Managing Peace And Security


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Managing Peace And Security

  1. 1. Managing Peace and Security: Deterrence and Diplomacy
  2. 2. What is the chapter about? <ul><li>What are some causes of international conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Singapore ensure its national security using the two-pronged approach of deterrence and diplomacy? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Deterrence <ul><li>Deter: to discourage or restrain from acting or proceeding : The large dog deterred trespassers. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence: the act of deterring </li></ul><ul><li> Unabridged (v 1.1) . Retrieved November 04, 2008, from website: http:// /browse/deter </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diplomacy <ul><li>Diplomacy: The art or practice of conducting international relations, as in negotiating alliances, treaties, and agreements. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition . Retrieved November 04, 2008, from website: http:// /browse/diplomacy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conflict <ul><li>Conflict is natural in human </li></ul><ul><li>societies. </li></ul><ul><li>People have conflicts all </li></ul><ul><li>the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries are like people too. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conflict <ul><li>Why do conflicts occur among countries? </li></ul><ul><li>- all countries want to protect their national interests </li></ul><ul><li>- conflicts occur when countries do not agree with one another on various issues which might threaten their national interests </li></ul>
  7. 7. Territory <ul><li>Conflict over land / border </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. India VS. China </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore VS. Malaysia </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sino-Indian War:1962
  9. 9. Sino-Indian War:1962
  10. 10. Pedra Branca (SIN)/ Pulau Batu Puteh (MAL)
  11. 11. Pedra Branca (SIN)/ Pulau Batu Puteh (MAL)
  12. 12. Dokdo / Takeshima
  13. 13. Resources <ul><li>E.g. Conflict over fishing grounds between Iceland and Britain </li></ul>
  14. 14. Iceland Britain
  15. 15. Ideology <ul><li>I-de-ol-o-gy : A set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition . Retrieved November 08, 2008, from website: http:// /browse/ideology </li></ul>
  16. 16. Korean Conflict
  17. 17. Korean Conflict <ul><li>North Korean believed in communism </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea believed in Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>USSR, USA, PRC and UN were all involved in the Korean Conflict </li></ul>
  18. 21. How do countries manage conflicts? <ul><li>Criticise each other openly </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce trade with the conflicting country </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve conflict through peaceful negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Seek help from regional and international organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Start a war </li></ul><ul><li>Display strength of military force to warn other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Cut diplomatic ties with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Protest to the other country through their representatives </li></ul>
  19. 22. How does Singapore manage conflict and ensure national security? <ul><li>It adopts a two-pronged approach </li></ul>Deterrence Diplomacy
  20. 23. Deterrence <ul><li>Refers to measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from threats </li></ul><ul><li>These threats may be from other countries or non-state aggressors like transnational terrorists </li></ul>
  21. 24. How is deterrence practiced? <ul><li>Citizen’s armed force </li></ul>
  22. 25. How is deterrence practiced? <ul><li>3 rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces </li></ul>
  23. 26. How is deterrence practiced? <ul><li>Singapore’s defence industry </li></ul>
  24. 29. How is deterrence practiced? <ul><li>Total Defence </li></ul>
  25. 30. How is deterrence practiced? <ul><li>Multi-agency coordination on security </li></ul>
  26. 31. How is deterrence practiced? <ul><li>Military co-operation with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>- bilateral military agreements and excercises </li></ul><ul><li>- Multi-lateral military agreements and excercises </li></ul>
  27. 32. Diplomacy <ul><li>Bilateral relations </li></ul><ul><li>Regional relations </li></ul><ul><li>International relations </li></ul>
  28. 33. ASEAN <ul><li>- Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Burma Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam </li></ul>
  29. 34. United Nations <ul><li>Singapore was admitted as the 117 th member of the UN </li></ul><ul><li>Membership in the UN approves the sovereignty of the small states and therefore contributes to their independence and territorial integrity. The UN also enables a small country to develop friendship with other nations, monitor world trends and collect valuable information. (pg 186) </li></ul>