071513 How to Prepare for Schedule Quantitative Risk Analysis

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Simple Guide to SQRA

Simple Guide to SQRA

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  • 1. HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree ffoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) AAuutthhoorr:: RRuuffrraann CC.. FFrraaggoo,, PP.. EEnngg..,, PPMMPP®®,, CCCCPP,, PPMMII--RRMMPP®® RReevviissiioonn 11:: 1155JJuull1133
  • 2. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 2 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Table of Contents I. Summary...................................................................................................................... 4 II. Objectives ................................................................................................................ 6 III. Definitions and Acronyms....................................................................................... 6 IV. Related Tools and Applications............................................................................... 6 V. General Preparation Guidelines to SQRA ............................................................... 6 VI. What planning inputs are required for a successful SQRA?.................................. 11 VII. Who are required to participate in a SQRA? ......................................................... 13 VIII. Ready for SQRA Criteria or Minimum Schedule Quality (MSQ)..................... 14 1) Hard or Mandatory Constraints ............................................................................. 14 2) Soft Constraints...................................................................................................... 15 3) As Late As Possible ............................................................................................... 15 4) Missing Predecessors............................................................................................. 17 5) Missing Successors ................................................................................................ 17 6) Open Start (Danglers) ............................................................................................ 18 7) Open Finish (Danglers).......................................................................................... 19 8) Negative Float........................................................................................................ 20 9) Out of Sequence Activities .................................................................................... 21 10) Excessive Float................................................................................................... 22 11) Milestone to Activity Ratio................................................................................ 23 12) Links to Activity Ratio....................................................................................... 24 13) Activities with External Link ............................................................................. 26 14) FS Negative lags (or Leads)............................................................................... 27 15) SS Negative lags (or Leads)............................................................................... 29 16) FF Negative lags (or Leads)............................................................................... 31 17) SF Relationships................................................................................................. 33 IX. Potential Consequences of Poor Schedule Quality................................................ 34 X. Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 36 XI. Index ...................................................................................................................... 37
  • 3. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 3 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))
  • 4. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 4 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) I. Summary Schedule Quantitative Risk Analysis (SQRA) is a critical component in the overall assessment of any major project. Carrying out such analysis is primarily used for endeavors that are of great significance to a business venture such as a multi-billion dollars construction project, a high profile government regulatory compliance project, a very complex sustaining project or an exceedingly visible project sponsored by the company’s most powerful and influential stakeholders. Performing a Monte Carlo simulation is part of SQRA. There are several commercial applications that can be used; e.g. Oracle Primavera Risk Analysis or OPRA (previously called PertMaster), Crystal Ball, @Risk, Risk Simulator, Acumen Risk and others. Through a meticulous, mathematical and methodical process of risk modeling, a project manager will be able to identify, calculate, assess and predict the following among others:  Achievability of the overall schedule or in other words, the probability of your project being completed on schedule and within budget  Achievability of specific deterministic milestones & deliverables  Overall Probability-Date distribution  Specific probability of each key activity and milestone  Overall schedule contingency  Schedule contingency of each major stage or phase  Critical schedule drivers  Critical risk drivers  Duration/Risk sensitivities  Cruciality  Schedule criticality and tasks that remains on the critical path  Schedule quality  Completeness of the schedule  Impact of schedule changes and updates  Duration sensitivity  Etc. Any project manager worth his/her salt will say that failure is not an option. Therefore, it is vital to validate the achievability of what we know as the project management triple constraints (cost, time and scope), the concept of which was further improved not too long ago by PMI’s Project Management Book of Knowledge, 4th Edition (2009). The advanced illustration of the iron triangle
  • 5. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 5 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) (Reference: 2013, Wikipedia, Project Management Iron Triangle) shows two superimposed triangles with opposing apexes creating a six-point star where each point represents the constraints to be monitored and managed. Two of the points I would like to delve in detail are “time” and “quality”. Note that the project schedule represents the time constraints of the project. In this write-up, I will show the readers how to prepare for the SQRA process, what are the planning inputs needed to improve success. By providing the recommended list of quality benchmarks, and explaining the rationale of using those quality metrics to mitigate time-bound risks against the potential consequences of a poor quality schedule, I expect all practitioners to gain complete understanding of the overall philosophies involved. A good manager who ignores or intentionally skips SQRA loses a great opportunity to manage even better. Through several years of preparing, facilitating, performing and reviewing the results of this process, I have come to a conclusion that regardless of the apparent challenges revolving around the subjectivity of the process, with the right, logical and intelligent inputs; it will give the project a sound basis when making a difficult choice. It will provide a solid foundation when announcing a “Go or No Go” project decision. Although SQRA is currently considered a best practice in Project Management, it must be borne in mind that not every project requires this process. The resources, cost, and energy needed to perform one needs to be balanced and taken versus the benefits that can be derived from it. A simple small to large project or portfolio of say, a few thousand to a few million dollars might not need to perform this process. A qualitative risk assessment through a simple risk register is usually enough. The correctness, accuracy, completeness and usefulness of a Schedule Quantitative Risk Analysis (SQRA) shall depend heavily on the quality of planning data used for input or plainly, the quality of the project schedule. The rule is simple. All of us heard it before-“Garbage in, Garbage out” or GIGO (Reference: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia). It is an old rule of thumb and one of the main reasons why an analyst needs to perform the qualitative process before the quantitative one. A similar statement, if not exactly the same, can be found in page 128 of the book “Risk Management Tricks of the Trade for Project Managers” by Rita Mulcahy (2013).
