Scaffolding Academic
Language Acquisition

English Language Learners Program
Anchorage School District 2009-10
  Session 3...
Content Objective

Participants will be able to identify ways to
build background knowledge.
Content Objective

Participants will be able to identify ways to
build background knowledge.


Language Objectives

Partic...
Review                      Preparation
  Lesson      •Clearly defined content objectives for students


Preparation   •Cl...
Building Background

•Concepts explicitly linked
                         to
students’ background experiences
Building Background

•Concepts explicitly linked
                         to
students’ background experiences

•Links are ...
Building Background

•Concepts explicitly linked
                         to
students’ background experiences

•Links are ...
Building Background Activities

Word Cards: Organize into groups using the
words on your cards
Building Background Activities

Word Cards: Organize into groups using the
words on your cards


How did background knowle...
Reproducible 4.5
                                                               Building Background


Martin had a funny f...
Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom




                                        Building Background BLM #3
     ...
Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom
•Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?”...
Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom
•Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?”...
Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom
•Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?”...
Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom
•Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?”...
Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom
•Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?”...
Graphic Organizers
Why Use Webbing Before a Lesson?

1. Students can identify what they already know (prior knowledge) and use it
as a BASE t...
Webbing Template
Who?                              What?




               Headline

How?                              Wh...
Assignment 1: Webbing Before the Teacher’s Lesson
(Student Work)
                                               Big
      ...
Assignment 1: Webbing After the Teacher’s Lesson
 (Student Work) Weigh about
                 300 pounds
                 ...
TIMELINE




           The Aspire Curriculum
STORY MAP
Name: ______________________________ Date: _________________
 Characters                   Setting (Time and Pla...
VENN DIAGRAM




            Alike




Different           Different


                                The Aspire Curricul...
KWL CHART

What I Know   What I Want to Know   What I Have Learned




                                               The ...
K.I.M.
                (Key Idea/Vocabulary, Information/Definition, Memory/Visual Cue)

   K: Key Idea/Vocabulary        ...
K.I.M.
                       (Key Idea/Vocabulary, Information/Definition, Memory/Visual Cue)

    K: Key Idea/Vocabulary...
READING LOG

What I Understood            What I Didn’t Understand




                                                  T...
Vocabulary Activities

 Get Down With Words--A Stellar Strategy

 This strategy investigates spelling and kinesthetic memo...
Aa   Bb   Cc   Dd   Ee   Ff
 WORD
 WALLS
                      Gg   Hh   Ii   Jj   Kk   Ll
•High Frequency
•Words

•Conten...
WORD
  WALLS             Aa             Bb              Cc           Dd            Ee               Ff

 Read My Mind     ...
WORD
 WALLS              Aa             Bb              Cc           Dd            Ee               Ff
 Read My Mind      ...
WORD
 WALLS              Aa             Bb              Cc           Dd            Ee               Ff
 Read My Mind      ...
WORD
 WALLS              Aa             Bb              Cc           Dd            Ee               Ff
 Read My Mind      ...
WORD
 WALLS              Aa             Bb              Cc           Dd            Ee               Ff
 Read My Mind      ...
WORD
 WALLS              Aa             Bb              Cc           Dd            Ee               Ff
 Read My Mind      ...
Vocabulary Bingo
Fold paper into desired
number of squares
Have students copy words
from the word wall into each
square--o...
Is It Worth It?
Is It Worth It?
An average student learns about 3,000 words per year.
Is It Worth It?
An average student learns about 3000 words per year.

For students who learn only 1,000 words per year,
a ...
Is It Worth It?
An average student learns about 3000 words per year.

For students who learn only 1,000 words per year,
a ...
We Learn..........

10% of what we READ

20% of what we HEAR

30% of what we SEE

50% of what we SEE and HEAR

70% of what...
The Degrees of the Components in the
       Involvement Load Hypothesis
              Degrees of the
Components           ...
Task-induced Involvement Load of
      Common Language Learning Activities in Japanese Universities
                      ...
Content Objective

Participants will be able to identify ways to
build background knowledge.


