A survery of kingdom animalia


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A survery of kingdom animalia

  1. 1. Chordates: 3 subphylums:o Cephalochordatao Urochordatao Vertebrata, including fish• Class Agnatha• Class Chondrichthyes• Class OsteichthyesOnly subphylum Urochordata and Cephalochordata are invertebrates.All chordates have a number of structures in common:• A notochord (noto = the back; chord = string) is present in all embryos, and may bepresent or absent/reduced in adults. This is the structure for which the phylum wasnamed.• A dorsal, hollow, ectodermal nervecord typically forms by an infolding of theectoderm tissue, which then “pinchesoff” and becomes surrounded bymesoderm. Spinal bifida is the failure of thenervous system to close.• The pharangeal slits (pharynx = throat) originally functioned in filter feeding: water istaken into the mouth and let out via the pharangeal slits. The slits filter out foodparticles and keep them in the animal’s body so they can be put into the digestivetract. In fish, these have become modified as gills, and in humans as our ears andeustachian tubes.• A postanal tail (post = behind, after; anal refers to the anus) is present and extendsbehind the anus in many taxa, thus the anus isn’t at posterior tip of body. In humans,the tail is present during embryonic development, but is subsequently resorbed.Subphylum Cephalochordata (cephalo = head)
  2. 2. №1№2(Головохордовые, бесчерепные)Characteristics:• don’t have a “head.”• marine animals, live in the muddy ocean floor• segmented• possess elongated bodies with a notochord that extends into the head, one inch long• no bones• retain the notochord throughout their livesFamilies:• Family Asymmetronidæ Genus Asymmetron Genus Epigonichthys• Family Branchiostomidæ (Ланце́тниковые) Genus Branchiostoma (branchio = gill, fish; stoma =mouth) which was formerly know asgenus Amphioxus (amphi = on both sides, double)Urochordata or subphylum Tunicata(Оболо́чники)Characteristics:• marine filter feeders with a saclike morphology• Most adult tunicates are sessile and attached to rocks or similarly suitable surfaces on the ocean floor• others such as salps, doliolids and pyrosomes swim in the pelagic zone• they do not develop very clear coelomic body-cavities if any at all• organs are enclosed in a membrane called an epicardiumClasses:• Ascidiacea (Асци́дии)( Aplousobranchia №1, Phlebobranchia №2,and Stolidobranchia №3)• Thaliacea (Са́льпы)(Pyrosomida №4, Doliolida №5,and Salpida №6)• Appendicularia (Аппендикуля́рии)(Larvacea №7)• Sorberacea №8Subphylum Vertebrata№3№4№5№6№7№8
  3. 3. (make up about 4% of all described animal species, 50,000 species)Characteristics:• have a definite head• nerve cord is enlarged into a brain which typically consists of five vesicles• vertebrae, hollow structures which combine to make the spinal column, replaces the notochord as anaxial support for muscles• a closed circulatory system with a ventral heart• have a well developed coelom which contains the viscera• excretion via kidneys• separate males and females with sexual reproduction in mostClasses:• Class Agnatha(Бесчелюстные) (a- = not,without; gnatho = jaw) whichis the lampreys• Class Chondrichthyes (Хрящевы́е ры́бы)(chondro = cartilage; ichthys = fish) whichincludes sharks and rays.• Class Osteichthyes (Ко́стные ры́бы)(osteo = bone) is the bony fish• Class Amphibia (Земново́дные)(amphi = on both sides, double; bios =life) is frogs, newts, and salamanders•Class Reptilia (reptili = creeping) is thedinosaurs: snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and lizards
  4. 4. • Class Aves (avi = a bird) is the birdsInvertebrate PhylaCharacteristics:• absence of a vertebral column• multicellular• generally have bodies composed of differentiated tissues• like vertebrates, most invertebrates reproduce at least partly through sexual reproduction• no cell walls• most invertebrates can move• Class Mammalia (mamma, mammil =teat, nipple) is the mammals
  5. 5. • most invertebrates are organized symmetrically• heterotrophic.Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera(Губки)Characteristics:• Multi-celled immobile animals, heterotrophic• Lack cell walls and produce sperm cells, lack true tissues and organs, andhave no body symmetry• Water intake and outlet openings connected by chambers lined withchoanocytes• All known living sponges can remold their bodies; few can change from one type to another• Bodies consist of a non-living jelly-like mass sandwiched between two main layers of cells.• Sponges have no nervous systemsClasses:• Calcareous sponges (Известко́вые гу́бки)are characterized by spicules (are tiny spike-like structures ofdiverse origin and function) made out of calcium carbonate in theform of calcite or aragonite. While the spicules in most specieshave three points, in some species they have either two or fourpoints.• Hexactinellid sponges (Шестилучевые губки)are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/orsix-pointed siliceous spicules, often referred toas glass sponges. They are usually classifiedalong with other sponges in the phylum Porifera,MesohylPinacocyteChoanocyteLophocytePorocyteOocyteArcheocyteSclerocyteSpiculeWater flow
