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HUMAN100: Introduction to Humanities --- Visual Arts: Photography. This includes the ff:
1. History of Photography
2. Art Movements in Photography
3. Basic Parts of the Camera
4. Different Camera Angles
5. Elements of a good Photograph
6. Photography Rules

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  1. 1. the basics of photography HUMAN 100: Introduction to Humanities
  2. 2. photography It is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. It came from two Greek words: Photos (φωτός) – which means ‘light’ and Graphine (γραφή) – which means ‘to draw’.
  3. 3. photography The subject matters used for photography before includes landscapes and portraits, today our daily life becomes our subject.
  4. 4. photography Early photographers which practice photography as an art use painting as model. Their photographs, like the paintings, tells a story.
  5. 5. Art Movements: Styles in photography
  6. 6. pictorialism Photographers use a variety of techniques to undercut the objectivity of the camera, producing gauzy, atmospheric images that seemed more painterly, and thus more like art. It is a style in which the photographer has somehow manipulated what would otherwise be a straightforward photograph as a means of "creating" an image rather than simply recording it. In 1869 English photographer Henry Peach Robinson published a book entitled Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints On Composition And Chiaroscuro For Photographers.
  7. 7. Fading Away (1858) by pictorialism
  8. 8. Spiderwebs (1908) by pictorialism
  9. 9. straight photography Pure photography or straight photography refers to photography that attempts to depict a scene as realistically and objectively as permitted by the medium, renouncing the use of manipulation. Its also a type of picture that has no side effect but tell the truth in general. It is considered as a point of honor for photographers not to crop or manipulate their photographs in a way.
  10. 10. The Steerage (1907) by straight photography
  11. 11. straight photography Migrant Mother (1936) by
  12. 12. abstraction This was developed in the early 20th century painters, wherein different forms of objects were simplified and reduced to its most characteristic aspects. Abstract photography can produce very dramatic images. It relies on our more primal sense of form, color, and curves than it does on detail.
  13. 13. abstraction Abstraction (1915) by
  14. 14. abstraction Here are some techniques on abstract photography: a. Selective Focus
  15. 15. abstraction b. Light and Shadows
  16. 16. abstraction c. Lines
  17. 17. abstraction d. Texture
  18. 18. abstraction e. Blur
  19. 19. abstraction f. Zooming in
  20. 20. abstraction g. Partial Object
  21. 21. surrealism Surrealism is a form of art which arose after the WWI, wherein artist looked for the intrusion of strange, dreamlike moments into ordinary, everyday life.
  22. 22. surrealism Bodyscapes by
  23. 23. surrealism
  24. 24. solarization Solarization is a process by which an exposed negative is briefly re exposed to light during development which cause chemical change to the photographic emulsion.
  25. 25. solarization Solarization by
  26. 26. solarization
  27. 27. new media Today, photographers welcome the new technologies such as computers and digital cameras as natural extensions of their medium.
  28. 28. new media
  29. 29. Basics of Photography the camera as medium
  30. 30. cameras: then and now 19th century studio camera standing on tripod and using plates Compact Kodak folding camera from 1922 Leica-II, one of the first 135 film cameras, 1932
  31. 31. Contax S of 1949 – the first pentaprism SLR Polaroid Colorpack 80 instant camera, c 1975 Digital camera, Canon Ixus class, c. 2000 cameras: then and now
  32. 32. cameras: then and now Nikon D1, the first digital SLR used in journalism and sports photography, c. 2000 Smartphone with built-in camera spreads private images globally, c. 2010
  33. 33. basic parts of a camera a. - holds all the other parts together and provides protection to the delicate internal parts of a camera.
  34. 34. basic parts of a camera b. - consists of several layers of lenses of varying properties which allows to zoom or focus. Focusing - is a process at which the camera lenses are moved until the subject becomes very sharp.
  35. 35. basic parts of a camera c. - this is the ‘trigger’ of the camera which initiates the image capturing process.
  36. 36. basic parts of a camera d. - this part contains several symbols which allow you to select a shooting mode.
  37. 37. basic parts of a camera e. - this is the small viewing window that shows the image that the camera’s imaging sensor sees.
  38. 38. basic parts of a camera f. - this is found around the old manual of SLR as way to select an aperture opening.
  39. 39. basic parts of a camera g. - this is also found around the lens of a DSLR camera which is turned to manually focus the lens.
  40. 40. basic parts of a camera h. - this is the small screen at the back of the camera used for framing or for reviewing recorded images.
  41. 41. basic parts of a camera i. usually built-in on the body of the camera which provided instantaneous burst of bright light.
  42. 42. basic parts of a camera j. comprise of a set of directional keys and few other buttons to activate certain functions and menus.
  43. 43. basic parts of a camera k. this part turns on or off the camera. This may also contain a record/play mode select or on some cameras.
