyfNyD;vQmeJY xdef;xm;vdkuf ... wpfaeY wpfn omomeJYaysmufygw,f/ yxrpyfovkd? aemufxkHovkdjzpfNyD; aysmufwmyJ/ vQmrSmemusOf? ylavmifemjzpfchJ &ifvnf; 'Denf;twkdif;vkyf .../ (pm? 41) oGm;zkH;cHk;xNyD; emwm? uGrf;½GufikH ... uGrf;½Gufuyf .../ (pm? 138) (5) acgif;ukdufrsm;wJha&m*g ... em;xifwGif uGrf;½Gufuyf .../ (pm? 138) (6) vdyfacgif;ESifh vdyfacgif;aoG;,dkqif;a&m*g ... uGrf;½Gufukd vdyfí? vHk;í ptdkwGif xnfhvQifaysmuf .../ (pm? 137) uGrf;½Gufwpf½Gufukd aeY0ufcefYoHk;Ekdifonf/ aoG;xGuf? aoG;,dk&yf½kHr[kwf ... a&m*g<uum rmefxovkd jzpfaeaom vdyfacgif;rSm wjznf;jznf;usKHUí aysmufoGm;rnf .../ (pm? 141) (7) vdyfacgif;aysmufaq;enf; (ae0if;vef'efpmtkyfrS) uGrf;½Gufukd Budwfíjzpfap? axmif;íjzpfap ... aMuatmifjyKvkyfyg/ t&nfESifhwuG aMuaeaomuGrf;½Gufukd vdyfacgif;ay:okdY wnfhwnfhuyfyg/ t0wfESifhvnf; uyfEkdifygonf/ 15&ufxuf ykdrvkyfbJ aysmufuif;Ekdifygonf .../ tESpf(30)cefY vdyfacgif;a&m*gpGJuyfaeojzifh aq;½kHwufí tBudrfBudrfjzwfcJh&ygonf/? aq;trsKd;rsKd;pm; cJhaomfvnf; oufom½kHrSty t&Sif;raysmufyg/ þaq;enf;twkdif;vkyfrS tjrpfjywfaysmufuif;ygonf .../ (ae0if;vef'ef? pm? 161) (8) a,musfm;tlusa&m*g ... Am'H½Guf (t&yftac: b@myifrS t½Guf) okdYr[kwf uGrf;½Gufukd a&m*gae&mrSm tkH? NyD;awmh tokdif;eJYqkdif;xm;/ 'DaeYxkyfxm;wmukd aemufwpfaeYvJay;/ 'g[m ... tlusapwJh tyl"mwfukd z,facsapwJh oabmyJ/ 'guawmh ... udk,fawGUr[kwfbl;/ olrsm;ukwmawGYvkdY jyefajymwm .../ (pm? 143) 3/ (1) ajcz0g;qm;yGwfjcif;ESifh aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... ajcz0g;qm;yGwfenf; ... ajcaxmufukd a&avmif;vkdufygw,f/ vufxJ qm;wpfqkyfukdifum a&csKd;cef;0rSm xkdifygw,f/ 'Daemuf ajcz0g;ESpfbufukd rsufESmcsif;qkdifay;NyD; qm;jzL;ygw,f/ ajcz0g;ESpfbufukd jznf;jznf;csif;yGwfygw,f/ wpfcg qm;jzL; ygw,f/ NyD;awmh ajcz0g;csif; yGwfygw,f/ qm;wpfqkyf rukefrcsif; 'Dtwkdif;yJ vkyfwmygyJ/ NyD;&if ... okH;rdepfavmufem;NyD; ... ajcz0g;ukd qm;"mwfukefatmif a&pifpifaq;yg .../ 'gukd ... nwdkif;vkyfNyD;rS ... tdyfyg .../ aemufwpfenf; ... yvyfpwpfZvkHus,fxJ qm; okH;? av;q,fom;avmufxnfhNyD; ukvm;xkdifay:uae ajcESpfacsmif;ZvkHxJxnfhNyD; ajcukdvIyf½Sm;um yGwfay;wmygyJ/ 'guykdvG,fw,f/ qm;vnf;rukefbl;/ 'DESpfenf;ukd tqifajyovkd yGwfay;yg .../ (pm? 35) (2) aysmufuif;aoma&m*grsm; ... (u) qHyiftuRwf&yfNyD; qHyifjyefayguf ... 2
  49. 49. oHk;wwf&ifaq; roHk;wwf&ifab; (c) ajcz0g;at;NyD; cPcPzsm;wwfaoma&m*gaysmufí ajcz0g;jyefaEG;vmNyD; ... ajctdwfr0wf&awmhyg/ (*) tanmif;tnmawG? ZufaMumwufwmawG aysmufuif;½kHrubl;? tESdyfcH&wJh b0rS vkH;0vGwfajrmufoGm;w,f .../ (pm? 35-36) 4/ tpmpm;pOf jzpfwwfwJh rl;wl;wl;? qkdYw kdYwkdYa&m*g (tpmqkdY? aoG;qkdY? avqkdY) ... uRefawmf ... xrif;pm;&if; bmjzpfrSef;rodbl; ... qkdYNyD; toufr&SLEkdifwm? rl;wl;wl;? qkdYwkdYwdkYBuD; jzpfwmeJY xdkifcsvkduf&w,f/ tJ'grsKd;u ae&mwkdY? tcsdefwkdY ra½G;bl;/ qkdYcsif&if ... qkdYcsifwJhae&m x qkdYvkdufwmyJ/ toGiftjyifu qefYiif? qefYiifeJY .../ ukoenf;uawmh ... b,fbufvufrukd rmwif;atmifaxmifNyD;awmh &ifacgif;wnfhwnfh tcsdKifhuav;&JUatmufbuf okH;vufrwdwdae&mavmufukd vufreJYzdyg/ 'gt"duyJ ... 