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COLOUR
BLINDNESS
Presented by: Meera Qaiser
Presented to: Miss Irum Anjum
Subject: Essentials of genetics
Major: Biotechno...
WHAT IS COLOUR BLINDNESS?


Color blindness means that you have trouble

seeing red, green, or blue or a mix of these col...
CAUSES OF COLOUR BLINDNESS:
Usually genetic condition.
 Red/Green or Blue colour blindness is passed down
from parents.
...
o

Inherited condition maybe due to following…..

o

In our eye there are two types of light sensitive cell

1.

Rods

2.
...
CONTINUED
o

there are three types of cones

o

( differ on the basis of photoreceptor protein they
make)

1.

L-cones sen...


When you see an object light
enters your eye and stimulates
the cone cells



Your brain interpret the signals
from th...
2.

Acquired color blindness:



Aging.



Eye problems, such as glaucoma, macular
degeneration, cataracts, or diabetic ...
TYPES OF COLOUR BLINDNESS
1.

Trichromacy ( three colour vision )

-

Normal colour vision

2.

Anomalous trichomacy ( unu...
3.

Dichromacy ( two colour vision)

-

See only two of three primary colours

-

One cone is totally disfunctional or abs...
INHERITENCE PATTERN
Red-green colour blindness is usually inherited
from parents
 It is passed from mother to son on 23rd...


For male to be color blind his X chromosome should
have the faulty gene



The female might have both X chromosomes no...
COLOR BLIND MAN NON
COLOR BLIND WOMEN
NON COLOR BLIND MAN
COLOR BLIND CARRIER
MOTHER
COLOR BLIND MAN COLOR
BLIND CARRIER WOMEN
NON COLOUR BLIND MAN
COLOUR BLIND WOMEN
DIAGNOSIS
It maybe difficult to detect in children with inherited
colour vsion deficiency as they don’t know whats
wrong w...
ISHIARAS TEST


There are many tests available to measure colour
vision defects but the most common is the Ishihara
Plate...
PLATES FOR ISHIARAS TEST
TREATMENT
There is currently no treatment
 Colour filters or contact lenses can be used in some
situations to enhance the...
PEOPLE LIVING WITH COLOUR
BLINDNESS:
Colour blind people face many difficulties in everyday
life
 Problems can arise in e...
REFERENCES


http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/colorblindness-topic-overview



http://www.colourblindawareness.org/col...
Thankyou
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Transcript of "Colour blindness ppt by meera qaiser"

  1. 1. COLOUR BLINDNESS Presented by: Meera Qaiser Presented to: Miss Irum Anjum Subject: Essentials of genetics Major: Biotechnology Semester: 4th
  2. 2. WHAT IS COLOUR BLINDNESS?  Color blindness means that you have trouble seeing red, green, or blue or a mix of these colors. It’s rare that a person sees no color at all.  Color blindness is also called a color vision problem.  A color vision problem can change your life.
  3. 3. CAUSES OF COLOUR BLINDNESS: Usually genetic condition.  Red/Green or Blue colour blindness is passed down from parents.  The gene responsible is on X chromosome.  mutations capable of causing color blindness originate from at least 19 different chromosomes and many different genes  More males are affected the females are basically carrier  There is 50% chance of mother passing this condition to her son 1.
  4. 4. o Inherited condition maybe due to following….. o In our eye there are two types of light sensitive cell 1. Rods 2. cones o Both found in retina which is a layer at the back of eye it processes images. o The rods are responsible for vision in night as work in low light condition ( cannot distinguish different wavelength of light) o The cones are responsible for color discrimination
  5. 5. CONTINUED o there are three types of cones o ( differ on the basis of photoreceptor protein they make) 1. L-cones sense long wavelenght ( red light) 2. M-cones sense medium wavelength ( green light) 3. S-cones sense shorter wavelenght ( blue light )
  6. 6.  When you see an object light enters your eye and stimulates the cone cells  Your brain interpret the signals from the cone cell and enable you to see the colour of object They work together enabling us to see whole spectrum of colours.  Faulty cones thus are responsible for color blindness 
  7. 7. 2. Acquired color blindness:  Aging.  Eye problems, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, cataracts, or diabetic retinopathy  Injury to the eye.  Side effects of some medicines.  If you have inherited colour blindness your condition will stay the same throughout your life – it won’t get any better or worse.
  8. 8. TYPES OF COLOUR BLINDNESS 1. Trichromacy ( three colour vision ) - Normal colour vision 2. Anomalous trichomacy ( unusuall three colour vision ) - See all three primary colour - One colour is seen weakly - Protanomaly ( l-cone defect ) red weak - Deuteranamoly ( M-cone defect ) green weak - Tritanomaly ( S-cone defect ) Blue weak
  9. 9. 3. Dichromacy ( two colour vision) - See only two of three primary colours - One cone is totally disfunctional or absent - Protanopia ( l-cone absent ) Detutranopia ( M-cone absent ) Tritanopia ( S-cone absent ) - 4. - Rod monochromacy (no cones at all ) Sees no colour only shades of grey
  10. 10. INHERITENCE PATTERN Red-green colour blindness is usually inherited from parents  It is passed from mother to son on 23rd chromosome which is sex chromosome  Chromosomes are the structure which contains genes, they contain instructions for the development of cell tissues organ and if you are colour blind it means instructions for cone development are wrong  It may be missing or less sensitive  Or pathway from cone to brain is not developed properly 
  11. 11.  For male to be color blind his X chromosome should have the faulty gene  The female might have both X chromosomes normal or one X chromosome might have faulty gene but gene on other chromosome compensates it so the female is carrier and passes on faulty gene to her son so he is colorblind  The daughter might be carrier or color blind if her father is colorblind and mother is the carrier
  12. 12. COLOR BLIND MAN NON COLOR BLIND WOMEN
  13. 13. NON COLOR BLIND MAN COLOR BLIND CARRIER MOTHER
  14. 14. COLOR BLIND MAN COLOR BLIND CARRIER WOMEN
  15. 15. NON COLOUR BLIND MAN COLOUR BLIND WOMEN
  16. 16. DIAGNOSIS It maybe difficult to detect in children with inherited colour vsion deficiency as they don’t know whats wrong with them  If you have eye test with optometrist he should check your colour vision as a matter of routine 
  17. 17. ISHIARAS TEST  There are many tests available to measure colour vision defects but the most common is the Ishihara Plate test.  can test for red/green colour blindness but not blue colour blindness.  This is the test most likely to be used for routine colour vision screening in schools or medicals.  This test contains 38 plates of circles created by irregular coloured dots in two or more colours.
  18. 18. PLATES FOR ISHIARAS TEST
  19. 19. TREATMENT There is currently no treatment  Colour filters or contact lenses can be used in some situations to enhance the brightness between some colours  For acquired colour vision deficiency, once the cause has been established and treated, your vision may return to normal. 
  20. 20. PEOPLE LIVING WITH COLOUR BLINDNESS: Colour blind people face many difficulties in everyday life  Problems can arise in even the most simple of activities including choosing and preparing food, gardening, sport, driving a car and selecting clothing.  Colour blind people can also find themselves in trouble because they haven’t been able to pick up a change in someone’s mood by a change in colour of their face 
  21. 21. REFERENCES  http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/tc/colorblindness-topic-overview  http://www.colourblindawareness.org/colourblindness/colour-blindness-experience-it/  http://www.geteyesmart.org/eyesmart/diseases/colo r-blindness.cfm  http://www.colblindor.com/2010/03/02/what-is-colorblindness/
  22. 22. Thankyou
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