  • 6. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 6 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) What I hope to show particularly to those who are new to the subject of schedule quantitative risk is that “the quality of the schedule is a critical pre-requisite to a successful quantitative exercise.” II. Objectives At the end of this exposition, the readers are expected to:  Become more familiar with the term “Minimum Schedule Quality”  Learn the fundamental requirements and approach to SQRA by following the guidelines  Understand how and why certain schedule quality criteria are critical and important  Know the relationship of SQRA and Schedule Quality  Appreciate the primary purpose of conducting a SQRA III. Definitions and Acronyms  QRA Quantitative Risk Analysis  SQRA Schedule Quantitative Risk Analysis  GIGO Garbage in, Garbage out  RMP Risk Management Professional  PMI Project Management Institute  PM Project Management  RFSQRA-C Ready for SQRA-Criteria  MSQ Minimum Schedule Quality IV. Related Tools and Applications Primavera P6 Oracle Primavera P6 Scheduling Tool OPRA Oracle Primavera Risk Analysis (previously called PertMaster) V. General Preparation Guidelines to SQRA a) The overall schedule network should be started with one *constrained schedule start milestone and end in one finish milestone that is not constrained. Imagine a spider web that starts from one point with the network slowly expanding intricately through the time line and gradually receding to a singular milestone at the end (see Figure-1 & Figure-2).
  • 7. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 7 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Figure-1 Level 1 Integrated Schedule of a Large Project Portfolio Precedence Diagram Grouped by Major Areas *Changing the data date to equal the project start date can also do the trick instead of constraining the start milestones. Figure-2 Level 3 Integrated Schedule of a Large Project Portfolio Precedence Diagram Grouped by Work Package
  • 8. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 8 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) b) Avoid constraining any activity unless absolutely necessary. It means that there should be good reason in every constraint. If there’s no good reason for a constraint, it must be removed from the schedule. All constraints must be approved and agreed to by all schedule stakeholders. c) There should be no hard constraint except the one mentioned in the project start date mentioned in item a). A hard constraint is an expression of 100% certainty. The fact that the project needs to consider is that there’s nobody on this earth who can predict that an activity will happen at a particular date with one hundred percent certainty. “Constraints limit the team's options. A project manager would want to determine whether there are any unrealistic constraints that may cause risk to the possibility of project success. Constraints are not risks, but they may cause risks. Who imposed the constraints is not the main concern in a high-level review of constraints.” (Reference: 2013, Risk Management Tricks of the Trade® for Project Managers) Figure-3 Constrained Milestone Reference: Original caricature by Rufran C. Frago, 2013
  • 9. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 9 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) The Planner/Scheduler should be careful in assigning constrain to an activity just on the basis of assumptions. It must be borne in mind that assumptions are happenings that we believe will happen with no previous indication. It is not a result of a thorough investigation or a reasonable thinking process. An intelligent Project Manager should test the rationality of every assumption because it has a definite impact to the success and failure of the project. d) Note that a milestone activity does not contribute to the risk calculation. If an activity is converted to a milestone, we are in effect saying that this activity will not be a schedule driver. As there’s no effort directly associated with that milestone, it is now just a marker. e) The schedule should be logically tied from start to end. To ensure that there is no schedule disconnect, the logic should flow freely. There should be no broken link. (See Figure-2) f) The project can constrain a select milestone only if they are project goals. However, they should not be logically tied to any other activity in the schedule. They will be listed as flags or markers used only to judge the success of the schedule when doing analysis. In a sense, they are not really part of the schedule. For example: Milestone No. 1 = EDS Complete will be a constrained activity without any logic link. It is important to remember that a schedule answers the question “when?” and should always have a beginning and an end. A start milestone has no end date, while a finish milestone has no start date. Both of them do not hold duration or resource. Although an important fixture of scheduling, they are more of a checklist. g) Note that all of the constraints added in the schedule will be considered in the risk analysis calculation except ALAP, which will be ignored by the tool. Only activities that are outside the control of the project should be considered. These can include materials, hardware or software that will be supplied by an external party. They are listed as activities or milestones that are appropriately tied to appropriate activities in the schedule. In the analysis, these activities represent the delivery constraints which will then be defined by the uncertainty distribution relative to the delivery date. This is more of an exception than the rule.
