BY Prisco Nkembeng Arka Sen
Background  <ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is damage to the brain as the result of an injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
Background con’t <ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability among persons in the Un...
Background con’t <ul><li>1.7 million people sustain a TBI annually, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52, 000 die </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Symptoms  <ul><li>Mild TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness from a few seconds to minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Causes  <ul><li>Falls </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle-related collisions </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Sport inju...
Significance  <ul><li>Leading cause of death and disability </li></ul><ul><li>High economic burden of TBI in the U.S. (abo...
Source of Information <ul><li>College football player who committed suicide had brain injury, By Madison Park. CNN. Septem...
Other professions affected by TBI <ul><li>Medical Doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses </li></ul><ul><li>School officials </li...
Implications to health education, health promotion and program planning <ul><li>Primary prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Acute...
Primary prevention <ul><li>Health education is key </li></ul><ul><li>TBI from transportation crashes : </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Primary Prevention <ul><li>TBI from falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce ...
Acute care and Rehabilitation  <ul><li>TBI may alter a person’s career or vocational aspirations with profound effects on ...
Proper documentation and data collection  <ul><li>Better information on the occurrence of TBIs and its surrounding circums...
Challenges  <ul><li>There is a difference in case definition of TBI thereby including some negative cases, and excluding s...
References  <ul><li>Thurman, D., Alverson, C., Dunn, K., Guerrero, J., Sniezek, J., (1999). Traumatic brain injury in the ...
References con’t <ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and De...
Questions <ul><li>How important is policy development in addressing the prevalence of TBI? </li></ul><ul><li>What measures...
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Traumatic brain injury_final

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Traumatic brain injury_final

  1. 1. BY Prisco Nkembeng Arka Sen
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is damage to the brain as the result of an injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The injury usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head causing the brain to collide with the inside of the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>A penetrating object into the skull, </li></ul><ul><li>such as a bullet or a sharp piece object </li></ul><ul><li>can also cause TBI. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background con’t <ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability among persons in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>TBI can range from mild to severe depending on the degree of severity. </li></ul><ul><li>From mild change in mental state or consciousness to severe with an extended period of unconsciousness. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background con’t <ul><li>1.7 million people sustain a TBI annually, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52, 000 die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>275,000 are hospitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.365 million are treated and released from the hospital. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30.5% of all injury-related deaths in the United States is due to TBI. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms <ul><li>Mild TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness from a few seconds to minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderate to severe TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness from a few minutes to hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profound confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convulsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Causes <ul><li>Falls </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle-related collisions </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Sport injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive blasts and other combat injuries </li></ul>
  7. 7. Significance <ul><li>Leading cause of death and disability </li></ul><ul><li>High economic burden of TBI in the U.S. (about 37.8 billion in 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>High emotional cost (premature death from TBI) can not be quantified. </li></ul><ul><li>TBI is an important Public Health problem in the United States that needs an immediate fix. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Source of Information <ul><li>College football player who committed suicide had brain injury, By Madison Park. CNN. September 14, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>BU team makes brain discovery. Metro Boston, September 20, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Kids' brain injuries from basketball may be rising, MSNBC. September 09, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury. CNN. September 16. 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury. (Mayo Clinic). http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/traumatic-brain-injury </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other professions affected by TBI <ul><li>Medical Doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses </li></ul><ul><li>School officials </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Local lawmakers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Implications to health education, health promotion and program planning <ul><li>Primary prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Acute care and rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Proper documentation and data collection </li></ul>
  11. 11. Primary prevention <ul><li>Health education is key </li></ul><ul><li>TBI from transportation crashes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase seat belt /helmet use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase child safety seat use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equip cars with air bags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease driving under the influence of drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TBI from Violence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws regulation fire arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs to decrease self-directed or interpersonal violence </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Primary Prevention <ul><li>TBI from falls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the use of medications with side effects the increase fall risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TBI from sport injury: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helmets </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Acute care and Rehabilitation <ul><li>TBI may alter a person’s career or vocational aspirations with profound effects on social and family relationships. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairment of cognitive function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional instbility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need to treat people who sustained TBI with Acute Care and Rehabilitation because the condition has such a profound affect on their lives. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Proper documentation and data collection <ul><li>Better information on the occurrence of TBIs and its surrounding circumstances help in the required to properly target prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Health practitioners and policy makers need that data to ensure that services are available to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Society is more likely to take action against the ravages of traumatic brain injury if it understands how pernicious, pervasive, and huge the problem is. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Challenges <ul><li>There is a difference in case definition of TBI thereby including some negative cases, and excluding some positive cases. </li></ul><ul><li>There are limited data sources which makes research and decision making (policy) difficult. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Thurman, D., Alverson, C., Dunn, K., Guerrero, J., Sniezek, J., (1999). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: A public health perspective. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 14(6), p602-615 </li></ul><ul><li>Barber, J., Research, prevention and quality assurance in traumatic brain injury: A public hospital perspective. Journal of the National Medical Association, 87(1), p15-16 </li></ul>
  17. 17. References con’t <ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths. Atlanta (GA):Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Center for disease control and prevention (CDC). www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury </li></ul>
  18. 18. Questions <ul><li>How important is policy development in addressing the prevalence of TBI? </li></ul><ul><li>What measures can high school football coaches take in preventing TBI? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think addressing TBI requires “up-stream” interventions or “down-stream” interventions? </li></ul>

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