• The term 'child development' is used to describe the skill
and capacity of function acquired by children between
birth and about 5 years of age
• It is a qualitative change in the child’s functioning.
• It can be measured through observation.
Developmental milestones are the points in time when a
child learns to accomplish a specific task.
Although children grow and develop at their own pace,
these milestones are established to mark the average age
moments most children learn the specific task
WHY IS IT NECESSARY
First sign of cerebral palsy
Signs may be noticed by individuals most likely to be
aware of the child’s developmental status – parents,
health care practitioners, or education providers.
EVERY DELAYED CHILD IS CP ?
Certain milestones are reached at predictable times.
Reaching these milestones later than expected does not
necessarily indicate cause for concern; many infants
develop at their own pace. However, delay does suggest
the possibility of a problem, especially when combined
with other risk factors and anatomic or radiological signs
AGE LIMIT ..
Limit ages are the age by which they should have been
achieved. Limit ages are usually 2 standard deviations
from the mean. They are more useful as a guide to
whether a child's development is normal than the median
THE FOUR DOMAINS OF DEVELOPMENT
vision and fine motor
hearing, speech and language
social, emotional and behavioral.
GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION
As a child develops, signs of impaired or delayed gross motor
function may be noticeable. The ability to make large, coordinating
movements using multiple limbs and muscle groups is considered
gross motor function.
Impaired gross motor functions – limited capability of
accomplishing common physical skills such as walking, running,
jumping, and maintaining balance.
Delayed gross motor functions – physical skills developed later than
expected; often used in conjunction with developmental milestones
for predictable stages of development.
Significant milestones of gross motor function include:
Fine Motor Function
Executing precise movements defines the category of fine
motor function. Fine motor control encompasses many
activities that are learned, and involve a combination of
both mental (planning and reasoning) and physical
(coordination and sensation) skills to master. vision and
fine motor development: more evident acquisition of skills
from 1 year onwards
Grasping small objects
Holding objects between thumb and forefinger
Setting objects down gently
Turning pages in a book
Hearing, speech and language:
a big expansion of skills from 18 months
Social, emotional and behavioral development:
expansion in skills is most obvious from 2.5
The newborn infant expresses his emotion just
through cry for hunger, pain or discomfort
Developmental problems are referred to under the umbrella
term “developmental delays,” which describe any ongoing
delay in a child’s meeting age-specific developmental
milestones (as opposed to physical growth).
Development problems fall into several categories affecting
ongoing functional developmental milestones. These
milestone categories include language skills, cognitive
development (thinking and learning), social and emotional
development, and gross motor and fine motor skills.
Most developmental problems cross over, combining several
types of developmental milestones or problems within one
CAUSES OF DEVELOPMENT DELAY
Causes of developmental delay are widespread, but
include inherited disorders, mental retardation,
neurological damage, autistic disorders, degenerative
diseases, social or environmental deprivations, deafness,
and many more causes.
Infants with unrecognized (treatable) medical
conditions, such as congenital hypothyroidism, can have
symptoms of developmental delay. Some developmental
problems can be corrected or improved by addressing
causes such as poor vision, deafness, and environmental