  • 10. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 10 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) h) Minimize Hammock type (LOE) activities in the schedule as much as possible. Do not convert them to activities when translating to OPRA (previously PertMaster). i) Make sure that the project schedule was set to “Retained Logic”. This is also a good setting to flush out the Out-of-sequence activities which can derail the Risk Analysis calculation. j) Do not use too many Calendars in the project schedule unless absolutely necessary. k) There should be no actualized dates beyond the data date. All dates beyond the data date of the schedule are considered invalid dates. l) Remove all Expected Finish date for activities that has not yet started. An Expected Finish date assignment should be done only on an activity that has already started. m) If an activity needs to be included in the Risk Analysis, it must be an activity not a milestone. Let me emphasize this-“A milestone carries no risk input”. n) Avoid external links. External links uploaded to OPRA will act like mandatory constraints. o) It is important that the Project Controls Governance team establishes what I have called a “Ready for Schedule Quantitative Risk-Criteria” (RFSQRA-C). This is a list of schedule quality benchmarks representing the minimum quality requirements that has to be met by the schedule. It is an excellent approach geared to remove as much inherent risks there are as possible in the project schedule. By removing a substantial amount of inherent risks, a project can reduce high risks already affecting or potentially will affect the schedule. The end goal is to improve the project’s overall chance of being on time. p) It is a good idea to always do schedule clean-ups on a daily basis while working in the Live Schedule. q) The RFSQRA-C should be approved and agreed to by all stakeholders first before it can be used to govern the questions surrounding “limit and values” of schedule quality.
  • 11. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 11 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) r) Make sure that schedule coding follows your company’s standard scheduling global codes. This includes your resources and calendars. VI. What planning inputs are required for a successful SQRA? In order to effectively set up an excellent schedule quantitative risk assessment, the following documents should be provided by the project three (3) to four (4) weeks before the SQRA date. These critical documents shall provide the necessary information to the Risk Analyst in formulating his findings. This is true whether it is the Risk Analysis itself or a third party review of the Risk Analysis result. 1. List of schedule’s key and critical milestones. 2. Participative planning minutes of meeting and attendance sheet, including action plans. These documents ensure that all schedule stakeholders were involved in the planning process and supports the developed schedule. 3. Input Sheet, also called Interview Sheet (Figure-4). I use the example below extensively in all the traditional method SQRA and Risk Analysis Review I’ve facilitated. It provides an outstanding perspective of why the subject matter experts (interviewee) provided the values they’ve given as their three point estimate. Figure-4 Risk Analysis Interview Sheet Traditional Method QRA
  • 12. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 12 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) 4. The Risk Analyst should always ask for an XER of the schedule that will be subjected to Risk Analysis through e-mail to document the official submission of the project. In this way, there will be no confusion as to what will be analyzed. It is very important that the submitted schedule had already been reviewed by the project team and have their buy in. 5. If the project has already undertaken the schedule quantitative risk analysis and you were employed to double-check the results; it is recommended to get the OPRA PLN file from them. Try to get the narrative of the risk analysis which should include the Tornados, Duration Sensitivity, Criticality, Cruciality, SSI, Criticality Distribution profile, Distribution chart for the whole project under assessment and for each of the key milestones that the project has chosen to report. 6. Approved Basis of Schedule (Schedule Basis & Methodology). 7. Schedule Check Report based on your company’s or projects established Minimum Quality Criteria. If these are not yet available to your project organization as benchmark, then; I advise you, -“It is about time!” 8. Approved Estimate Summary 9. Approved Basis of Estimate. 10. Approved Detailed Estimate 11. Latest/updated Risk Register 12. Approved/updated Project Charter 13. Latest/updated Project Execution Plan 14. Project Kick-off Presentation 15. Latest Project Monthly Report 16. Assumption Log and Constraint Log 17. Ensure that the schedule risk analysis process was performed in accordance to the governing standard and procedure of your organization.
  • 13. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 13 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) VII. Who are required to participate in a SQRA? The appropriate Project Personnel or their authorized representative should be present at the Schedule Risk Analysis session to answer whatever clarifying question that might come up. They are: Engineering Lead (responsible for each discipline) Procurement Lead Contracting Lead Project Controls Specialist Project Planning and Scheduling Specialist Construction Foremen (responsible for each discipline) Modularization Foreman (responsible for each discipline) Fabrication Foreman (responsible for each discipline) Senior Risk Specialist or Risk Manager (facilitate or guide the facilitator) Project Manager Engineering Manager Project Controls Manager Risk Manager Safety Manager And others: Essentially, this is a list of additional and relevant project personnel who can provide valuable input on any risks associated with and/or affecting the schedule.
