Nazism <ul><li>Nazism, commonly known as National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus ), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler; and the policies adopted by the government of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, a period also known as the Third Reich. The official name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei ( NSDAP ) — “National Socialist German Workers’ Party”. The Nazis were one of several historical groups that used the term National Socialism to describe themselves, and in the 1920s they became the largest such group. Nazism is generally considered by scholars to be a form of fascism, and while it incorporated elements from both political wings, it formed most of its temporary alliances on the political right. Among the key elements of Nazism were anti-parliamentarism, ethnic nationalism, racism, collectivism, eugenics, antisemitism, opposition to economic liberalism and political liberalism, anti-communism, and totalitarianism. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazism was not a monolithic movement, but rather a (mainly German) combination of various ideologies and groups, sparked by anger at the Treaty of Versailles and what was considered to have been a Jewish/Communist conspiracy (known in the vernacular as the Dolchstoßlegende or “Stab-in-the-Back Legend”) to humiliate Germany at the end of the First World War. </li></ul>
The Nazi Party’s Rise to Power: 1928-1933 <ul><li>In 1928 Hitler’s Nazi Party were a small, insignificant party. They enjoyed little success in elections and were viewed as little more than thugs by the political elite. By 1933 however Hitler was the chancellor of Germany. The Nazi’s had risen from obscurity to power, total power. </li></ul>
Factors <ul><li>Stresemann’s death </li></ul><ul><li>The Wall Street Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Economic instability </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of the Weimar Government to cope with problems </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness of the constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Effective use of Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Force used against opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Wide ranging populist policies </li></ul><ul><li>Visible strength at a time of weakness </li></ul>
The Wall Street Crash <ul><li>The Wall Street Crash of 1929 (October 1929), also known as the Great Crash, and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout. The crash signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until 1947. </li></ul>Crowd gathering on Wall Street after the 1929 crash.
The Great Depression <ul><li>The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. </li></ul><ul><li>The depression originated in the U.S., starting with the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929 and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). From there, it quickly spread to almost every country in the world.This inturn led to economic instability in Germany </li></ul>
Failure of Wiemar Republic <ul><li>Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the depression, as American loans to help rebuild the German economy now stopped. Unemployment soared, especially in larger cities, and the political system veered toward extremism.The unemployment rate reached nearly 30% in 1932, bolstering support for the anti-capitalist Nazi and Communist parties, which both rose in the years following the crash to altogether possess a Reichstag majority following the general election in July 1932.Repayment of the war reparations due by Germany were suspended in 1932 following the Lausanne Conference of 1932. By that time, Germany had repaid one eighth of the reparations. </li></ul>Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power in January 1933, establishing a totalitarian single-party state within months and initiating the path towards World War II, the most devastating conflict in world history.
Treaty of Versailles and impositions on Germany <ul><li>The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. </li></ul>
Continued.... <ul><li>Legal Restrictions- </li></ul><ul><li>Article 227 charges former German Emperor, Wilhelm II with supreme offense against international morality. He is to be tried as a war criminal. </li></ul><ul><li>Articles 228–230 tried many other Germans as war criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>Article 231 (the "War Guilt Clause") lays sole responsibility for the war on Germany and her allies, which is to be accountable for all damage to civilian populations of the Allies </li></ul>
Continued.... <ul><li>Occupation of the Rhineland-As a guarantee of compliance by Germany, Part XIV of the Treaty provided that the Rhineland would be occupied by Allied troops for a period of 15 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Military restrictions- </li></ul><ul><li>German naval forces will be limited to 15,000 men, six battleships , six cruisers , 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats . No submarines are to be included </li></ul><ul><li>The import and export of weapons is prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Poison gas, armed aircraft, tanks and armoured cars are prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Blockades on ships are prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles . </li></ul>
Rise to power Rise in votes for Nazi’s Show of strength by Hitler Apparent weakness of Weimar Opportunity for Nazi’s Interest in extreme ideas Disillusionment with government Pressure on government High inflation Rising Unemployment Economic Collapse End of US Aid Wall Street Crash
Rise of Hitler <ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Inability of Weimar to cope with economic crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s manipulation of situation </li></ul><ul><li>Public desire for order and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Politicians naivety in dealing with Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of communism </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of National Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Instability of Weimar government </li></ul>
But the Nazi’s never had a majority! <ul><li>The Nazi Party never had an absolute majority in the Weimar government </li></ul><ul><li>They did become the largest single party though </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional representation allows non majority parliaments in the form of coalitions </li></ul>
Why was Hitler made Chancellor? <ul><li>Public demanded improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi Party were largest party in Reichstag </li></ul><ul><li>Hindendburg and von Papen thought Hitler could be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was a national figure after the 1932 Presidential campaign (he came second to Hindendburg but had a large proportion of the vote) </li></ul>
How were the Nazi’s able to achieve this so quickly? <ul><li>The economic situation was very bad </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was a great public speaker </li></ul><ul><li>The SA and SS disrupted he work of political opponents </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi’s were funded by industrialists such as Alfred Hugenberg </li></ul><ul><li>The other political parties wouldn’t work together </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellor’s in the period 1928-33 weren’t widely supported within the Reichstag </li></ul><ul><li>Goebbel’s propaganda was effective </li></ul><ul><li>People were fed up of ineffective coalition governments and the current situation </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi’s targeted certain groups of the electorate </li></ul><ul><li>People didn’t want a return to the hyperinflation of 1923-24 </li></ul>
