Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Rolus Climate Change

1,339 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Rolus Climate Change

  1. 1. Presented by GERRY S. PEDRICO Chief Meteorological Officer PAGASA Davao Station Davao City Global Warming / Climate Change: The Philippine Scenario
  2. 2. What is global warming? <ul><li>Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s mean temperature due to the so-called enhanced greenhouse effect. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is global warming? <ul><li>Observational records give a collective picture of a warming world. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Source: OSTP The Greenhouse Effect
  5. 5. <ul><li>If there were no greenhouse effect, the average temperature on the earth’s surface would approximately be -15°C and life on Earth would then be untenable. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CARBON DIOXIDE - Burning of Fossil Fuels(Oil,Coal) by Powerplants, Industries and Vehicles Man-Made Sources of Greenhouse Gas Carbon dioxide
  7. 7. Methane - Decomposition of Garbage and Agricultural Waste Materials, Leaks in Coal Mining and Natural Gas Production Accounts for 20% of additional greenhouse effects Man-Made Sources of Greenhouse Gas Methane
  8. 8. <ul><li>Nitrous Oxide: </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Breakdown of Nitrogen in Soils and Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Pesticides in Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Burning </li></ul><ul><li>Combustion Process Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Production </li></ul>Man-Made Sources of Greenhouse Gas Nitrous oxides
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 </li></ul></ul>Man-Made Sources of Greenhouse Gas Hydrofluorocarbons
  10. 11. <ul><li>Carbon dioxide: + 31% </li></ul><ul><li>Methane: + 151% </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide: + 17% </li></ul>Humans are increasing heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere
  11. 12. Source: IPCC TAR 2001 Strong temperature increase since 1975 (unprecedented) Global Average Surface Temperature Has Risen (0.74°C) Over the Past 100 Years
  12. 13. Global mean temperatures are rising faster with time Period Rate Years  /decade Source: IPCC 100 0.074  0.018 50 0.128  0.026 Warmest 12 years: 1998,2005,2003,2002,2004,2006, 2001,1997,1995,1999, 1990 ,2000
  13. 14. What are the effects of global warming? <ul><li>Global warming has led to what we call climate change through anthropogenic cause or human intervention. These are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases in minimum (nighttime) temperatures, maximum (daytime) temperatures, and increases in the global mean temperature, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in sea surface temperatures, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes in evaporation, and thus, changes in rainfall patterns among others. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. What was the assessed sea level rise due to the increase in the global mean temperature? <ul><li>According to the IPCC, global sea level rise was pegged at an average of 1.8 mm per year from 1961 to 2003, or a total of 0.17 m for the 20th century. </li></ul>
  15. 16. What causes global sea level rise? <ul><li>Sea level rise will occur mostly as a result of the thermal expansion of warming ocean waters, the influx of freshwater from melting glaciers and ice, and vertical movements of the land itself. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Are there projections for further warming? <ul><li>Yes, there are projected increases of from 1.1°C to 6.4°C during the 21st century. The increase that will be realized by 2100 will depend on the population growth, amount and manner of development, adoption of environmentally clean technologies, and other measures/strategies to be put in place by the global community. </li></ul>
  17. 18. What are the expected impacts? <ul><li>Globally, the expected impacts are numerous. Some are beneficial, like the fertilization effect of increased concentration of carbon dioxide seen to cause improved harvests and the warmer temperatures in cold countries which will lead to less death among the very young and the elderly. </li></ul><ul><li>But largely for developing countries, impacts are adverse and may include the ff: </li></ul>
  18. 19. What are the expected impacts? <ul><ul><li>Coastal communities could be affected by accelerated sea level rise, so that they are affected through possibility of more frequent floods and inundation, the possible intrusion of saltwater into their ground resources and also, agricultural areas, more risks to human settlements in these areas, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The beneficial effects of carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture may be negated by higher than threshold temperatures so that harvests could be less, </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. What are the expected impacts? <ul><ul><li>More frequent incidences of droughts and floods could lead to health problems like increased incidences of vector-borne and water-related diseases, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed patterns in rainfall and increasing temperatures could lead to a change in the composition of forest species, </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. What are the expected impacts? <ul><ul><li>The fishing industry may also be affected through the decrease in fish catch if sea surface temperatures continue to increase as nutrients could become less, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More frequent floods/droughts could impact on the agricultural production, and thus, the livelihood of the subsistence farmer. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. How can individuals help to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming? <ul><li>Be aware of global warming/climate change issues and help others know about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling cans and bottles help conserve our resources as this will lead to less energy and less elements used in manufacturing them, while recycling paper will lead to less trees being cut down. </li></ul>
  22. 23. How can individuals help to mitigate the adverse impacts of global warming? <ul><li>Save energy by saving electricity through the use of energy efficient lighting and appliances, biking/walking not very far distances and carpooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate the use of renewable energy such as those from hydrodams, wind, solar radiation and biofuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees and encourage others to plant, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve water and other natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Be environmentally friendly. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Manifestations of Climate Change … Melting of Glaciers Arctic sea ice area decreased by 2.7% per decade
  24. 26. GLOBAL CHANGE: GREENLAND ICEBERGS Greenland's glaciers are melting into the sea twice as fast as the previously believed rate of four miles per year.