  • 14. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 14 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) VIII. Ready for SQRA Criteria or Minimum Schedule Quality (MSQ) RFSQRA criteria is a list of select schedule quality benchmark that need to be satisfied before carrying out Schedule Quantitative Risk Analysis. It represents the Minimum Schedule Quality that has to be achieved to accurately and effectively carry out the quantitative risk assessment process. By achieving the designated Minimum Schedule Quality, it is believed that the project will, in effect, address or mitigate most of the high inherent schedule risks. Risk reduction is one of the best techniques of achieving the project objectives. 1) Hard or Mandatory Constraints Description: These are firm, compulsory or two-way constraints applied to remaining activities; i.e. “Must Start On” or “Must Finish On” constraints Benchmark:  The number of mandatory constraint with the exception of the Project Start Date should be equal to ZERO. It means that mandatory constraints should generally be avoided.  Any number above the approved benchmark will be flagged for inspection and validation. They should be explained. If explanation is acceptable, the count pertaining to that activity is ignored.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. Include only normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Consider using soft constraints instead of mandatory if a constraint is absolutely necessary and is considered to be a major input to the Schedule Risk Model.  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  The resulting critical path of a schedule that has constraints should be reviewed carefully. Rationale: Even one mandatory constraints indiscriminately set in place can change the whole complexion of the project schedule. It will generate its own critical path while excluding other activities that might be more or equally critical and important. It is the same as adding 100% certainty to an activity and completely defeating the SQRA process.
  • 15. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 15 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) 2) Soft Constraints Description: These are soft or one-way constraints applied to remaining activities; i.e. “Start No Earlier Than” or “Finish No Later Than”. The As Late as Possible (ALAP) constraint will be discussed separately in this write- up due to its special attributes. Benchmark:  Soft Constraints should be used if they will be part of the risk model and are part of agreed to assumptions, reliable information or contractual commitment. Otherwise they should be used sparingly.  The number of Soft Constraints should not be more than ten (<10) but preferably less than five (<5).  Ideal number of soft constraints is ZERO.  Any number above the approved benchmark will be flagged for inspection and validation. They should be explained. If explanation is acceptable, the count pertaining to that activity is ignored.  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. Should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  All soft constraints must be explained and reflected in a schedule assumption table which is best included in a planning document called Schedule Basis and Methodology or often called, Basis of Schedule (BOS). Rationale: While soft constraints are not as impactful as hard constraints, soft constraints will impact CPM calculations. As such, the resulting critical path should always be reviewed and validated carefully. There is also a tendency to bring rigidness into the schedule resulting in possible loss of opportunities. 3) As Late As Possible Description: This is a soft constraint that forces the activity to start as late as possible without impacting the Early or Late dates applied to remaining activities. ALAP is unlike the other soft constraints which fixes an activity to a single direction because ALAP permits the activity to slide to both directions dependent on its governing successor activity.
  • 16. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 16 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Benchmark:  The number of Soft Constraints should not be more than ten (<10) but preferably less than five (<5).  Ideal number of ALAP is ZERO.  Any number above the approved benchmark will be flagged for inspection and validation. They should be explained. If explanation is acceptable, the count pertaining to that activity is ignored.  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count containing ALAP should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in- progress.  ALAP should be used sparingly and must be backed by a good overall strategy.  All soft constraints must be explained and reflected in a schedule assumption table which is best included in a planning document called Schedule Basis and Methodology or often called, Basis of Schedule (BOS). Rationale: While not considered as overriding as hard constraints nor the soft constraints mentioned earlier, ALAP do impact CPM calculations. ALAP is a constraint which is presently ignored by OPRA. As such, it will be considered released during simulation and risk calculation. The use of ALAP should follow the best practice I have enumerated in my presentation published in 2013 Slideshare entitled -“041813-Understanding ALAP”. Among the listed threats I have listed are: o ALAP can create an artificial critical path in a schedule. o Blanket assignment of ALAP changes the dates of the activities belonging to the existing critical path. o Constrained activities are being delayed without delaying the successor activities. It means that delay of the constrained activities will surely delay the successor activities. o It absorbs Floats. o Can result in a difficult court claim for the one who uses it. o Increases probability of not being able to complete critical packages on a timely manner. o Can trick the project into doing non-critical activities first. o Others...
  • 17. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 17 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) 4) Missing Predecessors Description: As the term implies, these are activities that do not have a predecessor. It is also generally called an open end and can be part of a dangler count. Benchmark:  The number of Missing Predecessor should be not greater than one (< 1) if the project has not started yet.  It means that the number of activities with Missing Predecessor should be practically equals to ZERO if the project has already started; i.e. Project Start was already actualized.  The basic rule on schedule dependency with the exception of the Project Start is that every activity in the network diagram should have a predecessor. Rationale:  This is a main schedule quality check that has to be done.  Open ends such as Missing Predecessor cause time and risk analysis calculations to be erroneous.  Open ends are indication of missing scope, and incomplete or missing planning inputs.  All open ends should be tied properly preferably within the same schedule.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The count should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above this missing predecessor benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained convincingly. 5) Missing Successors Description: As the term implies, these are activities that do not have a successor. It is also generally called an open end and can be part of a dangler count. Benchmark:  The number of Missing Successors should be not greater than one (< 1).  It means that the only missing successor allowed is one after the Project End date.
