Cognitive and physical development in middle childhood


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Cognitive and physical development in middle childhood.

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Cognitive and physical development in middle childhood

  2. 2. Overview Aspects of Physical Development Health, Fitness and Safety Motor Development and Play Piagetian Approach Psychometric Approach: Assessment of Intelligence Language The Child in School Educating Children with Special Needs
  3. 3. Body Growth Grow 2 to 3 inches between ages 6 and 11 Kids double their weight between ages 6 and 11. Average 10 yr-old boy = 85 lbs; average 10 yr-old girl = 88 lbs. between 6 and 12 years, all 20 primary teeth are replaced with permanent teeth.
  4. 4. Nutrition and Sleep Schoolchildren need an average of 2,400 calories every day. Nutritionist recommend: fruits, grains, vegetables, and carbohydrates. Average 5 yr-old sleeps 11 hrs a day. Average 9 yr-old sleeps about 10 hrs a day. Average 13 yr-old sleeps about 9 hrs a day. Sleep problems: insomnia, lack of discipline.
  5. 5. Motor Development and Play Running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills more refined Fine motor skills improve-writing (starts off larger ad gradually decreases in size) Drawings show gains in organization, detail ad representation of depth Games with rules are more common. Children have a better concept of fairness, and justice PE classes very important - builds self esteem, and physical activity
  6. 6. Obesity By 2015 about 50% of children in North & South America will be overweight. About 17% of schoolchildren had BMI above 95% (2003-2006). About 33.3% were above 85% Obesity has increased in all ethnic groups, though less so in black & Hispanic children.
  7. 7. Causes of Obesity  Genetics  Low-cost, high fat foods, and family stress  Food as a reward system  Lack of physical activity
  8. 8. Causes of Obesity
  9. 9. Causes of Obesity
  10. 10. Accidental Injuries As in early childhood, accidental injuries is the # 1 cause of death among school-age US children. About 23,000 children in the US suffer brain injuries from bicycle accidents. Experts recommend that parents do NOT buy trampolines for their kids.
  11. 11. Preventing bike accidents…
  12. 12. Piagetian Approach At around age 7 children enter the stage of “concrete operations” and they can use mental operations. Most 6-7 yr.-olds can find their way to and from school. Class Inclusion: the ability to see the relationship between the whole and its parts.
  13. 13. Psychometric Approach: Assessmentof Intelligence The IQ Controversy: *) Good predictors of school achievement; functional independence late in life; and presence or absence of dementia later in life. *) Tests underestimate the intelligence of ill children, or children who do not do well on tests; do not measure native ability, but what children already know (infer intelligence)
  14. 14. Is there more than one intelligence?Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Conventional intelligence tests cover 3 areas: linguistic, logical-mathematical, and to some extend spatial (i.e gifted in art). Other 4 areas not covered in IQ tests: musical, bodily-kinesthetic (precision of movement), interpersonal (social relations), and intrapersonal (self-understanding). Later discover an 8th one: Naturalist (i.e. distinguishing species).
  15. 15. Language Language abilities continue to grow during middle childhood Get better with oral communication Improve their written communication More challenging for children who are not native-language speakers.
  16. 16. The Child in School Early school experience critical for success or failure Becoming Literate: Reading and Writing
  17. 17. The Child in School…Continue Gender (Girls tend to do better than boys) Boys do better than girls on science and math tests that are not closely related to material taught in school Peer acceptance Socioeconomic Status
  18. 18. Educating Children with SpecialNeeds Mental Retardation Learning Disabilities. (Dyslexia) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Gifted Children
  19. 19. Questions? THANK YOU!