'Dvkd&SL&if;? vufreJYzd&if;? udGceJqkd bl;qkdYyGifhovkdyGifhí csufcsif;yJ qkdYaewmBuD; &Sif;í? vif;í oGm;vdrfhrnf .../ (pm? 62) 5/ ajcuGJemESifh anmifap; ... anmifrkwfqdwfyifBuD;awGrSm ... EkYdESpfvkd tap;awG&Sdw,f/ 'Danmifap;ukd ajcuJGwJhae&mawGrSm okwfvdrf;ay;vkduf&if tem[m pyfzsOf;zsOf;BuD;jzpfae&mu csufcsif;BuD; (vsifjrefpGm) oufom? aysmufuif;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ... a&m*grSm okwfNyD;&ifawmh EkdYa&mifazG;azG; anmifap;[m rD;aoG;yrm tvGefrnf;eufoGm;a&m .../ (pm? 38) 6/ aeYpOf tpmtqdyfawG ajzMuyg (xef;vsuf) ... xef;vsuf[m raumif;wJh"mwfawGukd cGJxkwfypfwwfNyD; tykyfukdvnf; odyfEkdifw,f/ ukd,fwGif;u tqD awGukdvnf; usapw,f/ a&S;jrefrmawGxJrSm 0vGef;ol odyf&Sm;w,f/ tqDenf;wm[m ... xef;vsuf&JU tusKd;eJY wefckd;yJ .../ xrif;pm;NyD; xef;vsufpm;ay;&if pm;NyD;om;tpmawGxJu a&m*gjzpfapwJh"mwfawG ajyap½kHrubl; tqD usí ukd,fa&vS? ukd,fa&uspfapwJh aq;aumif;BuD;vJ jzpfygw,f .../ (pm? 72) 7/ rsufESmwGefYwm? ta&;taMumif;jzpfwm aysmufenf; ... eHygwfwpf ... vufzaemifhESpfbufukd ar;aphae&mrSm ,SOfxm;&muaeNyD; ... em;o,farT; ESpfbufae&m txda&mufatmif qGJwifay;yg/ eHygwfESpfu ckevufzaemifhudkyJ rsufvkH;&JUatmufzufudk zdzdNyD; em;o,fqDudk qGJqGJwifay;yg/ 'g[m rsufESmwGefYwm? ta&;taMumif;jzpfwmaysmufw,f .../ (pm? 79) 8/ tonf;a&m*gESifh a&zsOf;a&m*g jzpfjcif; ... roefY&Sif;wJh i½kwfoD;rdIwufeJY i½kwfoD;twkawG pm;rd&if tonf;ajcmufa&m*g? a&zsOf;a&m*g? tonf; uifqmtxdjzpfEdkifw,f/ wpfcsKdU pdwfxm;rrSefuefwJhxkwfvkyfol? a&mif;csolawG[m yJcGHwdkY? zGJEkwdkYeJY yGm;w,f/ 'gawGu rdIjzpfzdkY&ef tvGeftm;ay;wJh ypönf;awG/ tJ'Dypönf;awGaMumifh tonf;ajcmufa&m*g0iffum zsOf;wG,fvm í Adkufu ylylwufvmNyD; a&m*gawG plplxGufvmukefwm qef;ovm; .../ (pm? 86) (ukoenf; ryg .../) 9/ ESm&nfpdk&TJa&m*g? ESmacgif;a&m*gESifh qm;a&aEG;jzwfoef;enf; ... tESpfav;q,f&dSaeNyDjzpfaom ESmacgif;a&m*g? ESm&nfpdk&TJa&m*g? (arG;&myg) &moufyef touf&SL r&cJhaom a&m*gwdkYudk (15)&ufrQESifh? a&m*g&ifhvQif (1)vrQESifh oufomaysmufuif;ygonf/ qm;a&aEG;azsmfenf;rSm zef (odkYr[kwf) a<uvufzuf&nftdk; xuf0uf (odkYr[kwf) okH;yHk? wpfykHcefY a&aEG;MuufoD;aEG;wGif qm;udk pm;yJG ZGef; wpfZGef;pm armufarmufxnfhí azsmf½kHrQom jzpfygonf .../ vuf,mbufESifh vuf0Jbuf wpfbufpDudk wpfvSnfhpD apmif;tdyfcdkif;NyD; vufarmif;udk acgif;tkH;apí rsufESmudk rsufESmusufbuf apmif;vSnfhcdkif;um tay:bufESmacgif;aygufrS nifompGm qm;&nfavmif;xnfhay;yg/ 3

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