Language Objectives

Partic...
✦Questions

✦Comments

Next Session: Comprehensible Input
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Session 3: Building Background

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  • Session 3: Building Background

    1. 1. Scaffolding Academic Language Acquisition English Language Learners Program Anchorage School District 2009-10 Session 3: Building Background
    2. 2. Content Objective Participants will be able to identify ways to build background knowledge.
    3. 3. Content Objective Participants will be able to identify ways to build background knowledge. Language Objectives Participants will be able to........ •participate in a group oral language activity using background knowledge. •demonstrate vocabulary activities used to build background.
    4. 4. Review Preparation Lesson •Clearly defined content objectives for students Preparation •Clearly defined language objectives for students •Content concepts appropriate for age and educational background •Supplementary materials used to a high degree, making the lesson clear and meaningful (e.g., graphs, models, visuals) •Adaptation of content to all levels of student proficiency (e.g., text, assignment) •Meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts with language practice opportunities for reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking Echevarria, Vogt, & short 2000
    5. 5. Building Background •Concepts explicitly linked to students’ background experiences
    6. 6. Building Background •Concepts explicitly linked to students’ background experiences •Links are explicitly made between past learning and new concepts
    7. 7. Building Background •Concepts explicitly linked to students’ background experiences •Links are explicitly made between past learning and new concepts •Key vocabulary emphasized (e.g., introduced, written, repeated, and highlighted for students to see)
    8. 8. Building Background Activities Word Cards: Organize into groups using the words on your cards
    9. 9. Building Background Activities Word Cards: Organize into groups using the words on your cards How did background knowledge affect the way you organized into groups?
    10. 10. Reproducible 4.5 Building Background Martin had a funny feeling in the pit of his stomach. As he walked down the alley, he thought of his younger brother who had recently died. What did the future hold for him? He contemplated his living situation and the people around him. If only he could predict the future, he would know more clearly what he should do today. Describe the main character. 2005 Lesson Lab, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    11. 11. Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom Building Background BLM #3 Robin Liten-Tejada, 2001
    12. 12. Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom •Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?” and solicit responses. Building Background BLM #3 Robin Liten-Tejada, 2001
    13. 13. Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom •Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?” and solicit responses. •Charts - Make a chart of key information being studied and keep the chart as a reference. Call students’ attention to it as needed. Building Background BLM #3 Robin Liten-Tejada, 2001
    14. 14. Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom •Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?” and solicit responses. •Charts - Make a chart of key information being studied and keep the chart as a reference. Call students’ attention to it as needed. •KWL - Have students individually, or as a class, create a KWL chart. Refer back to it during the unit and check off things in the ‘want’ column when explored and add things to the ‘learn’ column. Building Background BLM #3 Robin Liten-Tejada, 2001
    15. 15. Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom •Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?” and solicit responses. •Charts - Make a chart of key information being studied and keep the chart as a reference. Call students’ attention to it as needed. •KWL - Have students individually, or as a class, create a KWL chart. Refer back to it during the unit and check off things in the ‘want’ column when explored and add things to the ‘learn’ column. •Student Journals - Have students write down what they have learned in a journal or notebook. Building Background BLM #3 Robin Liten-Tejada, 2001
    16. 16. Ways to Tie Prior Learning into the Classroom •Questioning - Ask a simple question, “Who remembers what we did yesterday?” and solicit responses. •Charts - Make a chart of key information being studied and keep the chart as a reference. Call students’ attention to it as needed. •KWL - Have students individually, or as a class, create a KWL chart. Refer back to it during the unit and check off things in the ‘want’ column when explored and add things to the ‘learn’ column. •Student Journals - Have students write down what they have learned in a journal or notebook. •Lesson Connections - Make explicit statements to connect what the students are going to study with what they have studied. Help students see a continuum of the content concepts and build a bigger picture in their minds. Building Background BLM #3 Robin Liten-Tejada, 2001
    17. 17. Graphic Organizers
