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  • 1. Part IV The School Years: Biosocial Development Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. Chapter Eleven A Healthy Time Brain Development Children with Special Needs
  • 2. The School Years: Biosocial Development
    • no longer do children depend entirely on their families to dress, feed and wash them
    • by age 6 or 7, self-care is routine and attendance at school is mandated
  • 3. The School Years: Biosocial Development
    • there are similarities among all school-age children… but also differences that suddenly become significant (size, health, learning ability, in almost everything)
  • 4. A Healthy Time
    • Middle childhood
      • the period between early childhood and early adolescences, approximately from age7 to 11
      • genetic and environmental factors safeguard children… most fatal diseases and accidents occur before age 7
  • 5. A Healthy Time
    • Size and Shape
      • the rate of growth slows down, allowing school-age children to undertake their basic self-care
      • muscles become stronger; school-age children can master almost any motor skill
      • lung capacity expands—children run faster and exercise longer without breathing more heavily
  • 6. A Healthy Time
    • Size and Shape
      • overweight
        • in an adult, having a BMI (body mass index) of 25 to 29
        • in a child, being above the 85 th percentile*
      • obesity
        • in an adult, having a BMI of 30 or more
        • in a child, being above the 95 th percentile*
    • *based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s 1980 standards for his or her age and sex
  • 7. A Healthy Time
    • Physical Activity
      • active play benefits children in every way
      • benefits of sports can last a lifetime
        • better overall health
        • less obesity
        • appreciation of cooperation and fair play
        • improved problem-solving abilities
        • respect for teammates and opponents from many ethnicities and nationalities
  • 8. A Healthy Time
    • Physical Activity
      • there are also hazards
        • loss of self-esteem as a result of criticism from teammates or coaches
        • injuries (the famous “Little League elbow” is one example)
        • reinforcement of prejudices (especially against the other sex)
        • increases in stress (evidenced by altered hormone levels, insomnia)
        • time and effort taken away from learning academic skills
  • 9. A Healthy Time
    • Neighborhood Games
      • neighbor play is flexible
      • children improvise to meet their needs
      • play areas, rules, boundaries, time are adapted to the children's availability
  • 10. A Healthy Time
    • Exercise in School
      • good gym teachers know developmentally appropriate, cooperative games and exercises for children
      • school have been pressured to increase academics, while physical education and recess have declined
  • 11. A Healthy Time
    • Athletic Clubs and Leagues
      • private and nonprofit clubs and organizations offer opportunities for children to play
      • culture and family influence this type of play
      • most children enjoy organized sports
  • 12. A Healthy Time
    • Chronic Illness
      • about 13% of all children have special health needs, some get worse during the school years
      • any chronic condition can limit active play and impede regular school attendance
  • 13. A Healthy Time
    • Asthma
      • a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which inflammation narrows the airway from the lungs to the nose and mouth, causing difficulty in breathing. Signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing
  • 14. A Healthy Time
    • Prevention of Asthma
      • three levels of prevention…
        • primary
          • better ventilation of schools and homes
          • decreased pollution
          • eradication of cockroaches
          • construction of many more play areas
        • secondary
          • breast-feeding
          • ridding the house of dust, pets, smoke and other allergens
          • regular checkups
        • tertiary
          • use of injections and inhalers
          • hypoallergenic materials
  • 15. Brain Development
    • Advances in Brain Functioning
      • “ Increasing myelination results “by 7 or 8 years of age, in a massively interconnected brain.”
        • reaction time
          • the time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively (with a thought)
        • selective attention
          • the ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others
        • automatization
          • a process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought
  • 16. Brain Development
    • Measuring the Mind
      • done via repeated brain scans, such as the fMRI
      • the cortex (the top layers of the brain) is relatively thin at the beginning of childhood and then grows thicker during the school years, reaching a peak at about age 8
  • 17. Brain Development
    • Aptitude and Achievement
        • aptitude
          • the potential to master a particular skill or to learn a particular body of knowledge
        • IQ tests
          • tests designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to lean in school.
