Photography is a broad subject that eventually boils
down to a mixture of art and science.
How to take a picture
Compose and Expose
Compose: This is the creative or artistic bit where you arrange all of the
elements of your picture within the frame or viewfinder to produce what
should hopefully be a pleasing composition.
Expose: This is the scientific and mechanical bit where you expose
your film to light through the lens of your camera and if you are
lucky preserve the image for posterity.
We compose first and expose second that is the rule.
BEGINNINGS OF PHOTOGRAPHY
Sir John Herschel, was the first person who used the term “Photography” in
1839, the year the photographic process became public.
There are two distinct scientific processes that combine to make
• The first of these processes was optical. The Camera Obscura (dark
room) had been in existence for at least four hundred years.
• The second process was chemical. For hundreds of years before
photography was invented, people had been aware, for example, that
some colours are bleached in the sun, but they had made little
distinction between heat, air and light.
The first successful picture was produced in 1827 by Niépce, using material
that hardened on exposure to light. This picture required an exposure of
Essentially a camera is just a light
tight box with a small hole in it.
The sort of camera we are going to
look at is the 'modern' 35mm SLR
(Single lens reflex).
Additionally there may be other knobs and
buttons on your camera which could prove
Multiple exposure switch
Exposure compensation dial
Mirror lock up
Shutter Speed Dial
Film Rewind Crank
Film Speed Dial
Flash Sync Socket
Depth of Field Preview
Self Timer/Exposure Lock
Aperture and f-numbers
The aperture is just a hole whose size can be varied to allow more
or less light to pass through it. The size of apertures are expressed
in f-numbers. The range of f-numbers follows a standard sequence
with each f-number being half as bright, passing half as much
light, as the previous one. A typical aperture range may look like
f 1.4; f 2; f 2.8; f 4; f5.6; f 8; f 11; f 16; f 22; f 32
The smaller the f-number is then the larger the aperture is and the
more light it will pass.
1/8th of a second
Shutter and Shutter Speeds
1/15th of a second
The shutter prevents light from reaching the film until the moment
of exposure, when it opens for a predetermined time allowing light
1/30th of a second
passing through the lens aperture to reach the film. Unlike the
1/60th of a second
aperture, which is always in an open position the shutter is always
1/125th of a second
closed. Like the aperture, shutter values or 'speeds' follow a
1/250th of a second
standard sequence with each one being half that of the next. A
1/500th of a second
typical shutter speed range may look like this:
1/1000th of a second
1/2000th of a second
1sec 1/2sec 1/4th 1/8th 1/15th 1/30th 1/60th
1/125th 1/250th 1/500th 1/1000th 1/2000th
• Macro 150mm F2.8 EX DG
• Wide angle-zoom 8-16mm F4-5.6 DC HSM
• Tele-zoom 300-800mm F5.6 EX
• Circular Fisheye 4.5mm F2.8 EX DC
• AF 2X Tele-converter
Different lenses, same
Different lenses, camera
2. Elevator (Center column) Pan head
3. Crank handle
2. Elevator (Center column)
5. Leg rib
12. Video boss (Retractable)
6. Leg assembly
13. Camera screw
7. Guide pipe
14. Platform locking lever
8. Brace arm
15. Quick-release platform
9. Arm guide
16. Panning lock nut
10. Leg locking lever 17. Side tilt locking nut
11. Leg tip (rubber foot)
Filters gives us better images by adjusting the light variations.
Color Conversion Filters
Sunlight, daylight, incandescent, fluorescent, and other artificial light sources all have color
characteristics that vary significantly.
Various filters are used to reduce unwanted visible light. Total visible light absorption,
transmitting only infrared, can be useful. Prior testing is recommended.
Black & Gold Diffusion/FX® Filters
These filters produce silky-smooth textures, even in tight close-ups without sacrificing image
clarity. Each creates a diffused image that doesn't look like it's been shot through a filter.
Wide Multi-Coated Circular Polarizing filter
The only filter that darken the sky in color photography without affecting color balance,
polarizing filter cut out the glare from water and non-metallic surfaces.
Ultra Contrast Filter
It uses the surrounding ambient light, not just light in the image area, to evenly lighten
shadows throughout. Use it where contrast control is needed without any other effect.
Multi-Coated UV filter
UV filter cuts haze for sharper black and white prints and corrects the blues and violets in
color prints. The multi-coated reduce reflection excess UV.
This special effect filter creates a warm, brown glow offering "turn of the