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Chapter Thirteen


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Chapter Thirteen

  1. 1. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedCrisis InterventionWilliam HarmeningRoosevelt UniversityHarmening, Crisis Intervention: The Criminal Justice Response to Chaos, Mayhem, andDisasterChapter 13THE INSTITUTIONAL CRISIS
  2. 2. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved13.113.213.313.4To summarize the nature of the prison riot.To list and define the various riot typologies, and the dangersposed by each.To explain the psychological principles at play during a prisonriot.To summarize the best practices for responding to a prison riot,and the various solutions available to those attempting to de-escalate a prison riot.CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
  3. 3. To summarize the nature of the prisonriot.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes13.1
  4. 4. 13.1 The Prison RiotOVERVIEWThe prison riot can be a volatile and deadly event. Consider thefollowing:• Attica Correctional Facility, NY (1971) – 39 fatalities, including 10 guards.• McAlester Prison, OK (1973) – 19 fatalities, 24 buildings destroyed.• New Mexico State Penitentiary (1980) – 33 fatalities.• Atlanta Federal Penitentiary (1987) – 1 fatality, nearly entire facility burned down.• Chino Prison, CA (2009) – 249 inmates and 8 prison employees injured.
  5. 5. 13.1 The Prison RiotOVERVIEWDuring a prison riot group behavior overpowers any rationalattempt by individuals to quell the violence.Those who commit acts of violence during a riot believe they canfade back into the crowd once prison officials regain control.Inmates know that those who cooperate with any post-eventinvestigation do so at great peril. This empowers those whocommit acts of violence during the riot. Oftentimes even thosewho are victims of violence during a riot refuse to cooperate withprison officials.
  6. 6. To list and define the various riottypologies, and the dangers posedby each.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes13.2
  7. 7. 13.2 Riot TypesMartin & Zimmerman• Environmental conditions• Spontaneity• Conflict• Collective behavior/ Social control• Power vacuum• Rising expectations
  8. 8. 13.2 Riot TypesUseem & KimballThey look at prison riots in terms of two inmate-related factors.Their inclination to riot relates to the conditions inside the prison.Their ability to riot relates to the ability of the prison administrationto control behavior. They provide four classifications.Inclination to RiotAbility toRiot
  9. 9. 13.2 Riot TypesA New ClassificationThis classification scheme looks atinmate motivations for engaging in riotbehavior…GrievanceRetaliationPowerSymbolicSpontaneousStaff-directedInmate-directedInter-groupIntra-groupConditionsLifestyle1.
  10. 10. 13.2 Riot TypesA New ClassificationThis classification scheme looks atinmate motivations for engaging in riotbehavior…The CONDITIONS grievance riot resultsfrom some type of living conditions withinthe prison. This may be overcrowding,bad food, or lack of clean bed clothes,among other things.The LIFESTYLE grievance riot relates toinmate demands for improved access toreligious practices, computers, and jobtraining, to name a few.GrievanceRetaliationPowerSymbolicSpontaneousStaff-directedInmate-directedInter-groupIntra-groupConditionsLifestyle1.
  11. 11. 13.2 Riot TypesA New ClassificationThis classification scheme looks atinmate motivations for engaging in riotbehavior…The RETALIATION riot involves an act ofvengeance against other inmates orstaff. These riots typically begin withviolence. A good example is a gangfight within the prison that erupts into afull blown riot, as one gang attacks theother. The staff-directed riot typicallyinvolves the taking of hostages, andresults from some action taken by staff,such as removing privileges or lockingdown gang leaders.GrievanceRetaliationPowerSymbolicSpontaneousStaff-directedInmate-directedInter-groupIntra-groupConditionsLifestyle1.
  12. 12. 13.2 Riot TypesA New ClassificationThis classification scheme looks atinmate motivations for engaging in riotbehavior…The prison culture includes manysubcultures, typically gangs. Each ofthose gangs has a power structure, andthere is typically a power hierarchyamong the gangs. The POWER riotsoccurs when one person or faction withina gang attempts to take control of thegang (intra-group), or one gangattempts to exert its power and controlover another (inter-group).GrievanceRetaliationPowerSymbolicSpontaneousStaff-directedInmate-directedInter-groupIntra-groupConditionsLifestyle1.
