The Effects of Relationship and Parenting Skill Training on  Couples, Father Involvement, Parenting and  Children <br />Ho...
Oklahoma Statewide Survey (2002):If divorced, what were the contributors to your divorce?<br />Religious differences 20.6%...
    Marital Conflict & Divorce:        Effects on Children<br />Divorce associated with increased risk for child behaviora...
Data from Sweden<br />Children growing up with two parents have fewer behavioral and emotional problems than growing up wi...
For Children….<br />Divorce is an emotional: “Searing Experience” <br />American Association for Pediatrics (2004)<br />
Marriage & Parenting Programs<br />Can these negative effects on children be prevented or diminished?:  The hope of marria...
                Children & Marriage:                     Key Findings<br />Children one of top three problem areas for cou...
Children Benefit From Growing up in Intact and Healthy Relationships  <br />Except in high danger sign relationships<br />...
Adults living within a healthy marriage tend to…<br />…do better at work,<br />…earn more money,<br />…feel happier in lif...
Children living with their married parents tend to do better…<br />…with friends,<br />…in school,<br />…emotionally.<br /...
Data based on U.S. nationwide random phone survey of 947 adults who were engaged, <br />cohabitating, or married.  (Stanle...
      Marriage & Parenting:                 Key Findings<br />If you improve marriage you improve parenting even if progra...
Responsible Fatherhood and Healthy Marriage Initiative<br />2010 1 year re-authorization<br />$150 million/year for marria...
     Fatherhood  & Healthy Marriage                                                Initiative: History<br />1996 Welfare r...
Goal is to Promote Healthy Marriages<br />Provide skills to help low income couples and parents who desire a healthy marri...
Couples Relationship  Education<br />Structured education to couples about relationship skills, knowledge and attitudes<br...
Effects of Marriage Education Programs (Hawkins Meta Analysis)<br />Effect size =.44 for communication pre-post<br />.44 o...
Impressive since most are PREVENTION</li></li></ul><li>Fort Campbell<br />Home of the 101st Airborne<br />Division (Air As...
PREP AND CONTROL COUPLES DIVORCE OUTCOMES (1 YR)<br />
GERMAN PREP AND CONTROL COUPLESDIVORCE OUTCOMES (11 YRS) <br />
 Dissemination to Diverse Settings and Populations<br />Adoptive and foster parent couples <br />High Schools<br />Teen pr...
Getting Both Partners in Room<br />Despite the success of reaching out to diverse groups of couples through institutions t...
  “Spillover”  Effects<br />For example, a very important question in the family services field: Since mom’s receive most ...
Fatherhood, Relationship, and Marriage Education Project<br />
Howard Markman, Martha Wadsworth, Lindsey Einhorn, Shuana Reinks, Marcie Pregulman & Erica Moran<br />
Thank You For Your Support<br />Administration for Children Youth & Families (ACF), Office of Planning, Research & Evaluat...
 Qualifications for Entry into Study<br /><ul><li>Low Income (200% of the poverty level)
Raising at least one child together
Child 18 or under
Family of 3 - $34,000
Living together at least 6 months</li></li></ul><li>
The Sample <br />301 couples<br />Random Assignment<br />77 Couples Intervention Group<br />80 Female Intervention Group <...
Demographics<br />Age  M 33.9, F 31.0<br /> Ethnicity<br /><ul><li>27% African American
35% White
23% Hispanic
  5% American Indian
10% Bi-racial/Other</li></li></ul><li>Demographics (2)<br />Relationship Status: 63% Married<br />Relationship Length: 6.7...
FRAME Intervention<br />Marries Markman’s couple’s intervention (PREP) with Wadsworth’s stress and coping approach to pare...
The Keys<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
Communication Danger Signs<br />Escalation<br />Invalidation<br />Negative Interpretations<br />Avoidance and Withdrawal <...
The Speaker Listener Technique<br />A way to talk safely when you really need to do it well<br />Not designed to be used a...
               The Goal<br />is for each partner to feel understood by the other<br />is NOT agreement<br />is NOT to solv...
Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
“The Speaker has The Floor.”<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
How to Paraphrase<br />So, what I hear you saying is…<br />So, from your point of view…<br />It sounds like you…<br />So y...
Events, Issues and Hidden Issues<br />Events: How<br />the discussion got started<br />Issues: WHAT<br />we’re talking abo...
How helpful was FRAME?<br />
Response to Intervention<br />Overall satisfaction with workshop <br />5 point scale (5 = Very Satisfied)<br />Couples Gro...
Divorce & Aggression<br />No overall breakup & divorce findings at FU 1 (not expected so soon)<br />However high aggressiv...
NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION FOR MEN <br />FEMALE GROUP RESULTS<br />
FEMALE POSITIVE BONDING FOR PREP AND CONTROL COUPLES (FRAME)<br />
MALE POSITIVE BONDING FOR PREP AND CONTROL COUPLES (FRAME)<br />
NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION FOR WOMAN<br />MALE GROUP RESULTS<br />
FRAME Parenting Findings<br />Increased parenting alliance<br />Increased parent-child warmth and decreased parent-child n...
FRAME Child Outcomes<br />Decreased child symptoms of depression, anxiety & aggression (on Child Behavior Checklist) <br />
Parenting Changes Linked to Child Functioning<br />1.  Pre-post increases in parental warmth and monitoring, and reduced s...
Parenting Changes and Child Functioning (2)<br />3. Decreased parental worry (50% 1-3 hours day)  about finances, linked t...
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Howard J. Markman, Ph.D and Marcie Pregulman "The Effects of Relationship and Parenting Skill Training on Couples, Father Involvement, Parenting and Children"

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Presentation at parental education conference „Are good parents born or taught?“ in Tallinn University, January 20, 2011.

The correlation between the quality of marital relationship and mental health of family members. How can national social policy provide support?
The roots of our social skills are in the childhood – the way our parents communicated influences our relationships in the future. These patterns are hard to change. The relationship enhancement program will give tools to change these patterns.

Please see video recording of the presentation at: http://vimeo.com/channels/vanemaharidus

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Howard J. Markman, Ph.D and Marcie Pregulman "The Effects of Relationship and Parenting Skill Training on Couples, Father Involvement, Parenting and Children"

  1. 1. The Effects of Relationship and Parenting Skill Training on Couples, Father Involvement, Parenting and Children <br />Howard J. Markman, Ph.D & Marcie Pregulman<br />University of Denver<br />Center for Marital & Family Research<br />University of Denver<br />Hmarkman@Du.edu<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Oklahoma Statewide Survey (2002):If divorced, what were the contributors to your divorce?<br />Religious differences 20.6%<br />Domestic Violence 30.1%<br />Economic Hardship 38.9%<br />Little or no marriage prep 41.4%<br />Married too young 42.9%<br />Infidelity 57.5%<br />Too much arguing 59.2%<br />Lack of commitment 84.9%<br />Johnson, C. A., Stanley, S. M., Glenn, N. D., Amato, P. A., Nock, S. L., Markman, H. J., & Dion, M. R. (2002). <br />Marriage in Oklahoma: 2001 baseline statewide survey on marriage and divorce (S02096 OKDHS). <br />Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Department of Human Services.<br />
  4. 4. Marital Conflict & Divorce: Effects on Children<br />Divorce associated with increased risk for child behavioral problems, and school problems, later relationship problems<br />Destructive parental conflict may underlie negative effects of divorce (children exposed to conflict for many years. <br />Tolstoy – only few ways to have bad marriage/parenting<br />Danger Signs<br />
  5. 5. Data from Sweden<br />Children growing up with two parents have fewer behavioral and emotional problems than growing up with single mother (Sarkadi, et. al, 2008 )<br />Lower death and injury rates (Weitoft et. al, 2003, ) <br /> (reported in Popenoe, 2008, Rutgers Marriage Project)<br />
  6. 6. For Children….<br />Divorce is an emotional: “Searing Experience” <br />American Association for Pediatrics (2004)<br />
  7. 7. Marriage & Parenting Programs<br />Can these negative effects on children be prevented or diminished?: The hope of marriage education and parenting programs<br />The role of private and public sectors in promoting and funding these programs: Invest one Euro, save XXX Euro.<br />
  8. 8. Children & Marriage: Key Findings<br />Children one of top three problem areas for couples (money, communication others); especially in middle years, when fun, satisfaction fall to lowest point in marriage<br />Marital satisfaction after childbirth falls for about 60% of couples, but most are still satisfied; unplanned children more negative effects<br />
  9. 9. Children Benefit From Growing up in Intact and Healthy Relationships <br />Except in high danger sign relationships<br />Economic, social, education, emotional <br />Black poverty rate would be 25% vs. 47%<br />White 11% vs. 16%<br />After divorce, children experience 70% drop in household income<br />More likely to finish high school and college<br />Avoid teen pregnancy<br />
