Later in 1413 she left Yarmouth on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, viaConstance and Venice, living on alms. After reaching Jerusalem, she visited Calvaryand the holy sepulchre, where she first manifested the uncontrollable crying which formany years was to be the hallmark of her devotion. She travelled in the Holy Landbefore re-embarking for Venice, and then went to Assisi and Rome, where she worewhite clothing, and where her roaring in church caused much hostility.In April 1433 Kempe left Ipswich,without her confessor's permission, to accompany her daughter-in-law back toDanzig. Their ship was blown off course to Norway, but eventually reached Danzig,from where Kempe travelled with difficulty to Wilsnack in Brandenburg to see themiraculous Holy Blood.
BascinetDate: ca. 1375–1425 Culture: possibly French Medium: Steel Dimensions: H. 11 7/8 in. (30.15 cm); W. inside bowl at hinges, 7 1/4 in. (18.42 cm); Diam. at top of face opening, 8 1/4 in. (20.96 cm); Wt. 5 lb. 1 oz. (2268 g)According to an attribution traceable only to the nineteenth century, this helmet was said to have been worn in battle by Joan of Arc (1412–1431) and to have been given by her to the church of Saint Pierre du Martroi at Orléans, where it hung over the main altar. Although the legend is probably untrue, the helmet does have what looks like damage from use in battle.
the large number of guns with the English besiegers may suggest a more sympathetic assess- ment of Dunois' previous inaction. To relieve the siege, the French had to re- capture Tourelles, and this was, at least in the view of the French com- mander, an impossible task. Built in June 1426 as one of many boulevards constructed around the town-at least that is the date when gunpowder weapons were ordered to be delivered there-the boulevard of Tourelles, after its initial capture, had been rebuilt as an English gunpowder weaponry fortification and filled with guns of all calibres and sizes. Salisbury killed by gunshot.
English face the French in open battle, outside the town of Patay. On 18 June 1429, this battle was fought, and the French again were vic- torious; again Joan was present.22Talbot was captured, and Fastolf, believing it unsafe to go against the French with his depleted force, retreated to the safety of the walls of Paris.
Finally, in April 1430 a new enemy faced Joan. In this instance, the Maid of Orleans was the defender, as the Burgundians, their services pur- chased by England, attacked her in Compiegne.4o At this d~te, there was no power with a stronger or more numerous gunpowder weaponry arsenal than the Burgundians.41 And almost all of it was directed entirely at Compiegne and Joan. Contemporary chroniclers report the existence of at least five large bombards, two veuglaires, one large and one small, innumerable culverins, and two 'engins' among the besieging Burgundian army;42 other sources record the transportation of at least 17,000 lbs of gun- powder with the artillery train. But this show of technological power did not intimidate either Joan or Guillaume de Flavy, the 'captain' of ~ompiegne. They had their own gunpowder weaponry arsenal, and they -had prepared their defences to use it, destroying any fortifications which hindered gunfire.46 These guns would prove very effective, particularly, as reported by an anonymous eyewitness, 'the great number of small engines, called coulevrines, which were made of bronze and which fired lead balls'. These balls were even able to penetrate the armour of a man-at-arms.47 Eventually, after an unsuccessful siege which lasted the entire summer, the Burgundians were forced to retreat from the town, abandoning their intentions and most of their large artillery train.48 But this came too late for Joan. On 23 May she had been taken prisoner, and during this retreat was awaiting her fate at Rouen, far from the victorious French gunpowder weapons of Compiegne.
She was asked if the saints who appeared to her in her visionshated the English. By answering "yes" she would be saying that these Catholic saintswould then hate their own Church's followers, since the English were Catholic?2 Byanswering "no" then she would destroy her credibility of making war on the EnglishYShe cleverly answered back, "[t]hey love that which God loves and hate that whichGod hatesY
Only two of 14 assessors recommended torture.
Corned gunpowder—An example of a gunpowder innovation duringthe Renaissance combined all the ingredients in water or some otherﬂuid to make a slurry (a liqueﬁed paste), which assured a more com-plete mixture. Craftsmen experimented with several different types ofliquids, including wine, vinegar, and urine, as well as water. The slurrywas spread out to dry into large sheets that were like cakes or blocks,known as knollen. When dried, the cakes were then crushed into parti-cles the size of wheat grains called corned or numbed gunpowder: Cornedgunpowder (wheat and other grains are known as “corn” in England)had several advantages over serpentine power. First, the mixture wasmore complete and would burn more evenly. Second, it was not subjectto separation when transported, and thus it lasted longer. Third, thecrushed pieces could be run through sieves with different hole-sized
Veuglaire_powder_box_caliber_130_length_107_early_15th_century_La_FereVeuglaires (Englic "fowlers") were developed, up to 2 meters (8 feet) long, and weighing from 150 kg to several tonnes, while the crapaudins or crapaudaux were shorter (4 to 8 feet) and lighter than the veuglaires
1429At the English siege of Orléans, the French gunner Jean de Montesiler demonstrated remarkable marksmanship in targeting individual enemy targets. The accounts suggest that his individual firearm may have been a matchlock equipped couleuvrin.1435Handguns (culverins ad manum), supported on stands, were reported used at Rouen.1442French established artillery parks: at Dax in 1442, at Mauléon in 1449, and at Guissen in 1449.1448At the second Battle of Kossovo (17 Oct 1448), the Hungarians under Hunyadi reportedly employed German and Bohemian mercenary handgunners against the Turkish Janissary archers. The infantry on both sides used palisades while exchanging missile fire at an interim distance of about 91 meters. Though the far more numerous Turks won the battle, Sultan Murad II (1421-1451) was sufficiently impressed by the encounter to incorporate soon after handgunners in his Janissary.1449Mons Meg, a famous 'giant' iron bombard was made for Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy. This followed the trend set by the acquisition of another giant, DulleGriet, a few years earlier.The French artillery under the direction of Bureau brothers demonstrated striking success in sieges without use of the 'giant' bombards. The French emphasis was on a large number of regular and smaller guns [particularly longer barrel length-to-bore size ratios], and a highly organized supply and support base. There is the possibility that they were making use of the newly developed and more powerful 'corned' gunpowder.1450French employed two culverin-type guns that forced English longbowmen to break their traditional, defensive battle formation at the battle of Formigny. The issue was not decided by guns, which the English managed to capture, but by the French heavy cavalry that attacked the English exposed from their defenses.1453
The hand culverin consisted in a simple smoothbore tube, closed at one end except for a small hole designed to allow ignition of the gunpowder. The tube was held in place by a wooden piece which could be held under the arm. The tube was loaded with gunpowder and lead bullets. The culverin was fired by inserting a burning slow match into the hole."Murderer", 1410 France.These hand culverins soon evolved into heavier portable culverins, around 40 kg (88 lb) in weight, which required a swivel for support and aiming. Such culverins were further equipped with back-loading sabots to facilitate reloading, and were often used on ships. Many were immobile due to the heavy weight.