  • 18. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 18 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  The basic rule on schedule dependency with the exception of the Project Finish is that every activity in the network diagram should have a predecessor. Rationale:  This is a main schedule quality check that has to be done.  Open ends such as Missing Successor cause time and risk analysis calculations to be erroneous.  Open ends are indication of missing scope, and incomplete or missing planning inputs.  All open ends should be tied properly preferably within the same schedule.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The count should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above this missing successor benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained convincingly. 6) Open Start (Danglers) Description: Open start danglers, points to activities where the only predecessor is either Finish-to-Finish or Start-to-Finish resulting in an open start to the activity. It is also known as “Dangling Activity”. Benchmark:  The number of Open Finish (Danglers) should not be greater than zero.  It means that the number of activities with Open Start (Danglers) should be practically equals ZERO. Rationale:  The project scheduler should use the Start to Start and/or Start to Finish links sparingly. When used, they should be appropriately tied at each end as explained below in order to avoid what we call “danglers”.  In Figure-13, Activity A was connected Finish to Finish (FF) to Activity B. However, Activity B remained a dangler. It needs to have a predecessor Activity C connected to its start date in order to complete the proper logic link.
  • 19. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 19 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  One can use Oracle Primavera Risk Analysis (OPRA) or Acumen Fuse tool among others to detect danglers. At this time, this deficiency cannot be detected by the Primavera Scheduling tool, nor is it being generated in the P6 Log Report.  Both ends of any activity must be tied. This is an important requirement by the OPRA to accurately calculate and iterate all risk inputs and provide a reliable output. Figure-13 Example of Open Start Danglers 7) Open Finish (Danglers) Description: Open finish danglers, points to activities where the only successor is either a Start-to-Finish or Start-to-Start resulting in an open finish to the activity. It is also known as “Dangling Activity”. Benchmark:  The number of Open Finish (Danglers) should not be greater than zero.  It means that the number of activities with Open Finish (Danglers) should be equals ZERO.
  • 20. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 20 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Rationale:  The project scheduler should use the Start to Start and/or Finish to Finish ties sparingly. When used, they should be appropriately tied at each end as explained below in order to avoid what we call “danglers”.  In Figure-11, Activity A is connected start to start to Activity B. In this case, Activity A is the dangler. It needs to have a successor Activity C connected to it in order to complete the proper logic. If not, it’ll be reported as a dangler.  Again, one can use Oracle Primavera Risk Analysis (OPRA) or Acumen Fuse tool among others to detect danglers. At this time, this deficiency cannot be detected by the Primavera Scheduling tool, nor is it being generated in the P6 Log Report.  Both ends of any activity must be tied. This is an important requirement by the OPRA to accurately calculate and iterate all risk inputs and provide a reliable output. Figure-14 Example of Open Finish Danglers 8) Negative Float Description: The term Negative Float is defined as Total Float less than Zero. Benchmark:  The Total number of remaining activities with Negative Total Float should be equal to ZERO (0).
  • 21. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 21 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count containing ALAP should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in- progress.  Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained. Rationale: When the schedule has negative float, it is an indication that the project is late in its deliverables. The final take will depend on what path is affected. If the last deliverables such as First Oil or Final Turn Over cascades forward into a critical path of negative float, then the whole project is projected to be delayed. Negative Float can be a result of an artificially induced, accelerated and constrained schedule. When this happens, the negative float indicates that a schedule is not possible based on the current assigned completion dates. Such constraints are used for what-if and schedule analysis but discouraged as a permanent fixture in the schedule. This what-if methodology is excellent in determining which activities are being impacted by the constraint dates. As I always say in every project review, “it is fundamental that a schedule should is an output and not an input.” Ideally, there should not be any negative float in the schedule. 9) Out of Sequence Activities Description: Out of Sequence refers to activities that were actualized before their successors were complete. Benchmark:  The Total number of out of sequence activities should be equal to ZERO (0).  Any number above the benchmark is unacceptable and the culprit activity logic shall be corrected.  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.