  10. 10. Adults living within a healthy marriage tend to…<br />…do better at work,<br />…earn more money,<br />…feel happier in life.<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  11. 11. Children living with their married parents tend to do better…<br />…with friends,<br />…in school,<br />…emotionally.<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  12. 12. Data based on U.S. nationwide random phone survey of 947 adults who were engaged, <br />cohabitating, or married. (Stanley & Markman, PREP, Inc., 1996; 303-759-9931)<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  13. 13. Marriage & Parenting: Key Findings<br />If you improve marriage you improve parenting even if program does not directly target parenting<br />If you improve parenting, may improve marriage, especially if program directly targets marriage<br />If you improve marriage and parenting, you improve child and family functioning.<br />
  14. 14. Responsible Fatherhood and Healthy Marriage Initiative<br />2010 1 year re-authorization<br />$150 million/year for marriage education and responsible fatherhood promotion efforts for low income couples and individuals<br />Child policy driven<br />
  15. 15. Fatherhood & Healthy Marriage Initiative: History<br />1996 Welfare reform under Clinton (TANF, Temporary Aid for Needy Families) <br />Two of four goals involve marriage promotion, since children growing up in one parent families in U.S. more at risk for a variety of behavioral and mental health problems, costing federal government billions of dollars in services <br />Invest $150,000,000/year<br />
  16. 16. Goal is to Promote Healthy Marriages<br />Provide skills to help low income couples and parents who desire a healthy marriage the tools and knowledge to achieve this goal<br />
  17. 17. Couples Relationship Education<br />Structured education to couples about relationship skills, knowledge and attitudes<br />Goal is to increase chances of couple having a healthy relationship and lifetime love and decrease chances of relationship distress and breakup <br />Focus is on early intervention and on risk and protective factors <br />
  18. 18. Effects of Marriage Education Programs (Hawkins Meta Analysis)<br />Effect size =.44 for communication pre-post<br />.44 one year later<br />60% significantly improve <br /><ul><li>Experiments (random assignment) strongest
  19. 19. Impressive since most are PREVENTION</li></li></ul><li>Fort Campbell<br />Home of the 101st Airborne<br />Division (Air Assault).<br />“The Screaming Eagles”<br />
  20. 20. PREP AND CONTROL COUPLES DIVORCE OUTCOMES (1 YR)<br />
  21. 21. GERMAN PREP AND CONTROL COUPLESDIVORCE OUTCOMES (11 YRS) <br />
  22. 22. Dissemination to Diverse Settings and Populations<br />Adoptive and foster parent couples <br />High Schools<br />Teen pregnancy <br />First offender youths and parents<br />Transition to parenthood <br />Work settings <br />Prisons<br />
  23. 23. Getting Both Partners in Room<br />Despite the success of reaching out to diverse groups of couples through institutions that serve them, one of the biggest issues heard from service providers is getting couples in the room. <br />
  24. 24. “Spillover” Effects<br />For example, a very important question in the family services field: Since mom’s receive most family oriented services (e.g., parenting programs; nurse visitor), how do these services impact dad, marriage, other romantic relationship partner, as well as children?<br />Can effects be even stronger?<br />
  25. 25. Fatherhood, Relationship, and Marriage Education Project<br />
  26. 26. Howard Markman, Martha Wadsworth, Lindsey Einhorn, Shuana Reinks, Marcie Pregulman & Erica Moran<br />
  27. 27. Thank You For Your Support<br />Administration for Children Youth & Families (ACF), Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation (OPRE) <br />
  28. 28. Qualifications for Entry into Study<br /><ul><li>Low Income (200% of the poverty level)
  29. 29. Raising at least one child together
  30. 30. Child 18 or under
  31. 31. Family of 3 - $34,000
  32. 32. Living together at least 6 months</li></li></ul><li>
  33. 33. The Sample <br />301 couples<br />Random Assignment<br />77 Couples Intervention Group<br />80 Female Intervention Group <br />72 Male Intervention Group <br />72 Control Group<br />
  34. 34. Demographics<br />Age M 33.9, F 31.0<br /> Ethnicity<br /><ul><li>27% African American
  35. 35. 35% White
  36. 36. 23% Hispanic
  37. 37. 5% American Indian
  38. 38. 10% Bi-racial/Other</li></li></ul><li>Demographics (2)<br />Relationship Status: 63% Married<br />Relationship Length: 6.7 years<br />Children: 2.3 in home<br />Family Income: $22, 800<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. FRAME Intervention<br />Marries Markman’s couple’s intervention (PREP) with Wadsworth’s stress and coping approach to parenting (consistent with Forgatch, Sanders)<br />14 hours delivered in two formats: 3 weekend days or 5 weekday evenings<br />Community Service Providers, female/male teams<br />
  42. 42. The Keys<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  43. 43. Communication Danger Signs<br />Escalation<br />Invalidation<br />Negative Interpretations<br />Avoidance and Withdrawal <br />
