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Sharon joji and rajat

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  • 1. earthquakes ! !! e m e Sav By Sharon and Rajat
  • 2. What is an Earthquake?Earthquakes: Vibrations (seismic waves)Earthquakeswithin Earth materials are produced by the rapidrelease of energy  Earth’s crust is in constant motion because of tectonic forces  Earth’s crust can store elastic energy  When forces exceed the elastic limits and structural strength of the rocks, the rocks will break and/or move producing vibrations that travel outward in all directions
  • 3. Earthquakeso The actual place underground where the rocks break producing vibrations is called the focuso The place on the surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter
  • 4. What types of forces are created?Compression Force: Force force pushing something together Makes a reverse fault
  • 5. What types of forces are created?Tension Force: Force stretching or pulling force Makes a normal fault
  • 6. What types of forces are created?Shear Force: Force a system of forces that operates against a body from different sides Makes a strike-slip fault
  • 7. http://www.geo.uib.no/jordskjelv/index.php?topic=earthquakes&lang=en
  • 8. http://www.geo.uib.no/jordskjelv/index.php?topic=earthquakes&lang=en
  • 9. What causes Earthquakes? when the Movement along faults: occurs energy exceeds the friction holding the sides of the fault together and is suddenly released .Movement of magma (volcanic) Volcanic eruptions
  • 10. Originate at the focus and travel outward in al Seismic Waves directions  Foreshocks: small earthquakes that come Foreshocks before a major earthquake  Aftershocks: Are adjustments in the crust Aftershocks after in earthquake o Smaller than main earthquake, but can cause as much or more damage. They can continue for weeks to months. Not every earthquake months produces aftershocks
  • 11. 3 Types of seismic Waves P waves (primary waves) Compressional wave  Particles move back and forth in the same direction as the wave  Travels the fastest  Can pass through solids and liquids (gases also)  Does not cause damage
  • 12. Types of Waves S wave (secondary wave, shear wave)  Particles move at right angles to the direction of the wave  Travels slower than P waves  Can pass through solids only  Does not cause damage
  • 13. Types of Waves L wave (long wave, surface wave, ground wave)  Particles move in elliptical orbit  Originates on the surface after the P and S waves go straight up from the focus and reach the surface  The L wave causes the damage and will be the strongest at the epicenter  Travels the slowest
  • 14.  Earthquake Safety Protect yourself from falling objects (GET UNDER SOMETHING) or stand in a hallway or doorway (watch out for a swinging door) Do not try to go outside during the earthquake After the earthquake and before the aftershocks, go outside Do not return to the building until it has been inspected
  • 15. Why japan is stillalive after the massiveearthquake
  • 16. Sharon and Rajat