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  • Loophole = ada kekurangan; so identify gap
  • Km ver 1.0 student

    1. 1. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Zakaria Deraman [email_address]
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Definition of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Knowledge Management (KM) </li></ul><ul><li>Road Map to KM Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Key Benefits of KMS </li></ul>
    3. 3. How Knowledge is Derived? <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facts, numbers or individual entities without context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comprises the basic facts with context and perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information= data + interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the information which provides guidance for action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge= information + use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the understanding which knowledge to use for what purpose. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Data Information Knowledge Wisdom <ul><li>Possess context </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of data </li></ul><ul><li>Information that enable action </li></ul><ul><li>Fact, observation </li></ul><ul><li>Devoid of context </li></ul><ul><li>Human, judgemental </li></ul>
    5. 5. Definition of Knowledge <ul><li>Ideas/best practices from organisation which can be utilized to achieve the organization’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>This knowledge is specific according to organization role/function </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge may be recorded in an individual brain or stored in organizational processes, products, facilities, systems and documents. </li></ul>
    6. 6. When Information become knowledge <ul><li>Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation and etc </li></ul>
    7. 7. Types of Knowledge <ul><li>Tacit Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ highly personal and hard to formalize. Subjective insights, intuitions and hunches fall into this category of knowledge.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Experience, Creativity, Skills, Innovation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explicit Knowledge : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ can be expressed in words and numbers and can be easily communicated and shared in the form of hard data, scientific formulae, codified procedures or universal principles” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Pattern, R&D Materials, Best Practices, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Knowledge conversion – Tacit to Explicit <ul><li>Internalization [i&g&o] </li></ul><ul><li>training </li></ul><ul><li>mentoring </li></ul>tacit <ul><li>Socialization [i&i] </li></ul><ul><li>brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Combination [g&o] </li></ul><ul><li>repositories </li></ul><ul><li>CoP </li></ul>tacit tacit tacit explicit explicit explicit explicit <ul><li>Externalization [ i&g] </li></ul><ul><li>videotaping </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge map </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Importance of Knowledge <ul><li>Resources of an organization must be protected, cultivated and shared among organization members to sustain continuity. </li></ul><ul><li>To compete more effectively in the future an organization need to have the following elements such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual skills/competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovations and ideas </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Problems Relating to Knowledge <ul><li>Usually exists in the minds of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the organization with the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden in some forgotten report </li></ul><ul><li>People are not comfortable sharing their knowledge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a human problem, not a technology problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>People are not sharing what they know due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal reason </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational inhibitors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is becoming an extremely expensive reality. </li></ul>Problems Relating to Knowledge (cont’d)
    12. 12. <ul><li>Inefficiencies that result from intellectual work. </li></ul><ul><li>Substandard performance </li></ul><ul><li>The inability to find knowledge resources </li></ul><ul><li>A better idea goes unused is a lost opportunity </li></ul>Problems Relating to Knowledge (cont’d)
    13. 13. Definition of KM <ul><li>KM is a systematic management of vital knowledge and its associated processes of creating, gathering, organizing, diffusion, use and exploitation, in pursuit of organizational objectives </li></ul>
    14. 14. Definition of KM (cont’d) <ul><li>A systematic process of information in a way that improves an employee’s comprehension in a specific area of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps an organization gain lesson learnt and understanding from its own experience </li></ul>
    15. 15. Definition of KM (cont’d) <ul><li>Specific KM activities help focus the organization on acquiring , storing and utilizing knowledge for problem solving, e-learning, strategic planning & decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>It protects intellectual assets from decay , add to organization intelligence and provides increased flexibility </li></ul>
    17. 17. KM Involves: <ul><li>CoP (Communities of Practice) </li></ul><ul><li>KMO (Knowledge Management Office) </li></ul><ul><li>SME Identification and Use. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Brokering </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned/Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy, Ontology and Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Data Warehousing/Data Mining </li></ul>