How did Hitler consolidate power? <ul><li>The Reichstag Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a climate that Hitler can manipulate for his on ends </li></ul><ul><li>The Enabling Act </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler uses Article 48 to create a State of Emergency. The act effectively ends democracy in Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Night of the Long Knives </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition from within the party is removed: violently. The SA is ‘purged’. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler used his position, and the frailties and subsequent death of Hindendburg, to engineer a Nazi take over of government. He makes use of Article 48 to legitimise the end of democracy before radically altering the structure of government. Soon opposition is banned and Germany has a one party state. Pressure groups, such as Trade unions, are also banned. This Nazi ‘Revolution’ is secured as a result of the removal of all possible threats to nazi rule: the SA, the army and political parties are all ‘dealt with’ by the end of 1934. </li></ul>
Lebensraum <ul><li>Lebensraum (German for "habitat" or literally "living space") was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. It served as the motivation for the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany. In Hitler's book Mein Kampf, he detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class. </li></ul>
The Nazis And The Jews <ul><li>The nazis hated the jews because of the following main reasons.They were- </li></ul><ul><li>Christ Killlers </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of Germany in World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior race </li></ul><ul><li>Great depression of 1929 </li></ul>hated The Nazi Symbol The Jewish Symbol
1.Christ Killers <ul><li>Right from the so-called crucifixion of Jesus .Jews were blamed by the Gospel for this incident. According to analysts, right after this incident throughout, Europe prosecution of Jews started, Extreme instances of Jewish persecution include the First Crusade of 1096, the expulsion from England in 1290, the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in 1492, the expulsion from Portugal in 1497 and Holocaust was the climax of this centuries old hatred, which was created by Christian church. </li></ul>
2.Defeat of Germany in World War II <ul><li>After the signing of Treaty of Versailles at the end of WW1, state of war between Germany and its allied forces was formally ended, as far as Germans are concerned, they totally rejected this treaty as it was considered bad for the Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>After the World War 1, majority of Germans were of the view that, they came close to winning the war with the Spring Offensive earlier in 1918, but they failed because of strikes in the arms industry at a critical moment of the offensive, leaving soldiers with an inadequate supply of materiel and this strike was blamed on the Jews. </li></ul>
3.Inferior race <ul><li>According to historians, it is widely believed that Hitler deemed Germans as to be a superior race as compared to other races i.e. Aryans,Jews,Gypsies etc and he thought that this was one of important reasons of Holocaust and prosecution of other races. </li></ul>
4.Great depression of 1929 <ul><li>Great Depression of 1929, started just after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929 on black Tuesday, Germany was worst hit by this economic downturn, almost every city was affected and 6 million people got unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>During and after the slump, Jews were doing great financially, that made the role of Jews suspicious in the eyes of Germans and negative propaganda by Hitler provided the impetus to this notion and they started thinking that, Jews are responsible for this Downturn and they are getting full benefit from the recession. </li></ul>
Concentration Camps <ul><li>Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (in German Konzentrationslager, or KZ) throughout the territories it controlled. The first Nazi concentration camps set up in Germany were greatly expanded after the Reichstag fire of 1933, and were intended to hold political prisoners and opponents of the regime. The term was borrowed from the British concentration camps of the Second Anglo-Boer War. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of camps quadrupled between 1939 and 1942 to 300+, as slave-laborers from across Europe, Jews, political prisoners, criminals,gypsies, the mentally ill and others were incarcerated, generally without judicial process. Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps and extermination camps, which were established by the Nazis for the industrial-scale mass murder of the predominantly Jewish ghetto and concentration camp populations </li></ul>.
World War II <ul><li>World War II, or the Second World War, was a global conflict that was underway by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it is the deadliest conflict in human history, resulting in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities. </li></ul>
Reasons <ul><li>The rearmament of Germany was a cause for war because it broke the Treaty of Versailles (28th June, 1919) </li></ul><ul><li>The remilitarization of the Rhineland (7th march, 1936) was a cause of war because it broke the Treaty of Versailles . </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain’s appeasement policy (after may 1937 – March 1939) was a cause of war because it broke the Treaty of VersaillesThe Anschluss of Germany with Austria (13th march, 1938) was a cause of war because it broke the Treaty of Versailles and Treaty of St. Germain (10th September, 1919) </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi annexation of the Sudetenland after the Munich conference (29th September 1938) was a cause of war, because it broke the Treaty of St. Germain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, cause war because it defied the Munich agreement and ended Britain’s appeasement policy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi invasion of Poland (1st September 1939) caused war because Britain had guaranteed Poland’s borders </li></ul>
Impact of the war <ul><li>Estimates for the total casualties of the war vary, because many deaths went unrecorded. Most suggest that some 60 million people died in the war, including about 20 million soldiers and 40 million civilians. Many civilians died because of disease, starvation, massacres, bombing and deliberate genocide. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war,including 8.7 million military and 19 million civilian deaths. One of every four Soviet citizens was killed or wounded in that war. Germany sustained 5.3 million military losses, mostly on the Eastern Front and during the final battles in Germany. </li></ul>
Death of Hitler <ul><li>Adolf Hitler committed suicide by gunshot on Monday, 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin. His wife Eva, committed suicide with him by ingesting cyanide.That afternoon, in accordance with Hitler's prior instructions, their remains were carried up the stairs through the bunker's emergency exit, doused in petrol and set alight in the Reich Chancellery garden outside the bunker. The Soviet archives record that their burnt remains were recovered and interred in successive locations until 1970 when they were again exhumed, cremated and the ashes scattered. </li></ul>
Front page of the U.S. Armed Forces newspaper, Stars and Stripes, 2 May 1945.