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Uses of sulphuric acid<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
1. Manufacture of detergents<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (201...
2. Manufacture of fertiliser<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (201...
3. Manufacture of artificalfibres<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ...
4. Manufacture of paint<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
5. Leather tanning<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
6. As electrolyte in car batteries<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, P...
7. Remove oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy 冶金学)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistr...
CONTACT Process<br />Manufacture of sulphuric acid<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholi...
The Manufacture of H2SO4, through the Contact Process<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Cath...
Contact Process: Stage 1<br />In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2. The gas ...
Contact Process: Stage 2<br />In the converter, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium (V)...
Contact Process: Stage 2<br />About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide, SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide, SO3 through this...
Contact Process: Stage 3<br />In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid...
Contact Process: Stage 3<br />The oleum, H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 i...
FAQ 1<br />The two reaction in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3, directly to water<br />SO3 ...
Answer<br />X<br />SO3 (g)+ H2O(l)  H2SO4(l)<br /><ul><li>This is not done in the industry, because sulphur trioxide, SO3...
The mist is corrosive, pollutes the air and is difficult to condense</li></ul>17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />...
FAQ 2<br />Why don’t we increase the pressure in the converter? So we can produce more sulphur trioxide per day?<br />2SO2...
Refresh again…<br />Stage 1, in furnace<br />**O2 = burning<br />S(l) + O2(g)  SO2(g)<br />Stage 2, in converter <br />**...
Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High ...
Sulphur dioxide, SO2<br />Source:<br />By-products of the contact process<br />Burning of fossil fuels containing sulphur<...
Sulphur dioxide, SO2<br />Causes acid rain (pH2.4-5.0)<br />Causes respiratory problems in humans<br />2SO2(g)+ O2(g) + 2H...
Ammonia nh3 and its salt<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<b...
1. Manufacture of fertilisers<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (20...
2. Manufacture of synthetic fibers<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, P...
3. Manufacture of explosives<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (201...
Haber process<br />Manufacture of Ammonia<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High Sc...
The Manufacture of Ammonia, NH3 through the Haber Process<br />Ratio 1:3<br />N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g)<br />17/5/2010<br ...
ALLOYS<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
Metals are Ductile/Can be stretched (可延展的)<br />The orderly arrangement of atoms in metals enables the layers of atoms to ...
Metals are Malleable<br />There are some inperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals that allow some empty...
Alloy<br />Definition: A mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is ...
GOLD (24K, 18K)<br />Pure gold 24K (24-carat)<br />18K Gold has 18 parts of gold and 6 parts of other metals<br />17/5/201...
Bronze (Copper + Tin) 青铜<br />Statues, monuments<br />Medals, swords, artistic materials<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong...
Brass (Copper + Zinc) 黄铜<br />Musical instrument<br />Kitchenware<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Che...
Steel (Iron + Carbon) 钢铁<br />Buildings and bridges<br />Body of cars & railway tracks<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@g...
Stainless steel (Iron + Carbon + Chromium) 不锈钢<br />Cutlery<br />Surgical Instruments<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gm...
Duralumin (Aluminium, Copper, Magnesium, Mangenese) 硬铝<br />Body of aeroplanes & bullet trains<br />17/5/2010<br />rebecca...
Pewter (Tin, Copper, Antimony) 锡铅合金<br />souvenirs<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholi...
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Chapter 9: Contact Process, Haber Process and Alloy

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Contact Process, Haber Process and Alloy

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Transcript of "Chapter 9: Contact Process, Haber Process and Alloy"