  25. 27. DECREASING ICE THICKNESS: QUELCAYA, PERU
  26. 28. GLACIER RETREAT: COLOMBIA
  27. 29. GLACIER RETREAT: BALAIS, SWITZERLAND
  28. 30. GLACIER RETREAT: GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, MONTANA
  29. 31. The Thames Barrier , a major flood defense system in London designed to be used once every two to three years is now being used six times a year due to increased rainfall .
  30. 32. N. Atlantic hurricane record best after 1944 with aircraft surveillance. Global number and percentage of intense hurricanes is increasing North Atlantic hurricanes have increased with SSTs SST (1944-2005) Source: IPCC Marked increase after 1994
  31. 33. What to expect in the 21 st Century? Phenomenon a and direction of trend Likelihood of continuation of trend based on projections for 21 st century using SRES scenarios Warmer/fewer cold day/nights over most land areas Virtually certain d Warmer/more hot days/nights over most land areas Virtually certain d Warm spells / heat waves. Frequency increases over most land areas Very likely Heavy precipitation events. Frequency (or proportion of total rainfall from heavy falls) increases over most areas Very likely Area affected by droughts increases Likely Number of intense tropical cyclones increases Likely Increased incidence of extreme high sea level (excludes tsunamis) Likely
  32. 34. Projected Changes in Precipitation <ul><li>More frequent intense rainfall events; longer dry periods in between </li></ul><ul><li>Drier in most coastal areas </li></ul>Source: SFWMD What to expect in the 21 st Century?
  33. 35. Hurricanes and Tropical Storms With global warming: more intense hurricanes are likely, but changes in frequency are uncertain.
  34. 36. So … What does this all mean for the Philippines?
  35. 38. What are the manifestations/signals of global warming in the local scale? <ul><li>In the Philippines, there already are trends of increasing number of hot days and warm nights, but decreasing number of cold days and cool nights. Both maximum and minimum temperatures are generally getting warmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Other extreme weather/climate events like intense rains have been seen to be more frequent. </li></ul>
  36. 39. AREAS OF FORMATION OF TROPICAL CYCLONES AND ANNUAL AVERAGE NUMBER WORLDWIDE AN AVERAGE OF 100 TROPICAL CYCLONES OCCUR ANNUALLY WORLDWIDE; 30 OF WHICH FORM IN THE WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC AREA
  37. 40. 20 15 THE PHILIPPINE AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY (PAR) 120 25 5 115 5 135 135 25
  38. 41. NAMES OF TROPICAL CYCLONES IN THE PHILIPPINES A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z I II III IV 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 <ul><li>AURING </li></ul><ul><li>BISING </li></ul><ul><li>CRISING </li></ul><ul><li>DANTE </li></ul><ul><li>EMONG </li></ul><ul><li>FERIA </li></ul><ul><li>GORIO </li></ul><ul><li>HUANING </li></ul><ul><li>ISANG </li></ul><ul><li>JOLINA </li></ul><ul><li>KIKO </li></ul><ul><li>LABUYO </li></ul><ul><li>MARING </li></ul><ul><li>NANDO </li></ul><ul><li>ONDOY </li></ul><ul><li>PEPENG </li></ul><ul><li>QUEDAN </li></ul><ul><li>RAMIL </li></ul><ul><li>SANTI </li></ul><ul><li>TINO </li></ul><ul><li>UNDANG </li></ul><ul><li>VINTA </li></ul><ul><li>WILMA </li></ul><ul><li>YOLANDA </li></ul><ul><li>ZORAIDA </li></ul>AGATON BASYANG CALOY DOMENG ESTER FLORITA GLORIA HENRY INDAY JUAN KATRING LUIS MILENYO NENENG OMPONG PAENG QUENNIE REMING SENIANG TOMAS USMAN VENUS WALDO YAYANG ZENY AMANG BEBENG CHEDENG DODONG EGAY FALCON GORING HANNA INENG JUANING KABAYAN LANDO MINA NONOY ONYOK PEDRING QUIEL RAMON SENDONG TISOY URSULA VIRING WENG YOYOY ZIGZAG AMBO BUTCHOY COSME DINDO ENTENG FRANK GENER HELEN IGME JULIAN KAREN LAWIN MARCE NINA OFEL PABLO QUINTA ROLLY SIONY TONYO UNDING VIOLETE WINNIE YOYONG ZOSIMO
  39. 42. PHILIPPINE VULNERABILITIES TO GLOBAL WARMING/ CLIMATE CHANGE HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE TO TYPHOONS – LOCATED WITHIN PACIFIC TYPHOON BELT AREA VISITED BY AVERAGE 20 TYPHOONS EVERY YEAR
  40. 43. LANDSLIDES MUD FLOWS Philippine Vulnerabilities to Climate Change
  41. 44. SINCE 2003 AT LEAST 3,000 PEOPLE DIED DUE TO LANDSLIDES AND MUD FLOWS .
