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Evidence of climate change in europe
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Evidence of climate change in europe

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summary of climate change trends in Europe

summary of climate change trends in Europe

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  • 1. summary climate change is affecting all regions in Europe  a wide range of impacts on society and the environment are already visible further impacts are expected in future
  • 2. temperature the last decade (2002–2011) was the warmest on record in Europe land temperature was 1.3° C warmer than the preindustrial average compared to the 1961–1990 average projections show that Europe could be 2.5–4° C warmer by the close of the twenty-first century
  • 3. heat waves heat waves have increased in both frequency and length they have caused tens of thousands of deaths over the last decade the projected increase in heat waves could increase the number of extreme weather-related deaths over the next decades
  • 4. precipitation precipitation is decreasing in southern regions precipitation is increasing in northern Europe climate change is projected to increase river flooding, particularly in northern Europe
  • 5. rivers minimum river flows are projected to decrease significantly in summer in southern Europe river flow droughts appear to have become more severe and frequent in southern Europe belowground flow is declining in many central European watersheds
  • 6. the Arctic the Arctic is warming faster than other regions. record low sea ice was observed in the Arctic in 2007, 2011 and 2012 melting of the Greenland ice sheet has doubled since the 1990s
  • 7. glaciers 250 billion tonnes of mass has been lost each year between 2005 and 2009 on the Greenland ice sheet Glaciers in the Alps have lost two-thirds of their volume and continue to melt
  • 8. sea level sea levels are rising, raising the risk of coastal flooding during storm events global average sea level has risen by 1.7mm a year in the 20th century it is likely that 21st century sea-level rise will be greater than during the 20th century
  • 9. human health climate change plays a part in the transmission of certain diseases  the tick species Ixodes ricinus is thriving further north further warming may make parts of Europe more suitable for disease-carrying mosquitos and sandflies the pollen season arrives 10 days earlier than 50 years ago
  • 10. plants and animals widespread changes in plant and animal characteristics are already observed plants are flowering earlier in the year freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton blooms are also appearing earlier
  • 11. landcapes animals and plants are moving northward or uphill as their habitats warm the migration rate of many species is insufficient to keep pace with the speed of climate change they could be pushed towards extinction in the future mitigation requires the construction of local and regional biocorridors
  • 12. agriculture  water available for agriculture in southern Europe is decreasing the expansion of warm-season crops will continue to expand into more northerly latitudes Yields are projected to fall for some crops due to heat waves and droughts in central and southern Europe
  • 13. adaptation adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause adaptation also means taking advantage of opportunities that may arise
  • 14. task most adaptation initiatives will be taken at the regional or local levels the ability to cope and adapt also differs across populations, economic sectors and regions within Europe working in pairs, students are asked to prepare a report with actionable recommendations for their region on one of the themes presented