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  1. 1. GERMANY
  2. 2. GERMANY <ul><li>How did WWI change the world? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Hitler rise to power? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the impact of Nazi rule on Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did international peace collapse? </li></ul><ul><li>(War in Europe) </li></ul>
  3. 3. How did WWI change the world? Establishing peace Impact of WWI
  4. 4. Impact of WWI <ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><li>- 18 million military deaths </li></ul><ul><li>- 9 million civilian deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>- Physical damage to land and property </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Damage </li></ul><ul><li>- Huge debts at the end of the war </li></ul>
  5. 5. Establishing Peace Establishing Peace League of Nations Treaty of Versailles
  6. 6. Paris Peace Conference <ul><li>Victorious countries had own agenda </li></ul><ul><li>(could not agree on the kind of peace to be established) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany left out of the talks </li></ul><ul><li>Germans forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>War Guilt Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>(Compensation for war damage) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of territories </li></ul><ul><li>(parts of Germany + overseas colonies) </li></ul><ul><li>Size of armed forces limited </li></ul><ul><li>(No conscription, small army, small navy, no air force, demilitarisation of Rhineland) </li></ul>
  8. 8. League of Nations <ul><li>Main aims of the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Settle disputes between nations </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent wars </li></ul><ul><li>Protect independence of countries </li></ul><ul><li>Promote disarmament </li></ul>
  9. 9. League of Nations <ul><li>Weakness of the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>(Germany and Russia were also left out) </li></ul><ul><li>Membership predominantly European </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of power </li></ul><ul><li>(Did not have an army or police force to enforce its ideals) </li></ul>
  10. 10. How did Hitler rise to power? <ul><li>Weakness of the Weimar Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war economic problems </li></ul><ul><li>(remember the reparations) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>(rallies, marches and Hitler’s oratorical skills) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Rise of Hitler and the Nazis
  12. 12. GREAT DEPRESSION (1930s) Many Germans lost their jobs Life was difficult Germans lost faith in the Weimar government Hitler becomes Chancellor NAZIS become largest party NAZI propaganda and Hitler’s Oratorical skills Rich Germans feared the rise of Communism Reichstag Fire Hitler becomes Fuhrer (Could rule without the consent of the Reichstag) Weakness of the Weimar government Power Struggle Support for Communists Support for NAZIS
  13. 13. Impact of Hitler’s Rule on Germany <ul><li>Political Impact </li></ul><ul><li>- Democracy was destroyed in Germany </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>1933, Reichstag fire </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis blamed communists for the fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Used this as an excuse to get the President to Grant Hitler Emergency powers </li></ul><ul><li>All political activity came to an end </li></ul><ul><li>Got rid of the communists </li></ul>
  15. 15. Enabling Act, 1933 <ul><li>Gave Hitler dictatorial power for 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Could pass laws without the approval of the Reichstag </li></ul><ul><li>President Hindenburg dies in 1934 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler became absolute ruler of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of the Third Reich… </li></ul>
  16. 16. Night of the Long Knives <ul><li>Hitler eliminated threats from within his own party </li></ul><ul><li>Many SA leaders were arrested and executed </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social Impact <ul><li>Education (Hitler Youth, League of German Maidens, Young German Folk, Young Girls) </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda (radio, speeches, film, posters, youth, parades, rallies) </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Racial and religious control </li></ul><ul><li>German women </li></ul><ul><li>Nuremberg Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Final Solution </li></ul>
  18. 18. Economic Impact <ul><li>Working conditions improved </li></ul><ul><li>Trade unions banned and strikes were made illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Set up German Labour front (to get support of, and control workers) </li></ul><ul><li>Working Conditions improved </li></ul><ul><li>New jobs created </li></ul><ul><li>Big Businesses benefited </li></ul>
  19. 19. What was the impact of Nazi rule on Germany? <ul><li>Political control </li></ul><ul><li>(Totalitarianism, violence and intimidation – SS and the Gestapo) </li></ul><ul><li>Social control </li></ul><ul><li>(Education, propaganda, censorship, racial and religious control, Nuremberg Laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic control </li></ul><ul><li>Holocaust </li></ul>
  20. 20. Burning ‘un-German’ literature, 1933
  21. 21. Political Opponents being rounded up during the election campaign of 1933 in Nazi Germany (After Reichstag fire)
  22. 23. Nazis force three Jewish businessmen to march down Bruehl Strasse, one of the main commercial streets in central Leipzig, carrying signs that read: &quot;Don't buy from Jews; Shop in German businesses!&quot;
  23. 24. Instructional charts such as the one below were issued by the Nazis to help bureaucrats and administrators distinguish Jews from Mischlinge (Germans of mixed race) and Aryans. The white figures represent Aryans; the black figures represent Jews; and the shaded figures represent Mischlinge.