    18. 18. Why Use Webbing Before a Lesson? 1. Students can identify what they already know (prior knowledge) and use it as a BASE to build on. 2. Students can TRANSFER knowledge from their first language and culture. 3 If the web is in English, the students can begin to think in English about the topic and begin to identify words they know and VOCABULARY they need to know. 4. Students can SEE THE CONNECTIONS between different parts of the topic and this helps them remember. 5. ESL students can PARTICIPATE in the lesson because they are prepared with ideas and English words.
    19. 19. Webbing Template Who? What? Headline How? Where? Why? When?
    20. 20. Assignment 1: Webbing Before the Teacher’s Lesson (Student Work) Big Herbs Size B Bear’s family B Family Food Grass Panda Bears Black and white Japan Characteristics Habitat Not wild Attack to defend themselves The Aspire Curriculum
    21. 21. Assignment 1: Webbing After the Teacher’s Lesson (Student Work) Weigh about 300 pounds Grow about 6 feet tall Bamboo shoots Raccoon family Size B B Family Food Panda Sharp claws Bears Not clumsy Hollow trees Bad temper Characteristics Habitat Sharp teeth Caves Highlands of China Endangered species Can be aggressive The Aspire Curriculum
    22. 22. TIMELINE The Aspire Curriculum
    23. 23. STORY MAP Name: ______________________________ Date: _________________ Characters Setting (Time and Place) Problem Events Solution Moral The Aspire Curriculum
    24. 24. VENN DIAGRAM Alike Different Different The Aspire Curriculum
    25. 25. KWL CHART What I Know What I Want to Know What I Have Learned The Aspire Curriculum
    26. 26. K.I.M. (Key Idea/Vocabulary, Information/Definition, Memory/Visual Cue) K: Key Idea/Vocabulary I: Information/Definition M: Memory/Visual Cue Sentence: Sentence: Sentence:
    27. 27. K.I.M. (Key Idea/Vocabulary, Information/Definition, Memory/Visual Cue) K: Key Idea/Vocabulary I: Information/Definition M: Memory/Visual Cue -the distance around a circle circumference (Like he perimeter of a rectangle) circumference Sentence: The distance around a circle is called the circumference. If you measure across a circle where it is the diameter diameter widest, you will have the diameter. Sentence: The length of the line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has it’s endpoints on the circle. The distance from the radius center of the circle to radius any point on the circle. Sentence: The radius is the length of the line drawn from the center of a circle to any point on the circle.
    28. 28. READING LOG What I Understood What I Didn’t Understand The Aspire Curriculum
    29. 29. Vocabulary Activities Get Down With Words--A Stellar Strategy This strategy investigates spelling and kinesthetic memory! 1. Tall letters: stand with both arms straight up in the air. 2. Short letters: stand with both hands on your waist. 3. Below the line letters: crouch down with both hands on your waist. 4. Spell the words. 5. NOW FASTER!! From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    30. 30. Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff WORD WALLS Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll •High Frequency •Words •Content Words Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr •Story Vocabulary •Difficult to Spell Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz
    31. 31. WORD WALLS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Read My Mind adventure Aleut cheechako Denali eagle fireweed *Students number 1-5 on paper. Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll *Teacher gives 5 clues. hiking glacier Homer Juneau kayak *First clue is: “Word is on the Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr word wall.” moose northern *Last clue is the mountain orca parka lights definition of the mukluks word. Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz salmon sled dog *Students must snow tundra ulu winter write a guess sourdough after each clue. From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    32. 32. WORD WALLS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Read My Mind adventure Aleut cheechako Denali eagle fireweed Let’s Play! Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll 1. The word is on the word wall. hiking Make a guess. glacier Homer Juneau kayak Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr moose northern mountain orca parka lights mukluks Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz salmon sled dog snow tundra ulu winter sourdough From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    33. 33. WORD WALLS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Read My Mind adventure Aleut cheechako Denali eagle fireweed Let’s Play! Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll 1. The word is on the word wall. hiking Make a guess. glacier Homer Juneau kayak 2. The word is a noun. Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr moose northern mountain orca parka lights mukluks Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz salmon sled dog snow tundra ulu winter sourdough From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    34. 34. WORD WALLS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Read My Mind adventure Aleut cheechako Denali eagle fireweed Let’s Play! Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll 1. The word is on the word wall. hiking glacier Make a guess. Homer Juneau kayak 2. The word is Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr a noun. moose northern 3. The word has mountain orca parka lights a long vowel mukluks sound. Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz salmon sled dog snow tundra ulu winter sourdough From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    35. 35. WORD WALLS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Read My Mind adventure Aleut cheechako Denali eagle fireweed Let’s Play! Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll 1. The word is on the word wall. hiking glacier Make a guess. Homer Juneau kayak 2. The word is a noun. Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr moose 3. The word has northern mountain orca parka lights a long vowel mukluks sound. Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz 4. It is a salmon sled dog compound word. snow tundra ulu winter sourdough From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    36. 36. WORD WALLS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Read My Mind adventure Aleut cheechako Denali eagle fireweed Let’s Play! Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll 1. The word is on the word wall. hiking Make a guess. glacier Homer Juneau kayak 2. The word is a noun. Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr moose 3. The word has northern mountain orca parka a long vowel lights mukluks sound. Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx, Yy, Zz 4. It is a salmon compound word. sled dog snow tundra ulu winter sourdough 5. A flowering plant. From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    37. 37. Vocabulary Bingo Fold paper into desired number of squares Have students copy words from the word wall into each square--one word per square Teacher reads the definition of the word Students cover the word that matches the definition From Liz Warner’s Stellar Strategies
    38. 38. Is It Worth It?
    39. 39. Is It Worth It? An average student learns about 3,000 words per year.
    40. 40. Is It Worth It? An average student learns about 3000 words per year. For students who learn only 1,000 words per year, a gain of 300 words equals a 30% increase This is significant, especially if repeated year after year. (Stahl, 1999)
    41. 41. Is It Worth It? An average student learns about 3000 words per year. For students who learn only 1,000 words per year, a gain of 300 words equals a 30% increase. This is significant, especially if repeated year after year. (Stahl, 1999) “One of the most persistent findings in reading research is that the extent of students’ vocabulary knowledge relates strongly to their reading comprehension and to their overall academic success.” (Lehr, Osborn & Hiebert, 2005)
    42. 42. We Learn.......... 10% of what we READ 20% of what we HEAR 30% of what we SEE 50% of what we SEE and HEAR 70% of what we DISCUSS with others 80% of what we EXPERIENCE personally 95% of what we TEACH to someone else William Glasser
    43. 43. The Degrees of the Components in the Involvement Load Hypothesis Degrees of the Components Explanations Involvement Load The learner does not feel the need to Index 0 (None) learn the word. Need Index 1 (Moderate) The learner is required to learn the word. Index 2 (Strong) The learner decides to learn the word. They do not need to learn the meanings Index 0 (None) or forms of the word. Search Index 1 (Moderate) The meaning of the word is found. Index 2 (Strong) The form of the word is found. The word is not compared with other Index 0 (None) words. The word is compared with other words Evaluation Index 1 (Moderate) in the provided context. The word is compared with other words Index 2 (Strong) in self-provided context. From The Involvement Load Hypothesis: An Inquiry into Vocabulary Learning, by Mayumi Tsubaki, 2006.
    44. 44. Task-induced Involvement Load of Common Language Learning Activities in Japanese Universities Need Search Evaluation Task Status or target words Index Index Index From The Involvement Load Hypothesis: An Inquiry into Vocabulary Learning, by Mayumi Tsubaki, Filling in the blanks with target Listening to a song and trying words. Looking up the meaning of 1 1 1 to understand the song. target words. Finding words which mean Looking up the word forms of designated ideas by the 1 2 0 target words. teacher. Matching target words with the explanation of words. Guessing the meanings by reading 2006 Target words and their 1 1 1 example sentences. example sentences are presented. Looking up necessary words in a Retelling a story that they dictionary. Target words are 1 1 or 2 2 have read before. decided by the teacher. Useful words are presented, and Talking about movies that they choose words that they 1 0 2 they watched before. need. Choosing a relatively difficult Choosing words that they use. 2 2 2 topic and writing an essay.
    45. 45. Content Objective Participants will be able to identify ways to build background knowledge. Language Objectives Participants will be able to........ •participate in a group oral language activity using background knowledge. •demonstrate vocabulary activities used to build background.
    46. 46. ✦Questions ✦Comments Next Session: Comprehensible Input
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