    18. 18. Elements of KM <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The culture of the organization support ongoing learning & knowledge sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people should be motivated and rewarded for creating, sharing & using knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire the people to innovate & learn from mistakes. Do not allow “blame and shame” culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also relate to mindset, trust, insight, hunches </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Reasons People Don’t Share Knowledge: <ul><li>People believe that knowledge is power </li></ul><ul><li>People are insecure about the value of their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>People don't trust each other </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are afraid of negative consequences </li></ul><ul><li>People work for other people who don't tell what they know </li></ul>Elements of KM (cont’d)
    20. 20. Elements of KM (cont’d) <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>In order to implement and sustain knowledge management, organizations need to make changes to the way their internal processes are structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify which processes constitute either barriers to, or enablers of, knowledge management. </li></ul><ul><li>How these processes can be adapted, or what new processes can be introduced, to support people in creating, sharing and using knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>activity such as research, recruitment, cataloging, indexing, verification. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Elements of KM (cont’d) <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>a crucial enabler of knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>it can help connect people with information, and people with each other, but it is not the solution . </li></ul><ul><li>KM portal, discovery tools, applications, etc. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Knowledge Life Cycle (Process)
    23. 23. <ul><li>Collect </li></ul><ul><li>Existing knowledge is gathered either on a routine basis or as needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying various knowledge domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing information from existing databases, on-line sources, homepages, application systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organize </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge is classified and stored, often using an organization or industry specific thesaurus or classification schema. This makes subsequent retrieval easier. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An AI system and and Digitized Knowledge will be used to automatically carry out the above functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSS and Data Mining will be used to transfor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul><ul><li>Information may be sent routinely to those people who are known to be interested in it (Information ‘push’) </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings and events act as vehicles to share tacit knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Information is made easily accessible from a database, for example over an intranet. </li></ul><ul><li>Users access it as they need it (information ‘pull’). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A main portal (central) and knowledge portals (various knowledge domains) are used as the front end of the KMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exploit </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge is used as part of a work process. It is refined and developed. Through use, additional knowledge is created and the cycle repeats itself. </li></ul>Knowledge Life Cycle (cont’d)
    24. 24. Technology (Enabler) <ul><li>Knowledge Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Data Mining tools </li></ul><ul><li>Contact software </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets/Extranets </li></ul>
    25. 25. Knowledge Repositories <ul><li>Tool used to store information </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Data Warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIS, DSS </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Expert Systems <ul><li>Attempts to provide an answer to a problem with the consultation aid of human expert. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Case based reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a problem are entered into a system, classified based on different cases, and provides a potential solution. This case and it’s solution is then added to the database. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help Desk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From experience of maintenance activity, the system can produce result to the user and what action should be taken. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Data Mining <ul><li>Attempt by the system to translate huge amounts of data into knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzes patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on information gathered from current and historical data , it can help forecast market trends, business patterns, profiling practices using algorithms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of DM product: Scenario (Cognos), Intelligent Miner (IBM) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Contact Software/Collaborative Tools <ul><li>Facilitates interaction among individuals to encourage sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet chat rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Whiteboards </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual conferencing/meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Online Community </li></ul>
    29. 29. Intranets <ul><li>Usually the first stage of KM implementation for most organizations </li></ul><ul><li>HR forms, online resources, work product status… </li></ul><ul><li>Plan with the user in mind: access, flexibility and navigation </li></ul>