  44. 44. basic parts of a camera l. this part allows the user to control the camera’s lenses to zoom-in or zoom-out.
  45. 45. basic parts of a camera m. this part holds the batteries.
  46. 46. basic parts of a camera n. an expansion where the memory card is inserted.
  47. 47. basic parts of a camera o. this varies the focal length of the lens in the viewfinder in order for people wearing eyeglasses see clearly through it even without the eyeglass.
  48. 48. basic parts of a camera p. - this part allows users to attach a tripod or monopod for added stability.
  49. 49. Basics of Photography camera angles
  50. 50. camera angles Camera angles and movements combine to create a sequence of images, just as words, word order and punctuation combine to make the meaning of a sentence. You need a straightforward set of key terms to describe them. Describing Shots When describing camera angles, or creating them yourself, you have to think about three important factors: a. The FRAMING or the LENGTH of shot, b. The ANGLE of the shot, and c. If there is any MOVEMENT involved When describing different cinematic shots, different terms are used to indicate the amount of subject matter contained within a frame, how far away the camera is from the subject, and the perspective of the viewer. Each different shot has a different purpose and effect. A change between two different shots is called a CUT.
  51. 51. framing or shot leght a. Extreme Long Shot - This can be taken from as much as a quarter of a mile away, and is generally used as a scene-setting, establishing shot. There will be very little detail visible in the shot, it's meant to give a general impression rather than specific information.
  52. 52. framing or shot leght b. Long Shot or Full Shot - this is the most difficult to categories precisely, but is generally one which shows the image as approximately "life" size -- corresponding to the real distance between the audience and the screen in a cinema (the figure of a man would appear as six feet tall).
  53. 53. framing or shot leght c. Medium Shot - Contains a figure from the knees/waist up and is normally used for dialogue scenes, or to show some detail of action.
  54. 54. framing or shot leght d. Close-up Shot - This shows very little background, and concentrates on either a face, or a specific detail. Everything else is just a blur in the background. This shot magnifies the object and shows the importance of things, be it words written on paper, or the expression on someone's face.
  55. 55. framing or shot leght e. Extreme Close-up Shot - As its name suggests, an extreme version of the close up, generally magnifying beyond what the human eye would experience in reality. An extreme close-up of a face, for instance, would show only the mouth or eyes, with no background detail whatsoever. This is a very artificial shot, and can be used for dramatic effect.
  56. 56. camera angles 1. The Bird's-Eye view This shows a scene from directly overhead, a very unnatural and strange angle. Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognizable at first. This shot does, however, put the audience in a godlike position, looking down on the action. People can be made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things.
  57. 57. camera angles
  58. 58. camera angles 2. High Angle Not so extreme as a bird's eye view. The camera is elevated above the action using a crane to give a general overview. High angles make the object photographed seem smaller, and less significant (or scary). The object or character often gets swallowed up by their setting - they become part of a wider picture.
  59. 59. camera angles
  60. 60. camera angles 3. Eye Level A fairly neutral shot; the camera is positioned as though it is a human actually observing a scene. The camera will be placed approximately five to six feet from the ground.
  61. 61. camera angles
  62. 62. camera angles 4. Low Angle These increases the height and give a sense of speeded motion. The background of a low angle shot will tend to be just sky or ceiling, the lack of detail about the setting adding to the disorientation of the viewer. The added height of the object may make it inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer, who is psychologically dominated by the figure on the screen.
  63. 63. camera angles
  64. 64. camera angles 5. Worm’s Eye View Taken also from a low angle but more extreme.
  65. 65. camera angles
  66. 66. camera angles 6. Oblique/Canted Angle Sometimes the camera is tilted to suggest imbalance, transition and instability. This technique is used to suggest point-of-view shots -- when the camera becomes the 'eyes' of one particular character, seeing what they see.
  67. 67. camera angles
  68. 68. Elements of a good photograph
  69. 69. elements  Composition- taking the scene as a whole and not just the main subject of the photograph.  Rule of thirds- mentally dividing the frame into three distinct vertical and horizontal sections.
  70. 70.  Framing- used to draw the viewer’s eye to the subject of the photograph. It may use natural elements to frame your subject. elements
  71. 71.  Lighting elements
  72. 72.  Exposure elements
  73. 73.  Storytelling elements
  74. 74.  Graphic Interest- how a photographer see the scene and how it is presented to the audience. elements
  75. 75. basic photography rules 1. Get a steady hand on the camera. 2. Choose a pleasing backdrop, preferably something that suits the atmosphere you want to create. 3. Avoid direct sunlight when shooting outdoors. 4. Pay attention to what is happening when taking outdoor photographs. 5. Find fitting backdrop for portraits and use tripod to keep the shot from being blurred. 6. In group pictures, make sure that everyone is included in the picture. 7. Take candid shots.
  76. 76. ACTIVITY Answer page 177 and 178 in your book.