          • intelligence was defined as mental age divided by chronological age, times 100—hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ
  • 18. Brain Development
    • Aptitude and Achievement
  • 19. Brain Development
    • Aptitude and Achievement
      • achievement test
        • measures of mastery or proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, or any other subject
      • Flynn Effect
        • the rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations
      • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
        • an IQ test designed for school-age children. The test assesses potential in many areas, including vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension
  • 20. Brain Development
    • Gifted or Retarded
      • mental retardation
        • Literally, slow, or late, thinking. In practice, people are considered mentally retarded if they score below 70 on an IQ test and if they are markedly behind their peers in adaptation to daily life.
  • 21. Brain Development
    • Criticisms of IQ Testing
      • many developmentalists criticize IQ tests
      • no test can measure potential without also measuring achievement
      • every test score reflects the culture of the people who wrote, administer and take it
      • intellectual potential changes over the life span
  • 22. Brain Development
    • Criticisms of IQ Testing
      • a more fundamental criticism concerns the very concept that there is one general thing called intelligence
      • humans may have multiple intelligences… if so, the use one IQ score is based on a false premise
  • 23. Brain Development
    • Criticisms of IQ Testing
      • Sternberg (1996) describes three distinct types of intelligence
        • academic – measured by IQ and achievement tests
        • creative – evidenced by imaginative endeavors
        • practical – seen in everyday problem solving
        • other intelligences
          • emotional intelligence – the ability to regulate one’s emotions and perceptive understanding of other people’s feelings
  • 24. Brain Development
    • If North American intelligence tests truly reflected all aspects of the mind, children would be considered mentally slow if they could not replicate the proper hand, arm, torso and facial positions of a traditional dance, as this young Indonesian girl does brilliantly.
  • 25. Brain Development
    • Criticisms of IQ Testing
      • The most influential of all theories is Gardner’s 8 theories:
        • linguistic
        • logical-mathematical
        • musical
        • spatial
        • bodily-kinesthetic (movement)
        • interpersonal (social understanding)
        • intrapersonal (self-understanding)
        • naturalistic (understanding of nature, as in biology, zoology, or farming)
  • 26. Children with Special Needs
    • children who, because of a physical or mental disability, require extra help in order to learn
    • often slowness, impulsiveness, or clumsiness is the first problem to be noticed; other problems become apparent once formal education begins
  • 27. Developmental Psychopathology
    • the field that uses insights into typical development to study and treat developmental disorders and vice versa
  • 28. Developmental Psychopathology
    • four lessons from developmental psychopathology apply to everyone:
      • abnormality is normal
      • disability changes year by year
      • adulthood may be better or worse
      • diagnosis depends on the social context
        • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R)
          • The American Psychiatric Association’s official guide to the diagnosis (not treatment) of mental disorders. (IV means “fourth edition, revised.”)
  • 29. Attention-Deficit Disorder
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADAH)
      • a condition in which a person not only has great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive.
      • comorbidity
        • the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person
  • 30. Attention-Deficit Disorder
    • Learning Disabilities
      • a marked delay in a particular area of leaning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment
      • dyslexia
        • unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment
  • 31. Attention-Deficit Disorder
    • Autistic Spectrum Disorders
      • autism
        • a developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self-absorption, and an inability to acquire normal speech
      • autistics spectrum disorder
        • any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, usually communication, and abnormal play
      • asperger syndrome
        • a specific type of autistic spectrum disorder characterized by extreme attention to details and deficient social understanding
  • 32. Educating Children with Special Needs
    • Individual education plan (IEP)
      • a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs
    • Least restrictive environment (LRE)
      • a legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn
  • 33. Educating Children with Special Needs
    • Resource room
      • a room in which trained teachers help children with special needs, using specialized curricula and equipment
    • Inclusion
      • An approach to educating children with special needs in which they are included in regular classrooms, with “appropriate aids and services,” as required by law