The Living Earth How ecosystems interact and the cycles that affect them. Red - Write it Blue - Highlight it
The part of Earth that supports life.
Top portion of the crust
All water on the surface
The surrounding atmosphere
Made up of many different biomes (environments) that are home to different kinds of organisms.
2. Eco systems
All the living organisms (biotic) in an area AND the nonliving (abiotic) features of the environment.
Eco logy: the study of interactions occurring between organisms and their environment.
Population: all organisms of the same species.
Community: all the populations in the ecosystem.
3. Carrying Capacity & Limiting Factors
Carrying Capacity: the greatest number of individuals that an ecosystem can sustain.
Limiting Factors: anything in the ecosystem that would inhibit continued growth of the system. Such as amounts of:
Both of these lead to . . .
Individuals and populations fighting each other for available resources.
3. Water 4. Minerals Competition:
4. Changing Ecosystems : Primary Succession
Begins in places WITHOUT soil(rock only).
Pioneer species (lichens, algae and fungus) grow on rock
New soil forms as weather and erosion break down rock
Decaying plants add organic material to create healthy soil
Climax Community : the stable stage of ecological diversity and balance. Example: -Volcanic Eruption
Primary Succession Example - Hawaii Because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island.
5. Changing Ecosystems: Secondary Succession
Begins in a place that has soil AND once had living organisms.
Happens faster than primary and will have different pioneer species.
Example Secondary Succession
Mt. St. Helens
6. Other Cycles Affecting Ecosystems : Nitrogen Cycle
Approximately 80% of the molecules in Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen.
Bacteria in the soil breaks down or fixes (fixes) the nitrogen into usable form.
Decaying plants and animals along with animal waste return the nitrogen to the soil
Nitrogen is used by all plants and animals to make amino acids, proteins, and DNA.
7. Other Cycles Affecting Ecosystems: Carbon Cycle
It is found in the atmosphere attached to Oxygen as CO 2 .
Due to human action (burning fossil fuels, etc.), there is nearly 30% more Carbon in the atmosphere now than only 150 years ago.
Carbon is used by plants in photosynthesis, to make energy-rich molecules (food).
8. Other Cycles Affecting Ecosystems: Water Cycle
Removing heat causes condensation, turning water vapor into a liquid.
Clouds lose water (rain or snow) as precipitation.
Precipitation is either absorbed into the ground or runs off into rivers. (filtration, run-off and accumulation)
Adding heat causes evaporation , turning liquid water into water vapor.