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Regional And International Conflict


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Regional And International Conflict

  1. 1. Managing Peace and Security: Regional and International Conflict
  2. 3. What is the chapter about? <ul><li>What were the causes and the consequences of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the conflict between Iraq and Kuwait resolved? </li></ul><ul><li>How can transnational terrorism be managed? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Remember what we learnt in the last lesson..? <ul><li>- all countries want to protect their national interests </li></ul><ul><li>- conflicts occur when countries do not agree with one another on various issues which might threaten their national interests </li></ul>
  4. 5. Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Conflicts can be resolved through diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts that cannot be solved through peaceful means may lead to war </li></ul><ul><li>These conflicts may impact surrounding countries in the region and at times, even the world </li></ul>
  5. 6. Conflict Resolution
  6. 7. Middle East
  7. 8. Middle East <ul><li>Countries: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen </li></ul>
  8. 9. Middle East <ul><li>People: Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Islam, Judaism, Christianity </li></ul>
  9. 10. Kuwait
  10. 11. Sudan
  11. 12. Middle East <ul><li>Per Capita Income can vary from US$23,000 in richer nations to US$800 in poorer nations </li></ul><ul><li>Such differences has caused resentment between countries of the middle east </li></ul>
  12. 13. Why is the Middle East so important to the world?
  13. 14. Why is the Middle East so important to the world? <ul><li>It is one of the most important oil producing regions in the world </li></ul><ul><li>It controls a strategic waterway, the Suez Canal which links Europe to Asia </li></ul>
  14. 15. Suez Canal
  15. 16. Iraq <ul><li>Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>Neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Both former British colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Both were under the Ottoman Empire </li></ul>
  16. 17. Iraq and Kuwait <ul><li>Kuwait granted independence in 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq refused to recognise independence </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq tried to invade Kuwait in 1960’s but failed </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – Iraq gave up claim over Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq and Kuwait worked together during Iran-Iraq war </li></ul>
  17. 18. What worsened the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait? <ul><li>Economic problems in Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>- Iraq suffered tremendously during the war with Iran </li></ul><ul><li>- It owed about US$80 billion in debts </li></ul><ul><li>- Reconstruction of war-torn areas required US$230 billion </li></ul>
  18. 19. What worsened the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait? <ul><li>Oil production </li></ul><ul><li>- Falling oil prices due to overproduction by countries like UAE and Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>- Iraq lost a lot of revenue and blamed UAE and Kuwait for waging an economic war </li></ul>
  19. 20. What worsened the relationship between Iraq and Kuwait? <ul><li>Dispute over territory </li></ul>Rumaila Oilfields
  20. 22. Were there attempts to resolve the problems between Iran and Kuwait? <ul><li>Mediation by the Arab League </li></ul>
  21. 23. Remember ASEAN? <ul><li>Association of Southeast Asian Nations </li></ul>
  22. 24. Was mediation successful? <ul><li>Kuwait agreed to produce oil according to OPEC quota </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq still accused Kuwait of having plans to produce more oil </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq assured league that as long as negotiations were underway, he would not use force against Kuwait </li></ul>
  23. 25. Was mediation successful? <ul><li>OPEC ministers agreed to raise the price of oil so that Iraq could make more revenue for its reconstruction efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait agreed to write off Iraq’s debts as well as provide US$500 million as a loan </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait refused to give in to territorial demands </li></ul>
  24. 26. 02 AUGUST 1990 <ul><li>Iraq invades Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>Within 2 days, most of the Kuwaiti soldiers had given up </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation lasted 7 months until a US led coalition freed Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>This came to be known as the Persian Gulf War </li></ul>
  25. 27. Persian Gulf War <ul><li>2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991 </li></ul>Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti George Herbert Walker Bush
  26. 28. Why War? <ul><li>Sunni Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Worried about Shi’a uprising </li></ul><ul><li>Saw himself as a great leader </li></ul><ul><li>Needed to improve situation in Iraq </li></ul>
  27. 29. Why War? <ul><li>Hussien Misread US position </li></ul><ul><li>Did not think America would go to war over Kuwait </li></ul>
  28. 30. Reactions to the invasion <ul><li>Fear of Iraqi dominance </li></ul><ul><li>- Iraq would control 20% of world’s oil production </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia was worried </li></ul><ul><li>World was worried for Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>No ‘Arab Solution’ </li></ul>
  29. 31. Reactions to the invasion <ul><li>US decided to intervene in the interest of its ally, Saudi Arabia (Operation Desert Shield) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 30 countries took part in the coalition to liberate Kuwait </li></ul><ul><li>UN passed resolution demanding Iraq to withdraw </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Sanctions on Iraq </li></ul>
  30. 33. Timeline <ul><li>August 2, #1 Iraq invades Kuwait and seizes Kuwaiti oil fields. Kuwait's emir flees. Iraq masses troops along the Saudi bordr. U.N. condemns Iraq's invasion and demands withdrawl. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Timeline <ul><li>August 9, #2 First U.S. military forces arrive in Saudi Arabia. U.N. declares Iraqi annexation of Kuwait void. </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>December 17 U.N. sets deadline for Iraqi withdrawal on January 15, 1991. Hussein rejects all U.N. resolutions. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Timeline <ul><li>August 9, #2 First U.S. military forces arrive in Saudi Arabia. U.N. declares Iraqi annexation of Kuwait void. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Timeline <ul><li>January 17 Operation Desert Storm begins at 3 a.m. Baghdad time. </li></ul>
  35. 38. Timeline <ul><li>January 19, #3 First scud missiles strike Israel. </li></ul>
  36. 39. Timeline <ul><li>February 26, #8 Hussein announces Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait. </li></ul>
  37. 40. Timeline <ul><li>War ended with Iraq accepting all UN resolutions. </li></ul>
  38. 41. Was the use of force the only solution? <ul><li>Diplomacy did not work (Saddam’s defiance) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of sanctions would take too long to be of consequence </li></ul>
  39. 42. Impact of the conflict <ul><li>Casualties (both civillian and military) </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Iraqi military capability </li></ul><ul><li>Political instability (Kurds) </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering of Iraqis </li></ul>
  40. 45. Impact of the conflict <ul><li>Environmental catastrophe </li></ul>
  41. 46. Impact of the conflict <ul><li>Displacement of foreign workers (large no. of workers from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, the Philippines, Palestine) </li></ul>
  42. 47. <ul><li>Why do nations go to war? </li></ul><ul><li>What motivated the Western decision to go to war in the Gulf? </li></ul><ul><li>What motivated Iraq to invade Kuwait? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was oil an important factor in the war? Were other factors involved? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we distinguish between acts of aggression and acts of defense? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we decide what stategy to respond with? (sanctions, force, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>What role should the United Nations play in conflict situations? </li></ul>
  43. 48. <ul><li>What do leaders need to consider before going to war? </li></ul>