    30. 30. Extranets <ul><li>Centralized electronic repository of information </li></ul><ul><li>Accessed by clients </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising, newsletters, client specific information, status of orders…. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive tools for collaboration </li></ul>
    31. 31. KMS Architecture Model Components of KMS The Technical Consideration
    32. 32. <ul><li>ROAD MAP TO </li></ul><ul><li>KM IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul>
    33. 33. KM Readiness KM Strategy Leadership Behaviours Networking (Collaboration) Sharing & Learning Capturing Level 5 Clearly Identified Recognise and act as a role model Clearly defined roles and responsibility Common language, templates & guidelines Easy to get & constantly refreshed and distilled. Level 4 Not linked to Business Strategy A few jobs are dedicated to managing knowledge Organised around business needs Customers and partners participate in review session Individual acts as the owner Level 3 No Framework Views as the responsibility of a specialist team People are networking to get result Sharing & using are recognised Little or no distillation Level 2 Just saying Little visible support from top Ad hoc & limited among individuals who share a common interest Learn & review before doing Team capture lesson learn after a project Level 1 Only a few people realize View as management fad Knowledge hoarders get rewarded Sharing is for benefit of the team Rarely refreshed & few contribute
    34. 34. 5 STAGES <ul><li>Stage 1: Get Started </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Develop a Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Design and Launch a KM Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Expand and Support </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Institutionalize KM </li></ul>
    35. 35. STAGE 1: Get Started <ul><li>Knowledge management has emerged as a topic of interest in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>At least a few employees have explored the benefits of KM for the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Someone has had a personal stake in developing interest in KM </li></ul><ul><li>Some members of the organization have learned about KM through participation in consortia or conferences </li></ul><ul><li>The organization has created a high-level rationale or vision for pursuing KM </li></ul>
    36. 36. STAGE 2: Develop Strategy <ul><li>Establish a KM exploratory group or steering committee for KM </li></ul><ul><li>Need support from an executive sponsor for further exploration of KM </li></ul><ul><li>Look for internal grassroots efforts already under way </li></ul><ul><li>IT organization is interested in actively supporting KM initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Stories of how knowledge sharing has helped in the past (lesson learnt) </li></ul><ul><li>identify proof-of-concept (POC) that allows to demonstrate how KM will benefit our organization </li></ul><ul><li>Secured ownership, funding, and buy-in for pilots </li></ul>
    37. 37. STAGE 3: Design & Launch KM Initiatives <ul><li>Design a pilot and implementation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Launch communities of practice (CoP), an interactive KM Intranet site, or some other pilot initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Enlist and train pilot facilitators and leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Establish pilot measures and indicators and developed a system for tracking and reporting results </li></ul><ul><li>Create strategies for learning from our KM initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Map out strategies for expanding our pilot initiatives across the organization </li></ul>
    38. 38. STAGE 4: Expand & Support <ul><li>Other departments in the organization are expressing a demand for KM, based on pilot results </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to market KM throughout the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Make the entire organization aware of KM </li></ul><ul><li>Expand strategy in place for KM initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the resources necessary for expanding KM efforts </li></ul>
    39. 39. STAGE 5: Institutionalize Knowledge Management <ul><li>KM is directly linked to business model </li></ul><ul><li>KM initiatives are widely deployed throughout the organization </li></ul><ul><li>All staffs are trained to use KM technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Assess KM strategy, identify gaps, and outline methods to close the gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Have a formal support structure in place to maintain KM. </li></ul><ul><li>Have rewards programs in alignment with our KM strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge is now the norm in organization </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>KEY BENEFITS OF KM SYSTEM </li></ul>
    41. 41. The Need for a KM System <ul><li>Increases the capture, sharing and transfer of knowledge across the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Captures tacit and explicit knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Enables indexing and categorization to facilitate searching and mining </li></ul>
    42. 42. The Need for a KM System (cont’d) <ul><li>Single point of access to knowledge contained in isolated information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors and alerts user when new knowledge is captured </li></ul><ul><li>Linking individuals to knowledge to encourage reuse and sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage collaboration by linking individuals to individuals </li></ul>
    43. 43. The Need for a KM System (cont’d) <ul><li>Provide paper-less integration with workflow applications to automatically capture knowledge generated </li></ul><ul><li>Provide secured access to organizational knowledge </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>TERIMA KASIH </li></ul>