  • 22. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 22 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Rationale: One out of sequence activity can push certain downstream dates out by wide margin for what seems to be no apparent reason. The calculation of the critical path will be in error and management of schedule becomes difficult unless the offending activity logic is rooted out or corrected. To identify out of sequence, the scheduling tool should be set to “retained logic”. 10) Excessive Float Description: This refers to activities with an excessive Total Float relative the Overall Project Remaining Duration or the Overall Project Phase Duration. The former points to the whole project from the Start Milestones to the Last Finish Milestones while the latter, refers to the duration of each major phases within the project like Engineering, Procurement, Modularization, Fabrication, Construction and Commissioning. The Excessive Float benchmark is affected by the level of schedule which is usually guided by the stage of development it is in within project life cycle framework it is in. Thus, it is imperative that the benchmark parameters be adjusted accordingly to what will make more sense. Benchmark:  In consideration of the Phase Duration approach, and at the EDS stage of schedule development, the recommended benchmark is as follows: o The number of activities with Total Float GT 20% of the Overall Project Total Remaining Duration is recommended to be between Zero to Three. The ideal is ZERO (0). o This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent. o Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count containing ALAP should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress. o Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained. o If explanation is acceptable, the count pertaining to that activity is ignored.  Looking at the Phase Duration approach, and at the DBM stage of schedule development, the recommended benchmark is as follows:
  • 23. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 23 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) o The number of activities with Total Float GT 30% of the Overall Project Total Remaining Duration is recommended to be between Zero to Three. The ideal is ZERO. o This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent. o Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count containing ALAP should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress. o Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained. o If explanation is acceptable, the count pertaining to that activity is ignored. Rationale: The scheduler should note that activities or activity paths with high amounts of float typically arise due to constrained activities or other much longer competing critical paths. The situation is further aggravated if the constraints applied have no merits to it and was installed haphazardly without much thought. Some big players in the Construction industry believes that paths with total finish float of more than 2 months should be considered for schedule optimization. The project will pursue an opportunity to add additional activities into that big float region without impacting the project completion date-a really great idea! 11) Milestone to Activity Ratio Description: The M/A Ratio refer to the number of remaining milestones versus the total number of remaining active milestones & normal activities. Benchmark:  This number should not be greater than 10% or a ratio of 1:10 for projects with activities greater than 200 activities.  For projects less than 200 activities, it is recommended that the number of milestones start with five (5) but not more than twenty (20).  If the ratio is greater than 1:10 or 10%, then the schedule has too many milestones and needs to be reviewed.  Some project management professionals I spoke with were willing to accept up to 20% milestones and higher. Some said that there is no limitation to the number of milestones as long as the project needs them. I absolutely do not agree with them (see the Rationale section below).
  • 24. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 24 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  This ratio is an influential metric which tells us whether the fundamental premise of the schedule as “date output” is preserved.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The ratio should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained. Rationale:  Too many milestones indicate that the schedule is becoming more of a checklist undermining the fundamental “output philosophy” recommended.  By having too many milestones, the project might be erroneously reflecting what was supposed to be resource-loaded activities as milestones instead of normal activities, completely missing the added opportunity of using resource distribution as a handle in schedule management.  The Milestone to Activities Ratio suggested was made to strike the proper balance between milestones and the effort, resource-loaded activities they represent.  A milestone activity is a marker in time representing key deliverables, approvals, key interphase or the culmination of a major work package or packages. It contains no resources in it. As such, there is no effort associated with them. Therefore, it has no real contribution to the generated schedule output resulting from the calculation of resource and duration inputs. So why would the project want too many milestones incorporated in the schedule? This is one of the reasons why projects should control the number of milestones they create in their schedule.  Let us say, we have a 300 normal activity schedule with 150 milestones. According to the proposed benchmark, 150 will not be acceptable as it represents 50% milestones or 1 Milestone per 2 Normal Activities. For this schedule, the upper limit is thirty (30). 12) Links to Activity Ratio Description: This ratio points to the number of logical links or relationship ties per remaining activities.
  • 25. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 25 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Benchmark:  The suggested ratio should be at least two (2.0) up to three (3.0), or ideally two and a half (2.5).  A ratio of less than two (< 2.0) indicates that the schedule should be reviewed. It indicates that additional logic links are needed.  A ratio greater than four (< 4.0) is the maximum threshold allowed. Logic density above this threshold is an indication that an excessively compound relationship ties is existing within the schedule.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The ratio should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above or below this L/A Ratio benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained. Rationale:  The schedule becomes unnecessary complex by having too many relationships that are not actually needed. It makes the schedule a lot harder to understand and manage. Therefore, some control should be set in place.  As the “L/A ratio” increases, logic redundancy increases, and the chance of error increases, affecting the schedule’s CP calculation. If that happens, the outcome of SQRA is in question. As such, identifying and removing redundant logics (Figure-5) using the L/A Ratio or Redundancy Index benchmark is important.  Redundancy Index can be identified and measured by running analytic tools such as Acumen Fuse. If your project has this kind of analytic tool, use it. RI is a better measure to use than L/A ratio. The added bonus using a tool such as Acumen Fuse is that the planner/scheduler can automatically clean and remove all redundant logic and export the clean schedule back to the main scheduling tool to replace the previous one in just a few minutes.
  • 26. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 26 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Figure-5 Redundant Logic 1 & 2 13) Activities with External Link Description: These are activities that have relationship tied to Activities outside the schedule being analyzed. Benchmark:  Any External Link will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should make sense. If explanation is acceptable, the count pertaining to that activity is ignored.  External links will be questioned by OPRA (previously called PertMaster).  External links can also be flagged by the Primavera scheduling tool using a combination of layout and filter and by Acumen Fuse (Schedule Analytic).  Completed, Summary and LOE activities may not be included as they no longer add value to the forecast. The activities added should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned or in-progress. Rationale:  If there are several sub-projects comprising the whole project, with logic links connecting each area, all of them must be opened when making the analysis. Otherwise, the links to the unopened projects will be flagged as
  • 27. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 27 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) External Links with constrained dates, making the schedule unable to freely flow.  As external links appear as constraints, they must be avoided. A successful SQRA depends greatly on the ability of the subject schedule to flow on the basis of sound logic during iteration and simulation.  Another method is to bring all activities as part of a singular project file either as representative activities or milestones. 14) FS Negative lags (or Leads) Description: This metric refers to all activities in the schedule using Finish to Start (FS) Activity Relationships with negative lag (Figure-6). Figure-6 FS Relationship with -10D Lag Benchmark:  The total number of remaining activities using FS relationships with negative lag is suggested to be equal to ZERO (0).  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained.