  42. 45. HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE TO GROUND MOVEMENTS (LANDSLIDES, MUDSLIDES, ETC.) SITTING ALONG MAJOR FAULT LINES = FRACTURED ROCKS (GROUND EASILY SATURATED WITH WATER) MOUNTAINOUS TOPOGRAPHY WITH STEEP SLOPES
  43. 46. HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOODINGS AND INUNDATIONS <ul><li>Archipelago, composed of 7,100 islands with low lying areas </li></ul><ul><li>Highly susceptible to sea level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Among longest coastlines in the world with 32,400 kms (susceptible to storm surges) </li></ul>
  44. 47. THREATEN FOOD SECURITY Primarily Agricultural and Fishing Economy
  45. 48. A 1 DEGREE INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE IN THE TROPICS AGRICULTURAL YIELD DECLINE BY AS MUCH AS 10%
  46. 49. TEMPERATURE INCREASE BY 2-6 DEGREES DECLINE OF 29%-60% IN PHIL AGRI PRODUCTION WILL DIRECTLY THREATEN FOOD SECURITY, ESPECIALLY SINCE THE PHILIPPINES HAS ONE OF THE HIGHEST POPULATION GROWTH
  47. 50. El Niño Vulnerability Maps Rice Corn
  48. 51. What are the manifestations/signals of global warming in the local scale? <ul><li>A substantial amount of coral reefs in the country have been found to have been affected by bleaching during events of warmer sea surface temperatures. Bleaching of the coral reefs is associated with the loss of symbiotic algae and/or their pigments, and the death of the corals if the warming of the sea surface temperatures are prolonged. </li></ul>
  49. 52. WHAT CAN WE ALL DO TO MITIGATE GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE?
  50. 53. Activities we can do to help: <ul><li>Conserve the use of electricity and water </li></ul><ul><li>Put out lights that are not in use or close the television when nobody is watching </li></ul>According to studies abroad, 75% of electricity consumed at home is stand by power to keep electronics running while they are off.
  51. 54. Activities we can do to help: <ul><li>Drive Less and Drive Smart </li></ul>Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise.
  52. 55. Plant a Tree A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.
  53. 56. Activities we can do to help: we already have an efficient rail transit and you may try it
  54. 57. Activities we can do to help: <ul><li>If you are in a business that uses fuel, switch to renewable energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Strive to have a more efficient production process </li></ul><ul><li>Use efficient lighting and efficient use of electrical equipment . </li></ul>
  55. 58. Activities we can do to help: Invest in projects that can generate carbon credits and generate more revenues reforestation Landfill gas recovery
  56. 59. <ul><li>Replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing just one 60-watt incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save you Php30.00 over the life of the bulb. </li></ul><ul><li>CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs, and use two-thirds less energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Change a Light Bulb </li></ul>
  57. 60. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle <ul><li>Recyclable products are usually made out of things that already have been used. It usually takes less energy to make recycled products than to make new ones. The less energy we use, the better. </li></ul><ul><li>By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually. </li></ul>
  58. 61. Promote Pubic Awareness <ul><li>Educate yourself, you family, your friends, your co-workers and everyone you meet. </li></ul><ul><li>The more people are aware of the issues the more likely they are to make decisions that will be constructive! </li></ul><ul><li>Be active - Speak up in a positive way in your local community and organization and help others to commit to reducing greenhouse gas emmisions . </li></ul>
  59. 62. Capacity: 24.75 MW (15 WTG @ 1.65 MW) Height of hub : 70 m Cost = US$ 47.6 M Northwind Wind Power Project in Bangui Bay Ilocos Norte STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  60. 63. Northwind Wind Power Project in Bangui Bay Ilocos Norte Philippines is now the leading wind energy producer in Southeast Asia Phase 2 (8 MW) On-going
  61. 64. 1 MW CEPALCO Solar Power Plant STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Milestones of the REPF (2003-2006)
  62. 65. Our Earth Our Future Our Choice
  63. 66. THANK YOU and HAVE A NICE DAY

×