  44. 44. The Speaker Listener Technique<br />A way to talk safely when you really need to do it well<br />Not designed to be used all the time<br />It neutralizes the Danger Signs<br />Regular practice can help to “inoculate” your relationship against Danger Signs<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  45. 45. The Goal<br />is for each partner to feel understood by the other<br />is NOT agreement<br />is NOT to solve a problem (yet)<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  46. 46. Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  47. 47. Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  48. 48. “The Speaker has The Floor.”<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  49. 49. How to Paraphrase<br />So, what I hear you saying is…<br />So, from your point of view…<br />It sounds like you…<br />So you…<br />Let me see if I’ve got it. You feel…<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  50. 50. Events, Issues and Hidden Issues<br />Events: How<br />the discussion got started<br />Issues: WHAT<br />we’re talking about<br />Hidden Issues: WHY<br />it matters so much<br />Copyright © PREP Educational Products, Inc. 2008. All rights reserved. 303.759.9931.<br />
  51. 51. How helpful was FRAME?<br />
  52. 52. Response to Intervention<br />Overall satisfaction with workshop <br />5 point scale (5 = Very Satisfied)<br />Couples Group (mean = 4.32)<br />Female Group (mean = 4.46)<br />Male Group (mean = 4.2)<br />Overall very high satisfaction with workshop leaders<br />Participants most commonly reported finding the speaker listener technique most helpful<br />
  53. 53. Divorce & Aggression<br />No overall breakup & divorce findings at FU 1 (not expected so soon)<br />However high aggressive couples have higher rates of breakup and divorce than low aggressive couples<br />Why? Couples may be learning about what a healthy relationship is and what it is not. Then deciding to breakup after seeing their relationship is unhealthy and bad for children<br />
  54. 54. NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION FOR MEN <br />FEMALE GROUP RESULTS<br />
  55. 55. FEMALE POSITIVE BONDING FOR PREP AND CONTROL COUPLES (FRAME)<br />
  56. 56. MALE POSITIVE BONDING FOR PREP AND CONTROL COUPLES (FRAME)<br />
  57. 57. NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION FOR WOMAN<br />MALE GROUP RESULTS<br />
  58. 58. FRAME Parenting Findings<br />Increased parenting alliance<br />Increased parent-child warmth and decreased parent-child negative interactions<br />When negative communication between parents decrease and relationship happiness increased:<br />There was decreased negative interactions between parents and child<br />
  59. 59. FRAME Child Outcomes<br />Decreased child symptoms of depression, anxiety & aggression (on Child Behavior Checklist) <br />
  60. 60. Parenting Changes Linked to Child Functioning<br />1. Pre-post increases in parental warmth and monitoring, and reduced stress predicted reductions in children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 6-month follow-up<br /> 2. Decreased parental worry (50% 1-3 hours day) about finances, linked to lower levels of child symptoms<br />
  61. 61. Parenting Changes and Child Functioning (2)<br />3. Decreased parental worry (50% 1-3 hours day) about finances, linked to lower levels of child symptoms<br />4. Less negative communication and increased parenting alliance associated with decreased child externalizing and internalizing problems<br />
  62. 62. Service Delivery Issues: Our Findings<br />Since mom’s receive most family oriented services, can these services positively impact dad, marriage? <br />Frame suggests yes, if services are dad and/or couple friendly<br />So both people do not have to be in room.<br />Its not so simple!<br />Need to have father, family perspective<br />
  63. 63. How We Integrate Couple Perspective in FRAME<br />Letter to partner about couples orientation<br />Talk about the other person in program<br />Orient skill use in program toward partner<br />Home work is couple oriented<br />
  64. 64. Integration of Couples Perspective (2)<br />Other person also gets home work assignment sheet<br />Coed leaders give male and female perspective<br />Bring home food for family <br />Food provided so other person does need to deal with pre workshop dinner<br />Providing child care money so other partner not burdened with taking care of kids<br />
  65. 65. Building Strong Families Evaluation: Oklahoma<br />Family expectations delivered at Transition to Parenthood; evaluated by RCT<br />Key significant findings 15 months later for couple outcomes:<br />Higher stability<br />Relationship happiness<br />Support and affection<br />Avoidance of destructive conflict<br />Economic well being<br />
  66. 66. Impact on Parenting (weaker findings)<br />Quality of co-parenting (not individual parenting behaviors)<br />Higher father involvement<br /> Living with child<br /> Supporting child financially<br />
  67. 67. Thank You For Listening<br />

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