  6. 6. but some researchers consider them sufficiently distinct todeserve their own phylum, Symplasma.• Demospongiae (Обыкнове́нные гу́бки)are the largest class in the phylum Porifera. Their "skeletons" aremade of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, themineral silica (silicon dioxide), or both. Where spicules of silica arepresent, they have a different shape from those in the otherwisesimilar glass sponges. The demosponges include 90% of all speciesof sponges and are predominantly leuconoid in structure.• Homoscleromorphais a class of marine sponges composed of twofamilies: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.Phylum Cnidaria or Coelenterata(Стрека́ющие, или книда́рии)Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals.Characteristics:• More complex than sponges• They have: cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes; muscles; nervous systems;and some have sensory organs• All cnidaria are aquatic animals, and most are marine• Are symmetrical• have a single orifice and body cavity that performs digestiveand respiratory functionsJellyfish or jellies (Медуза) are themajor non-polyp form of individuals ofthe phylum Cnidaria.Classes:• Anthozoa (Кора́лловые поли́пы)Unlike other cnidarians, anthozoans do not havea medusa stage in their development. Instead, theyrelease sperm and eggs that form a planula, whichattaches to some substrate on which the cnidariangrows. Some anthozoans can also reproduceasexually through budding. More than 6,100species have been described• Hydrozoa (hydrozoans) (Гидро́идные)Are a taxonomic class of individually very small,predatory animals, some solitary and some
  7. 7. colonial, most living in saltwater. The colonies of the colonialspecies can be large, and in some cases the specializedindividual animals cannot survive outside the colony. A fewgenera within this class live in freshwater.• Cubozoa (Кубомеду́зы)Box jellyfish are distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae. Box jellyfish are known for the extremelypotent venom produced by some species. Chironex fleckeri, Carukia barnesi and Malo kingi are among themost venomous creatures in the world. Stings from these and a few other species in the class are extremelypainful and sometimes fatal to humans.• StauromedusaeThey are unique among medusa jellyfish in that theydo not have an alternation of polyp and medusa lifecycle phases but are instead interpreted as anattached medusa stage, with a life style moreresembling that of polypoid forms. They have agenerally trumpet-shaped body, oriented upside-downin comparison with other jellyfish, with the tentaclesprojecting upwards, and the stalk located in the centreof the umbrella. Members of this class are commonlyfound in relatively cold waters, close to the shoreline.Phylum Platyhelminthes (free living flatworms)Characteristics:• unsegmented body• acoelomate• bilaterally symmetrical• flattened dorsoventrally• possess a two-way gut• move by contracting muscles (glides over rocks or undulates through water)• triploblasticClasses:• Turbellaria(Ресни́чные че́рви)• Cestoda(Ленточные черви)• Monogenea (моногенети́ческиесоса́льщики)
  8. 8. • Trematoda(Дигенетические сосальщики) Subclass Digenea (flukes)Rotifera phylum (Коловратки)Characteristics:• Body covered in an external layer of chitin called alorica.• Has a nervous system with a brain and paired nerves.• All live in aquatic environments either free swimmingor attached.• the corona, which is a retractile trochal disk• the mastax, which is a gizzard like structure derivedfrom the modified pharynx• anterior ciliary apparatus, relating to,or resembling ciliaClasses: Subclass Aspidogastrea
  9. 9. • Class Seisonidea (most primitive)• Class Bdelloidea• Class MonogonontaPhylum Nemertea (Немерти́ны)Characteristics:• Bilaterally symmetrical and dorsoventrally flattened• Body has more than two layers of cellswith tissues and organs• Body has a through gut with a mouth and anus• Body has no body cavity• Has a blood system with blood vessels• Has a well developed nervous system and a brain• Most species are carnivorous and predatory• Most are aquatic and marine, there are some terrestrial and freshwater forms.Classes:• Class Anopla(Невооружённыенемертины)