  • 28. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 28 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Rationale:  Often used to adjust the successor start date relative to the FS logic link applied.  It can result in critical path calculation error when the successor tries to start before the start of the predecessor. This usually happens when the negative lag involve becomes greater than the updated duration of the predecessor activity (Figure-7). Figure-7 FS Relationship with -20D Lag (Invalid Negative Lag)  Includes normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress. Completed, Summary and LOE activities are not counted.  The 2006 AACE International Transaction, PS.02 white paper-“The Great Negative Lag Debate” by Winter, Douglas, Calvey and McDonald, provided some insights into the pros and cons of using negative lags.  Examples of a FS negative lag are provided below: o A steel foreman in charge of a building structure said- "I will start installing the leave-out steels two weeks prior to the pipe installation being complete." o The foreman has decided that two weeks prior to the piping discipline concluding their work, he will mobilize his steel workforce to start work on the remaining steel members.  Although supported by sound thinking, the problem with using negative lag other than the common knowledge that any lag is not transparent is that it revolves around the start of the successor work being based on a
  • 29. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 29 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) forecasted duration and completion that when updated can result in an invalid negative lag (Figure-4). Unless the finish date can be pegged with 100% certainty, negative lags can create the issue just described. The reality that we have to accept is that there’s really nobody who can predict that something will happen exactly as planned. 15) SS Negative lags (or Leads) Description: This metric refers to all activities in the schedule using Start to Start (SS) Activity Relationships with negative lag (Figure-8). Figure-8 SS Relationship with -10D Lag Benchmark:  The total number of remaining activities using SS relationships with negative lag is suggested to be equal to ZERO (0).  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained.
  • 30. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 30 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Rationale:  SS relationship with negative lag is not necessary as it can be easily expressed with an SS positive lag (Figure-9). By reversing the sequence of activities, the scheduler can use a positive lag instead. Figure-9 Equivalent Logic of SS (-10 Lag)  Positive lag makes the lag concept easier to understand and the schedule less complicated to managers, especially during critical path tracing. They will question why the critical path passed through certain activities with SS negative lags. The explanation and discussion that will ensue can be long.  Includes normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress. Completed, Summary and LOE activities are not counted.  The 2006 AACE International Transaction, PS.02 write-up-“The Great Negative Lag Debate” by Winter, Douglas, Calvey and McDonald, provided some insights into the pros and cons of using negative lags.  Examples of SS negative lag are provided below: o The civil foreman in charge of pouring the foundation said- "I will pour concrete four weeks prior to the compressor set date.” o The foreman has decided that four weeks prior to the compressor being set on the foundation, he will start his pour.
  • 31. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 31 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  The statement is good but expressing it with a logic using negative lag is better avoided because it can be expressed a lot better using positive lag (See similar example in Figure-9).  Do not forget that lags can also be expressed as normal activities. In that way, they will be made visible, making the schedule more manageable. 16) FF Negative lags (or Leads) Description: This metric refers to all activities in the schedule using Finish to Finish (FF) Activity Relationships with negative lag (Figure-10). Figure-10 FF Relationship with -10D Lag Benchmark:  The total number of remaining activities using FF relationships with negative lag is suggested to be equal to ZERO (0).  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained.
  • 32. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 32 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) Rationale:  FF relationship with negative lag is not necessary as it can always be easily expressed with an FF positive lag (Figure-8). By reversing the sequence of activities, the scheduler can use a positive lag instead. Figure-11 Equivalent Logic of FF (-10 Lag) Expressed as Positive Lag  Positive lag makes the lag concept easier to understand and the schedule less complicated to managers, especially during critical path tracing.  Includes normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress. Completed, Summary and LOE activities are not counted.  The 2006 AACE International Transaction, PS.02 write-up-“The Great Negative Lag Debate” by Winter, Douglas, Calvey and McDonald, provided some insights into the pros and cons of using negative lags.  Examples of a FF negative lag are provided below: o The Piping/Instrumentation Engineer said- "I will complete and issue the line designation table (LDT IFC) twenty days (20D) before the 90% Model Review is scheduled to complete. o The Engineers have decided that five working weeks prior to the scheduled completion of the 90% Model Review, they will complete their LDT EWP/IFC.
  • 33. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 33 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  The statement is good but expressing it in a schedule with a logic using positive lag is better (Figure-11).  Do not forget that lags can also be expressed as normal activities. In that way, they will be made visible, making the schedule more manageable.  One must be aware that when the duration of predecessor considerably decreased to equal or less than the assigned negative lag, the logic becomes unreasonable and have to be changed to what is shown in Figure-12. This is where a positive lag becomes the solution (Figure-10). Figure-12 What happen when the Predecessor in Figure-10 is updated? 17) SF Relationships Description: SF Relationships refers to Start to Finish (SF) logic links between activities. Benchmark:  The total number of remaining activities using SF relationship is suggested to be equal to ZERO (0).  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.  This quality benchmark is best based on hard count of activities not percent.
