The Mechanical Eye ©RIL
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The Mechanical Eye ©RIL

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A brief about still photography and its origin ...

A brief about still photography and its origin

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  • 1. An Introduction Photography is a broad subject that eventually boils down to a mixture of art and science. How to take a picture Compose and Expose Compose: This is the creative or artistic bit where you arrange all of the elements of your picture within the frame or viewfinder to produce what should hopefully be a pleasing composition. Expose: This is the scientific and mechanical bit where you expose your film to light through the lens of your camera and if you are lucky preserve the image for posterity. We compose first and expose second that is the rule.
  • 2. BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY Sir John Herschel, was the first person who used the term “Photography” in 1839, the year the photographic process became public. There are two distinct scientific processes that combine to make photography possible. • The first of these processes was optical. The Camera Obscura (dark room) had been in existence for at least four hundred years. • The second process was chemical. For hundreds of years before photography was invented, people had been aware, for example, that some colours are bleached in the sun, but they had made little distinction between heat, air and light. The first successful picture was produced in 1827 by Niépce, using material that hardened on exposure to light. This picture required an exposure of eight hours.
  • 3. THE CAMERA Essentially a camera is just a light tight box with a small hole in it. The sort of camera we are going to look at is the 'modern' 35mm SLR (Single lens reflex). Additionally there may be other knobs and buttons on your camera which could prove useful. Self timer Exposure lock Multiple exposure switch Exposure compensation dial Mirror lock up On/Off switch 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Film winder Shutter Speed Dial Flash Hot-shoe Focusing ring Film Rewind Crank Film Speed Dial Flash Sync Socket Lens Depth of Field Preview Self Timer/Exposure Lock Aperture Ring Shutter Release
  • 4. EXPOSURE Aperture and f-numbers The aperture is just a hole whose size can be varied to allow more or less light to pass through it. The size of apertures are expressed in f-numbers. The range of f-numbers follows a standard sequence with each f-number being half as bright, passing half as much light, as the previous one. A typical aperture range may look like this: f 1.4; f 2; f 2.8; f 4; f5.6; f 8; f 11; f 16; f 22; f 32 The smaller the f-number is then the larger the aperture is and the more light it will pass. f-32 1/8th of a second f-22 Shutter and Shutter Speeds 1/15th of a second f-16 f-11 f-8 f-5.6 f-4 f-2.8 f-2 The shutter prevents light from reaching the film until the moment of exposure, when it opens for a predetermined time allowing light 1/30th of a second passing through the lens aperture to reach the film. Unlike the 1/60th of a second aperture, which is always in an open position the shutter is always 1/125th of a second closed. Like the aperture, shutter values or 'speeds' follow a 1/250th of a second standard sequence with each one being half that of the next. A 1/500th of a second typical shutter speed range may look like this: 1/1000th of a second 1/2000th of a second 1sec 1/2sec 1/4th 1/8th 1/15th 1/30th 1/60th 1/125th 1/250th 1/500th 1/1000th 1/2000th
  • 5. LENSES • Macro 150mm F2.8 EX DG • Wide angle-zoom 8-16mm F4-5.6 DC HSM • Tele-zoom 300-800mm F5.6 EX • Circular Fisheye 4.5mm F2.8 EX DC • AF 2X Tele-converter
  • 6. LENS VIEWS Different lenses, same camera position Different lenses, camera position adjusted
  • 7. ACCESSORIES Close-up Speedlight Flash
  • 8. TRIPOD Tripod 1. Pan-handle 2. Elevator (Center column) Pan head 3. Crank handle 1. Pan-handle 4. Body 2. Elevator (Center column) 5. Leg rib 12. Video boss (Retractable) 6. Leg assembly 13. Camera screw 7. Guide pipe 14. Platform locking lever 8. Brace arm 15. Quick-release platform 9. Arm guide 16. Panning lock nut 10. Leg locking lever 17. Side tilt locking nut 11. Leg tip (rubber foot)
  • 9. FILTERS Filters gives us better images by adjusting the light variations. Color Conversion Filters Sunlight, daylight, incandescent, fluorescent, and other artificial light sources all have color characteristics that vary significantly. Infrared Filters Various filters are used to reduce unwanted visible light. Total visible light absorption, transmitting only infrared, can be useful. Prior testing is recommended. Black & Gold Diffusion/FX® Filters These filters produce silky-smooth textures, even in tight close-ups without sacrificing image clarity. Each creates a diffused image that doesn't look like it's been shot through a filter. Wide Multi-Coated Circular Polarizing filter The only filter that darken the sky in color photography without affecting color balance, polarizing filter cut out the glare from water and non-metallic surfaces. Ultra Contrast Filter It uses the surrounding ambient light, not just light in the image area, to evenly lighten shadows throughout. Use it where contrast control is needed without any other effect. Multi-Coated UV filter UV filter cuts haze for sharper black and white prints and corrects the blues and violets in color prints. The multi-coated reduce reflection excess UV. Sepia Filters This special effect filter creates a warm, brown glow offering "turn of the century" nostalgia.