  10. 10. • Class Enopla (Вооружённыенемертины)Phylum Nematoda (Кру́глые че́рви, или немато́ды)Characteristics:• Bilaterally symmetrical, and vermiform• Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs• Body cavity is a pseudocoelom, body fluid under high pressure• Body covered in a complex cuticle• Has a nervous system with pharyngeal nerve ring• Has no circulatory system (no blood system)• Live just about everywhere, many species are endoparasitesClasses:• Class Adenophorea• Class SecernenteaPhylum Annelida(Ко́льчатые черви, кольчецы́, или аннели́ды)Characteristics:• Segmentation• Chaetae (Hairs made of Chitin• 3 Cell Layers• True Coelom• Head develops first (Protostomal)Classes:• Class Polychaeta (Многощетинковыечерви, или полихеты) Poly = Many, Chaetae = hairs
  11. 11. • Class Oligochaeta (Малощетинковые черви) a. Oligo = few• Class Hirudinea (Пиявки) Leeches (Ectoparasites)Phylum Arthropoda (Членистоно́гие)((from Greek ρθρονἄ árthron, "joint", and ποδός podós "leg", which together means "jointed leg"))Characteristics:• The segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata (e.g., head, thorax, abdomen).• The paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae) are jointed.• They posses a chitinous exoskeletion that must be shed during growth.• They have bilateral symmetry.• The nervous system is dorsal (belly) and the circulatory system is open and ventral (back).• Molting is necessary for growthArthropod innovations:• Exoskeleton of chitin* Hard & strong* Impermeable to water* Molting• Segmentation• Jointed appendages* “jointed feet”• efficient walking &swimming* wings in most• one of 2 phyla to fly
  12. 12. Subphylums:• Subphylum Trilobitomorpha (Трилобитообра́зные)• Subphylum Chelicerata (Хелицеровые)• Class Arachnida (Паукообра́зные)• Class Merostomata (Меростомовые)• Class Pycnogonida (Морские пауки,или многоколенчатые)• Subphylum Myriapoda (Многоножки)• Class Chilopoda (Губоно́гие)• Class Diplopoda(Двупарноногиемногоножки)
  13. 13. • Class Pauropoda (Пауропо́ды)• Class Symphyla (Симфилы)• Subphylum Crustacea (Ракообра́зные)• ClassBranchiopoda(Жаброногие)• Class Remipedia(Ремипедии)• Class Cephalocarida(Цефалокари́ды)• Class Maxillopoda(челюстено́гие и максиллоподы)• Class Ostracoda(Остракоды ракушниковые)• Class Malacostraca(Высшие раки)• Subphylum Hexapoda(Шестиногие)
  14. 14. • Class Insecta• Class Entognatha(Скрыточелюстные)Phylum MolluscaCharacteristics:• Free living aquatic forms (freshwater or marine), some amphibious.• Body is soft and unsegmented enclosed in a glandular mantle covered by usually a shell.• Coelom is reduced to a pericardial cavity around the heart.• Digestive system is complete.• Respiratory organs are in the form of gills called ctenidia.• The body differentiated into three regions - head, visceral hump and foot.• Visceral hump is covered by a thin, fleshy fold called mantle.• Reproduction is sexual. Either unisexual or bisexual, development is directClasses:• ClassGastropoda(Брюхоногие,или улитки)• ClassBivalvia(Двуство́рчатые,илипластинчатожа́берные)• ClassCephalopoda(Головоногие)• ClassPolyplacophora(Панцирные моллюски,или хитоны)• ClassScaphopoda
  15. 15. (Лопатоногие моллюски)Phylum Echinodermata(Иглокожие)Characteristics:• Adults are radially symmetrical while larvae are bilaterally symmetrical.• Body is represented by a central disc covered by ossicles with spines called pedicellaria.• Digestive system is complete.• A unique ambulacral or water vascular system is present.• Tube feet are present for locomotion and respiration.• Nervous system has a central nerve ring with five radiating nerves.• Reproduction is sexual. Sexes are separate. Development is indirect.Subphylum:• Subphylum Blastozoa (морские бутоны)• Subphylum Crinozoa• Subphylum Echinozoa• Subphylum Asterozoa(Stelleroidea)• Subphylum HomalozoaPhylum LophophoratesCharacteristics:• often horseshoe-shaped or coiled• surrounds the mouth and is an upstream collecting system for suspension feeding• tentacles are hollow with extensions of a coelomic space
  16. 16. • the gut is U-shaped• the anus, where present, is also anterior, but is dorsal to the mouthSources:Wikipedia.comSeveral Power point documentshttp://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio106/chordate.htmhttp://www.earthlife.net/inverts/vertebrata.htmlhttp://facstaff.cbu.edu/~seisen/Platyhelminthes/sld001.htmhttp://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecPlatyhel/Platyhel.htmlhttp://www.slideshare.net/nlyzluiz/phylum-rotiferahttp://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/invert/assorted.htmhttp://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iii/animal-kingdom/phylum-mollusca.php