  • 34. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 34 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA))  Completed, Summary and LOE activities should not be counted as they no longer add value to forecast. The activity count should only include normal activities and milestones that are planned and in-progress.  Any number above the benchmark will be flagged for inspection, and validation. If to be retained as-is, it should be explained. Rationale:  Start-to-Finish (SF) links are deliberately used very rarely because they have the unusual effect that the successor happens before the predecessor.  This type of activity relationship is generally considered poor practice in planning & scheduling.  Not a few project people get totally confused explaining to people what SF indicates. It is therefore recommended to avoid using the SF relationship as much as possible.  Examples of SF relationship are provided below: o I have not come across a really good example of SF logic in a long while although I see quite a number of people use it to massage the schedule to come up with an adjusted forecast date. o Tony, the Head Operator of a production plant is about to end his 7am to 3pm duty and is waiting for his relief. Ben, the person coming in to replace him is scheduled for 3pm to 11pm shift. Tony will not be able to leave unless Ben starts his shift. The relationship demonstrated between Ben (Predecessor) and Tony (Successor) is an excellent example of SF logic, i.e. the predecessor Ben has to start fist before the successor Tony can finish. IX. Potential Consequences of Poor Schedule Quality 1. Schedule will be counter-intuitive, disconnected or disjointed. 2. Poor schedule management and control. 3. Wrong or flawed schedule quantitative risk analysis. 4. Faulty critical path calculation. 5. Miscommunication and communication breakdown. 6. Missing plan inputs. 7. Brings negative effect on productivity. 8. Adverse effect on achievability. 9. Unclear scheduling strategy. 10. Unclear results and expectations. 11. Lost opportunity to better manage the project through the schedule. 12. Increases the threat to project objectives.
  • 35. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 35 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) 13. Creates confusions. 14. Work strategy can become ineffective. 15. Resource distribution analysis will be flawed. 16. Managing the schedule through the resources will be more challenging and burdensome. 17. Resource leveling will be in error. 18. False indicators will be generated. 19. Wrong progress report. 20. Scope and schedule achievability cannot be accurately assessed. 21. Project misalignment. 22. Scope can become less clear. 23. Missing scope, schedule is incomplete 24. Poor productivity
  • 36. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 36 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) X. Bibliography Mulcahy, R. (2013). Risk Management Tricks of the Trade for Project Managers. PMI. (2009). Project Management Book of Knowledge, 4th Edition. Rufran C. Frago, P. P.-R. (2013, April 18). Slideshare. Retrieved from www.slideshare.net: http://www.slideshare.net/rfrago/041813- understanding-alap Wikipedia. (2013). Project Management Iron Triangle. Wikipedia, T. F. (2013). Garbage in, Garbage Out. 2013, Presentation-Management of Schedule Quality by Rufran C. Frago
  • 37. 071513-How to Prepare for SQRA by RCF Page 37 of 37 7/15/2013 Revision 1: 15Jul2013 Copyright HHooww ttoo PPrreeppaarree FFoorr SScchheedduullee QQuuaannttiittaattiivvee RRiisskk AAnnaallyyssiiss ((SSQQRRAA)) XI. Index Achievability........................................ 4 ALAP.................................................. 16 approved benchmark........................... 14 as late as possible................................ 15 assumptions........................................... 9 Basis of Schedule................................ 12 beginning and an end ............................ 9 Calendars............................................. 10 Completeness of the schedule............. 4 Consequences of Poor Schedule Quality ......................................................... 34 Constrained Milestone .......................... 8 Constraints limit the team's options...... 8 Dangling Activity................................ 18 Definitions and Acronyms.................... 6 Estimate Summary.............................. 12 excessive Total Float........................... 22 Expected Finish................................... 10 External links ...................................... 10 failure is not an option........................ 4 Garbage in, Garbage out.................... 5 Go or No Go......................................... 5 Input Sheet .......................................... 11 L/A ratio.............................................. 25 logically tied.......................................... 9 M/A Ratio ........................................... 23 mandatory constraint........................... 14 Minimize Hammock ........................... 10 Missing Predecessor................ 17, 18, 19 Missing Successor............................... 18 Monthly Report................................... 12 negative lag......................................... 27 no hard constraint.................................. 8 OPRA PLN file................................... 12 Out of Sequence.................................. 21 planning inputs.................................... 11 planning inputs needed....................... 5 quality benchmark............................... 14 quality of planning data...................... 5 Retained Logic.................................... 10 RFSQRA-C......................................... 14 Risk Register....................................... 12 soft or one-way constraints................. 15 Specific probability............................. 4 Table of Contents.................................. 2 three point estimate............................. 11 triple constraints ................................. 4 XER of the schedule ........................... 12