  1. 1. Uses of sulphuric acid<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  2. 2. 1. Manufacture of detergents<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  3. 3. 2. Manufacture of fertiliser<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  4. 4. 3. Manufacture of artificalfibres<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  5. 5. 4. Manufacture of paint<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  6. 6. 5. Leather tanning<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  7. 7. 6. As electrolyte in car batteries<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  8. 8. 7. Remove oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy 冶金学)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  9. 9. CONTACT Process<br />Manufacture of sulphuric acid<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  10. 10. The Manufacture of H2SO4, through the Contact Process<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  11. 11. Contact Process: Stage 1<br />In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide, SO2. The gas produced is purified and cooled.<br />S(l) + O2(g)  SO2(g)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  12. 12. Contact Process: Stage 2<br />In the converter, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 450oC to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3<br />2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  13. 13. Contact Process: Stage 2<br />About 99.5% of the sulphur dioxide, SO2 is converted into sulphur trioxide, SO3 through this reversible reaction.<br />2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  14. 14. Contact Process: Stage 3<br />In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7.<br />SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)  H2S2O7(l)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  15. 15. Contact Process: Stage 3<br />The oleum, H2S2O7 is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in large quantities.<br />H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)  2H2SO4(l)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  16. 16. FAQ 1<br />The two reaction in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3, directly to water<br />SO3 (g)+ H2O(l)  H2SO4(l)<br /><ul><li>Then why can’t we just skipped concentrated sulphuric acid step [thus not forming oleum]?</li></ul>17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  17. 17. Answer<br />X<br />SO3 (g)+ H2O(l)  H2SO4(l)<br /><ul><li>This is not done in the industry, because sulphur trioxide, SO3 reacts too violently with water. This produces a lot of heat and a large cloud of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 mist.
  18. 18. The mist is corrosive, pollutes the air and is difficult to condense</li></ul>17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  19. 19. FAQ 2<br />Why don’t we increase the pressure in the converter? So we can produce more sulphur trioxide per day?<br />2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)<br />Answer: Yes, high pressure increases the rate of reaction, but it cost very high also. So, the reaction is done at pressure close to atmospheric pressure. <br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  20. 20. Refresh again…<br />Stage 1, in furnace<br />**O2 = burning<br />S(l) + O2(g)  SO2(g)<br />Stage 2, in converter <br />**O2 = passed over catalyst<br />2SO2(l) + O2(g)  2SO3(g)<br />Catalyst: Vanadium (V) oxide<br />Temperature: 450oC<br />Stage 3, in absorber<br />SO3(g) + H2SO4(l)  H2S2O7(l)<br />H2S2O7(l)+ H2O(l)  2H2SO4(l)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  21. 21. Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  22. 22. Sulphur dioxide, SO2<br />Source:<br />By-products of the contact process<br />Burning of fossil fuels containing sulphur<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  23. 23. Sulphur dioxide, SO2<br />Causes acid rain (pH2.4-5.0)<br />Causes respiratory problems in humans<br />2SO2(g)+ O2(g) + 2H2O  2H2SO4(aq)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  24. 24. Ammonia nh3 and its salt<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  25. 25. 1. Manufacture of fertilisers<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  26. 26. 2. Manufacture of synthetic fibers<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  27. 27. 3. Manufacture of explosives<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  28. 28. Haber process<br />Manufacture of Ammonia<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  29. 29. The Manufacture of Ammonia, NH3 through the Haber Process<br />Ratio 1:3<br />N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g)<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  30. 30. ALLOYS<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  31. 31. Metals are Ductile/Can be stretched (可延展的)<br />The orderly arrangement of atoms in metals enables the layers of atoms to slide on another when force is applied<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  32. 32. Metals are Malleable<br />There are some inperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals that allow some empty space in between the atoms. When a metal is knocked, atoms slide.<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  33. 33. Alloy<br />Definition: A mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.<br />Properties of pure metals can be improved => stronger, harder, resistant to sorrosion, have a better furnish and lustre.<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  34. 34. GOLD (24K, 18K)<br />Pure gold 24K (24-carat)<br />18K Gold has 18 parts of gold and 6 parts of other metals<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  35. 35. Bronze (Copper + Tin) 青铜<br />Statues, monuments<br />Medals, swords, artistic materials<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  36. 36. Brass (Copper + Zinc) 黄铜<br />Musical instrument<br />Kitchenware<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  37. 37. Steel (Iron + Carbon) 钢铁<br />Buildings and bridges<br />Body of cars & railway tracks<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  38. 38. Stainless steel (Iron + Carbon + Chromium) 不锈钢<br />Cutlery<br />Surgical Instruments<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  39. 39. Duralumin (Aluminium, Copper, Magnesium, Mangenese) 硬铝<br />Body of aeroplanes & bullet trains<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  40. 40. Pewter (Tin, Copper, Antimony) 锡铅合金<br />souvenirs<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
  41. 41. The Formation of Alloy<br />17/5/2010<br />rebeccachoong@gmail.com<br />4S8 Chemistry, Catholic High School, PJ (2010)<br />
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