The causes and effects of climate change


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The document gives an introduction to climate change. it gives a definition for weather, climate and climate change. it gives the causes and effects of climate change and strategies that can be implemented to mitigate climate change.

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The causes and effects of climate change

  1. 1. Colin Mattis Climate Change Officer National Climate Change Office Ready Preparedness Proposal (R-PP) Consultation August 20th 2013
  2. 2.  What is Climate Change  The Causes of Climate Change  Some evidences of Climate Change  The Effects of Climate Change  Dealing with Global Climate Change
  3. 3. Weather: the state of the atmosphere at some particular time and place… It is measured through wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation. Is it raining outside? How hot is it? Is it windy?
  4. 4.  Climate is defined as an area's long-term weather patterns  The average temperature and precipitation over time  The type and the timing of precipitation  The average wind speeds and directions  Food, water, and energy supply systems are optimized to the current average climatic conditions
  5. 5.  Any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time (10 to 100s of years). In other words, climate change includes major changes in:      Temperature Precipitation Winds other indicators Climate change can involve both changes in average conditions and changes in variability, including, for example, extreme events.
  6. 6.  Life on Earth is possible because of the warmth of the sun.  Some radiation trapped by a delicate balance of gases making up the atmosphere. Without this layer of insulation, Earth would simply be another frozen rock hurtling through space.  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important gas in this layer of insulation.  Natural greenhouse effect
  7. 7.  Major turning point in History  Hand production methods to machines  New chemical manufacturing and iron production processes  Development of machine tools  Shift from wood and other bio-fuels to Fossil Fuels
  8. 8.  Sources of Emissions  Transportation-cars, trucks, ships, trains, and      planes Electricity production Manufacturing Industry Agriculture Commercial and Residential Land Use and Forestry
  9. 9.    Atmosphere contains 32 per cent more carbon dioxide than at the industrial revolution. Atmosphere is now like a thick, heat-trapping blanket Atmospheric balance disrupted that keeps climate stable  climate changes, and it gets warmer Enhanced greenhouse effect
  10. 10.  Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century  Projected to rise another 2 to 11.5°F over the next hundred years.  Each year of the 21st century has ranked among the 14 hottest since record keeping began in 1880.  2010 is the warmest year of the 21st Century
  11. 11. 1957 1998 Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006
  12. 12.  The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.
  13. 13. Green = increasing, Brown = decreasing
  14. 14.    World’s industrial powers (OECD) account for 20% world’s population, but are responsible for >50 % of global emissions – the cause of global warming and resultant climate change. Developing countries emit < 25 % of total GHG emissions. Countries such as Belize emit < 1% of global emissions.  Belize is among the most vulnerable groups to GCC
  15. 15.  GCC will affect how much energy we need and when we need it.  As temperature rises, more energy needed  Harder to produce certain types of electricity, such as hydropower.
  16. 16.   GCC will affect where, when, and how much water is available for use Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and increasing droughts will affect the amount of water in lakes, rivers, and streams
  17. 17.  Increased number of heat-related illnesses and deaths
  18. 18.  Difficult to anticipate  Productivity will increase in some areas and decrease in others     Rise in sea level will inundate flood plains and river valleys (lush farmland) Proliferation of pests and diseases Warmer temperatures will decrease soil moisturerequiring more irrigation Location (i.e. elevation and altitude) where certain crops can be grown may have to change
  19. 19.   Disappearing habitats- up to one/fourth of all the plants and animals on Earth could become extinct within 100 years Migration of species to cooler locations
  20. 20.  Coral reefs can be bleached (right) due to increase in water temperature  Loss of attractiveness of the region as a destination  Loss Employment
  21. 21.   Wildfires start more easily, spread faster, and burn longer. Bark beetle infestation affected 75% of the pine forest
  22. 22.     Increased coastal flooding Rising sea levels erode beaches and damage many coastal wetlands Total destruction of certain beaches and islands Increased storms
  23. 23.   To avoid the worst of climate change, CO2 levels must be stabilized at 550ppm Two ways to attempt to manage climate change  Mitigation ▪ Focuses on limiting greenhouse gas emissions to moderate global climate change  Adaptation ▪ Focuses on learning to live with to the environmental changes and societal consequences brought about by global climate change
  24. 24. End of Presentation Thank You