Earthquakes

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Earthquakes

  1. 1. Earthquakes
  2. 2. What is an earthquake? <ul><li>The shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock between the Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fault <ul><li>A break in Earth’s crust where slabs of crust slip past each other. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where do faults occur? <ul><li>Faults usually occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion compress, pull, or shear the crust so much that the crust breaks. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3 types of faults <ul><li>Strike slip fault </li></ul><ul><li>Normal fault </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse fault </li></ul>
  6. 6. Strike-Slip Fault <ul><li>Rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Normal Fault <ul><li>The fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault while the other block lies below the fault. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reverse Fault <ul><li>Has the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in the opposite direction. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Faults in Action
  10. 10. Tsunamis <ul><li>A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Measuring Earthquakes
  12. 12. Seismic Waves <ul><li>Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Waves </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Primary Waves (p waves) <ul><li>The very first waves to arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>They compress and expand the ground like an accordion. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Secondary Waves (s waves) <ul><li>Come after the primary waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrate from side to side as well as up and down. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Surface Waves <ul><li>Form when S and P waves reach the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce the most severe ground movements. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Richter Scale <ul><li>Developed by Charles Richter in 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>Rating of the size of seismic waves as measured by a particular type of seismograph. </li></ul>

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