Chapter 9: Contact Process, Haber Process and Alloy
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  • 1. Uses of sulphuric acid
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 2. 1. Manufacture of detergents
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 3. 2. Manufacture of fertiliser
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 4. 3. Manufacture of artificalfibres
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 5. 4. Manufacture of paint
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 6. 5. Leather tanning
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 7. 6. As electrolyte in car batteries
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 8. 7. Remove oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy 冶金学)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 9. CONTACT Process
    Manufacture of sulphuric acid
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 10. The Manufacture of H2SO4, through the Contact Process
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 11. Contact Process: Stage 1
    In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2. The gas produced is purified and cooled.
    S(l) + O2(g)  SO2(g)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 12. Contact Process: Stage 2
    In the converter, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 450oC to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3
    2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 13. Contact Process: Stage 2
    About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide, SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide, SO3 through this reversible reaction.
    2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 14. Contact Process: Stage 3
    In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7.
    SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)  H2S2O7(l)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 15. Contact Process: Stage 3
    The oleum, H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in large quantities.
    H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)  2H2SO4(l)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 16. FAQ 1
    The two reaction in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3, directly to water
    SO3 (g)+ H2O(l)  H2SO4(l)
    • Then why can’t we just skipped concentrated sulphuric acid step [thus not forming oleum]?
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 17. Answer
    X
    SO3 (g)+ H2O(l)  H2SO4(l)
    • This is not done in the industry, because sulphur trioxide, SO3 reacts too violently with water. This produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 mist.
    • 18. The mist is corrosive, pollutes the air and is difficult to condense
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 19. FAQ 2
    Why don’t we increase the pressure in the converter? So we can produce more sulphur trioxide per day?
    2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)
    Answer: Yes, high pressure increases the rate of reaction, but it cost very high also. So, the reaction is done at pressure close to atmospheric pressure.
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 20. Refresh again…
    Stage 1, in furnace
    **O2 = burning
    S(l) + O2(g)  SO2(g)
    Stage 2, in converter
    **O2 = passed over catalyst
    2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)
    Catalyst: Vanadium (V) oxide
    Temperature: 450oC
    Stage 3, in absorber
    SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)  H2S2O7(l)
    H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)  2H2SO4(l)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 21. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution
    17/5/2010
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 22. Sulphur dioxide, SO2
    Source:
    By-products of the contact process
    Burning of fossil fuels containing sulphur
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 23. Sulphur dioxide, SO2
    Causes acid rain (pH2.4-5.0)
    Causes respiratory problems in humans
    2SO2(g)+ O2(g) + 2H2O  2H2SO4(aq)
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 24. Ammonia nh3 and its salt
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 25. 1. Manufacture of fertilisers
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 26. 2. Manufacture of synthetic fibers
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 27. 3. Manufacture of explosives
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 28. Haber process
    Manufacture of Ammonia
    17/5/2010
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 29. The Manufacture of Ammonia, NH3 through the Haber Process
    Ratio 1:3
    N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g)
    17/5/2010
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 30. ALLOYS
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 31. Metals are Ductile/Can be stretched (可延展的)
    The orderly arrangement of atoms in metals enables the layers of atoms to slide on another when force is applied
    17/5/2010
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 32. Metals are Malleable
    There are some inperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals that allow some empty space in between the atoms. When a metal is knocked, atoms slide.
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 33. Alloy
    Definition: A mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.
    Properties of pure metals can be improved => stronger, harder, resistant to sorrosion, have a better furnish and lustre.
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 34. GOLD (24K, 18K)
    Pure gold 24K (24-carat)
    18K Gold has 18 parts of gold and 6 parts of other metals
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 35. Bronze (Copper + Tin) 青铜
    Statues, monuments
    Medals, swords, artistic materials
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 36. Brass (Copper + Zinc) 黄铜
    Musical instrument
    Kitchenware
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    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 37. Steel (Iron + Carbon) 钢铁
    Buildings and bridges
    Body of cars & railway tracks
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 38. Stainless steel (Iron + Carbon + Chromium) 不锈钢
    Cutlery
    Surgical Instruments
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 39. Duralumin (Aluminium, Copper, Magnesium, Mangenese) 硬铝
    Body of aeroplanes & bullet trains
    17/5/2010
    rebeccachoong@gmail.com
    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 40. Pewter (Tin, Copper, Antimony) 锡铅合金
    souvenirs
    17/5/2010
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)
  • 41. The Formation of Alloy
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    4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)