History Revision 4 Weimar Germany


Published on

Published in: Travel, Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History Revision 4 Weimar Germany

  1. 1. HISTORY REVISION – ARRRGHH! LESSON 4 – Weimar Germany
  2. 2. Weimar Republic Summary This is a PAPER 2 topic for your exam on 11th June. You will need to revise the following: 1. The Strengths and Weakness of the Weimar government. 2. The different problems the Weimar republic had to face. 3. The Crisis of 1923. 4. Recovery under Gustav Stresemann
  3. 3. Weimar Republic Strengths Weaknesses • Proportional representation - • A Bill of Rights guaranteed Each party was then allocated seats every German citizen freedom in the Reichstag exactly reflecting of speech and religion, and (proportional' to) the number of people who had voted for it. This equality under the law. sounds fair, but in practice it was a disaster it resulted in dozens of tiny parties, with no party strong enough • All men and women over the to get a majority, and, therefore, no age of 20 were given the vote. government to get its laws passed in the Reichstag. This was a major weakness of the Republic. • There was an elected president and an elected • Article 48 - this said that, in an Reichstag (parliament). emergency, the president did not need the agreement of the Reichstag, but could issue decrees. • The Reichstag made the The problem with this was that it did not say what an emergency was, laws and appointed the and in the end, it turned out to be a government, which had to do back door that Hitler used to take what the Reichstag wanted. power legally.
  4. 4. Failures of the Republic • Many people felt that Germany had received a very harsh deal in the Treaty of Versailles and they resented the government for signing it and agreeing to its conditions. • In Jan 1919 Spartacists rebelled in Berlin, led by the Communists Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht. • March 1920, Kapp Putsch. Right-wing rebellion. The army refused to attack him; he was only defeated when the workers of Berlin went on strike. • The Weimar government's main crisis occurred in 1923, when the Germans failed to make a reparations payment on time, which set off a train of events that included: ▫ a French invasion of the Ruhr ▫ a general strike ▫ runaway inflation - hyperinflation ▫ a number of communist rebellions ▫ an attempted Nazi putsch in Munich
  5. 5. Recovery under Stresemann • Gustav Stresemann had been a nationalist, but he realised that something needed to be done to save Germany. • The most important thing he did in 1923 was to organise the Great Coalition of moderate, pro-democracy parties in the Reichstag. At last, Germany had a government that could make laws! • Under Stresemann's guidance, the government called off the strike, persuaded the French to leave the Ruhr and even got the rest of the world to allow Germany to join the League of Nations in 1926. • Charles Dawes was the US budget director. In 1923, he was sent to Europe to sort out Germany's economy. Under his advice, the German Reichsbank was reformed and the old money was called in and burned. This ended the hyperinflation. • Dawes also arranged the Dawes Plan with Stresemann, which gave Germany longer to pay reparations. Most importantly, Dawes agreed to America lending Germany 800 million gold marks, which kick-started the German economy.
  6. 6. Example GCSE questions • Using your own knowledge, explain the effects of the hyperinflation of 1923 on the people of Germany. (7 marks) • Describe how the Dawes Plan (1924) was intended to help the recovery of Germany. (5 marks) • ESSAY - In the years 1919 to 1923 Weimar Germany faced many problems. Do these problems suggest that the Weimar Republic was doomed from the start? Explain your answer. (15 marks)