The French, under Dunois, forced the English commander in Normandy, Somerset, to surrender Rouen (19 October 1449), where Talbot was captured for a second time. Bureau directed sieges of Harfleur (December 1449) and Honfleur (January 1450), both were taken quickly. The French went on to besiege Caen (March 1450).The English began collecting an army under Kyriell in autum of 1449. It sailed from Portsmouth with 2,500 men, and landed at Cherbourg 15 March 1450
Because of Fenchapproacch on two sides Kyriell had no option but to form his men quickly in a semi-circle, so as to hold against Clermont's army to the west and to engage the impending attack of the newly arriving French force, consisting of heavy cavalry, from the south. Richemont's force that reached the field is estimated to be about 1,200, as another 800 archers had not kept pace with the mounted contingent.Not only was the English semi-circle detrimental to delivering concentrated archery fire, it was a hastly assumed position by a now out-numbered force. Kyriell was taken prisoner; his entire army was captured, killed, or fled along with the second in command, Matthew Gough who managed to flee to Bayeux.
Bordeaux under French domination but concerned about the loss of trade convinced Henry VI to send an army.
French under command of noble. Main powers were jean and Gaspard Bureau. 700 French workmen had made a trench lined field fortification based upon a dry ancient river bed leading off the Lidore tributary of the Dordogne.reportedly contained 300 guns, far more siege cannon or bombards than could be expected to be with a moving invading force. Though the exact breakdown between artillery pieces and handguns is not known, there is little doubt that a significant number of the weapons were handguns and that they were probably supervised by the Genoise mercenary, Guiribaut. The French camp was essentially an artillery park. It contained at least 6,000 men, and the figure is sometimes estimated as 9,000. The cavalry of 1,000 Breton men-at-arms was located 1.5 km to the north of the camp, on a rise called 'HorableTalbot attacked on the premise that the French archers were retreating.French employed about 300 guns (artillery and handguns) at the battle of Castillon. This engagement was a close replica of Hussites' tactical use of guns, without the wagons, but skillfully adapting to favorable defensive terrain. The guns had largely decided the outcome by the time the French cavalry charged in.Constantinople fell to Sultan Mohammed II, who had employed a large number of 'giant', mostly cast-bronze, bombards in his siege of the city. However, the large guns' contribution to the victory is often exaggerated.
7 S 2014 Visions and Virgins: End of the Hundred Years War
Visions and Virgins
• Margery Kempe
• Joan of Arc
Margery Kempe (~1373-~1438)
• John and Margery, brewers, Lynn
• Post-partem depression; visions of Jesus
• 13 children later in 1413, enters into a chaste
• White clothes; crying spells; pilgrimages
• Examinations on her acceptance of the Church
– Suspicion of Lollardy
• Certification of orthodoxy
• Obtains letter from Archbishop
• Book: Spiritual Journey, written down by an
Englishman living in Germany
Joan of Arc
15th C. miniature
DeVries, Kelly. "The Use of
Gunpowder Weaponry by and
against Joan of Arc During the
Hundred Years War." War &
Society 14.1 (1996): 1-15.
DeVries, Kelly. "A Woman as
Leader of Men: Joan of Arc’s
Military Career." In Fresh
Verdicts on Joan of Arc, ed.
Bonnie Wheeler and Charles
T. Wood, 3-18.
Crane, Susan. "Clothing and
arc." Journal of Medieval and
Early Modern Studies 26.2
Trial – Joan’s Quick Thinking
Do your saints hate the English?
"[t]hey love that which God loves and hate that
which God hates”
Are you in God’s Grace?
"[if] I am not, God put me there, and if I am,
God keeps me there."
Articles at Trial
• Seven articles on visions. Saints spoke in French and
not in English, because they are not on the side of the
• Affirmed knowledge of certain future things.
• She had taken and borne and continues still to bear a
man's dress. She had not desired and did still not
desire to resume woman's dress
• Warned others via letters
• Forsaken parents. Took man’s dress from a knight.
• Threw herself down from a high tower.
• Failure to give an accusation or provide her
• Tampering with the record
• Treatment as a prisoner of war in a military
prison guarded by men and not an
ecclesiastical prison guarded by women
• Failure to provide a guardian for a minor
Advances in Military Technology
‘Serpentine’ ‘Corned’ (‘crumbed’) gunpowder
1445 Charles VII establishes compagnies