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Traumatic brain injury_final

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  • 1. BY Prisco Nkembeng Arka Sen
  • 2. Background
    • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is damage to the brain as the result of an injury.
    • The injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head causing the brain to collide with the inside of the skull.
    • A penetrating object into the skull,
    • such as a bullet or a sharp piece object
    • can also cause TBI.
  • 3. Background con’t
    • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability among persons in the United States.
    • TBI can range from mild to severe depending on the degree of severity.
    • From mild change in mental state or consciousness to severe with an extended period of unconsciousness.
  • 4. Background con’t
    • 1.7 million people sustain a TBI annually,
      • 52, 000 die
      • 275,000 are hospitalized
      • 1.365 million are treated and released from the hospital.
    • 30.5% of all injury-related deaths in the United States is due to TBI.
  • 5. Symptoms
    • Mild TBI
      • Loss of consciousness from a few seconds to minutes
      • Memory problems
      • Headache
      • Dizziness
      • Mood changes
      • Fatigue
      • Difficulty sleeping
    • Moderate to severe TBI
      • Loss of consciousness from a few minutes to hours
      • Profound confusion
      • Agitation
      • Slurred speech
      • Loss of coordination
      • Convulsion
      • Weakness
  • 6. Causes
    • Falls
    • Vehicle-related collisions
    • Violence
    • Sport injuries
    • Explosive blasts and other combat injuries
  • 7. Significance
    • Leading cause of death and disability
    • High economic burden of TBI in the U.S. (about 37.8 billion in 1985)
    • High emotional cost (premature death from TBI) can not be quantified.
    • TBI is an important Public Health problem in the United States that needs an immediate fix.
  • 8. Source of Information
    • College football player who committed suicide had brain injury, By Madison Park. CNN. September 14, 2010
    • BU team makes brain discovery. Metro Boston, September 20, 2010
    • Kids' brain injuries from basketball may be rising, MSNBC. September 09, 2010
    • Traumatic brain injury. CNN. September 16. 2010
    • Traumatic brain injury. (Mayo Clinic).
  • 9. Other professions affected by TBI
    • Medical Doctors
    • Nurses
    • School officials
    • Scientific Researchers
    • Public Health Administrators
    • Local lawmakers
  • 10. Implications to health education, health promotion and program planning
    • Primary prevention
    • Acute care and rehabilitation
    • Proper documentation and data collection
  • 11. Primary prevention
    • Health education is key
    • TBI from transportation crashes :
      • Increase seat belt /helmet use
      • Increase child safety seat use
      • Equip cars with air bags
      • Decrease driving under the influence of drugs
    • TBI from Violence:
      • Laws regulation fire arms
      • Programs to decrease self-directed or interpersonal violence
  • 12. Primary Prevention
    • TBI from falls:
      • Modify the environment
      • Reduce the use of medications with side effects the increase fall risk
    • TBI from sport injury:
      • Helmets
  • 13. Acute care and Rehabilitation
    • TBI may alter a person’s career or vocational aspirations with profound effects on social and family relationships.
      • Impairment of cognitive function
      • Emotional instbility
    • We need to treat people who sustained TBI with Acute Care and Rehabilitation because the condition has such a profound affect on their lives.
  • 14. Proper documentation and data collection
    • Better information on the occurrence of TBIs and its surrounding circumstances help in the required to properly target prevention.
    • Health practitioners and policy makers need that data to ensure that services are available to the public.
    • Society is more likely to take action against the ravages of traumatic brain injury if it understands how pernicious, pervasive, and huge the problem is.
  • 15. Challenges
    • There is a difference in case definition of TBI thereby including some negative cases, and excluding some positive cases.
    • There are limited data sources which makes research and decision making (policy) difficult.
  • 16. References
    • Thurman, D., Alverson, C., Dunn, K., Guerrero, J., Sniezek, J., (1999). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: A public health perspective. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 14(6), p602-615
    • Barber, J., Research, prevention and quality assurance in traumatic brain injury: A public hospital perspective. Journal of the National Medical Association, 87(1), p15-16
  • 17. References con’t
    • Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths. Atlanta (GA):Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2004.
    • Center for disease control and prevention (CDC).
  • 18. Questions
    • How important is policy development in addressing the prevalence of TBI?
    • What measures can high school football coaches take in preventing TBI?
    • Do you think addressing TBI requires “up-stream” interventions or “down-stream” interventions?