  13. 13. 13.2 Riot TypesA New ClassificationThis classification scheme looks atinmate motivations for engaging in riotbehavior…This type of riot occurs when the inmatesuse the demonstration to show theirsupport for a particular cause or person.In the past, SYMBOLIC riots haveoccurred in support of civil rights, theanti-war movement, and prison reform.Riots broke out following the death ofMartin Luther King, Jr., and prison inmateGeorge Jackson, author of “SoledadBrother.”GrievanceRetaliationPowerSymbolicSpontaneousStaff-directedInmate-directedInter-groupIntra-groupConditionsLifestyle1.
  14. 14. 13.2 Riot TypesA New ClassificationThis classification scheme looks atinmate motivations for engaging in riotbehavior…The SPONTANEOUS riot is simply that, anunplanned outbreak of rioting thatusually begins with an inmate fight orsome action by staff. These riots veryquickly spin out of control as groupbehavior and panic quickly overpowerrational decision-making by inmates. Inthe early stages of a spontaneous riotthere is typically no one in charge, so itbecomes very chaotic.GrievanceRetaliationPowerSymbolicSpontaneousStaff-directedInmate-directedInter-groupIntra-groupConditionsLifestyle1.
  15. 15. To explain the psychologicalprinciples at play during a prison riot.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes13.3
  16. 16. 13.3 Psychological PrinciplesDeindividuationWhen a person becomes so immersed in a group that they nolonger perceive themselves as acting individually within thegroup.The decrease in self-awareness and self-evaluation leads aperson to commit acts they never would have considered whileacting on their own.Deindividuation impacts the group dynamic in three ways…1. Less inhibition2. Heightened responsiveness to external inputs3. Adherence to group norms
  17. 17. 13.3 Psychological PrinciplesMilgram’s Obedience StudyOne of the most famous experiments in Psychology. Carried outby Dr. Stanley Milgram at Yale University in 1961. Participantswere instructed to administer varying levels of electric shock toanother human (an actor…there was no shock) to measure thedegree to which they would obey such commands.Many of the participants, in fact almost all of them, willinglycomplied with their instructions to varying levels.The experiment shows the phenomenon of deindividuation, asparticipants set aside their own moral and ethical controls infavor of the group’s, which in this case was represented by theexperiment and the researcher.
  18. 18. 13.3 Psychological PrinciplesThe Stanford Prison ExperimentAlso one of the most famous experiments in psychology. Carrying out byDr. Philip Zimbardo in 1971 at Stanford University. The experimentinvolved setting up a mock prison and imprisoning volunteer inmates tomeasure the effects of incarceration on inmate personalities.After six days the experiment had to be discontinued due to unexpectedoutcomes. To Zimbardo’s surprise, the students who were playing the partof prison guard were demonstrating more adverse changes than theinmates, as they began to use abusive and oppressive tactics againstthe inmates.Once again, this experiment demonstrated the effects ofdeindividuation, as the students set aside their own moral and ethicalstandards and adopted the norms and expectations of the group. Theybegan behaving in ways consistent with their perception of normativeprison guard behavior.
  19. 19. To summarize the best practices forresponding to a prison riot, and thevarious solutions available to thoseattempting to de-escalate a prisonriot.Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture, you should be able to complete the following Learning Outcomes13.4
  20. 20. 13.4 The Riot ResponseDe-escalation TacticsWhen a prison riot breaks out, the prison administration has threeavailable options for de-escalation…• The TACTICAL Solution• The NEGOTIATION Solution• The WAITING Solution
  21. 21. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Tactical Solution (Tactical Strike)The tactical solution can involve either a planned TACTICALSTRIKE, or a RIOT SQUAD MANEUVER.This is used when there are hostages, or when vulnerable inmatesare in danger of being harmed or killed.A tactical strike is unannounced and makes use of the element ofsurprise. It is executed quickly to avoid leaders among theinmate population from making plans, and to act beforehostages can be separated.Two key elements of the tactical strike• Preparation• Tactical Intelligence (location of hostages, inmate plans, etc.)
  22. 22. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Tactical Solution (Riot Squad Maneuver)This option does not seek to take advantage of the element ofsurprise.It is a show of force that is designed to divide, isolate, andintimidate the rioting inmates.It involves a controlled entry into the riot area with a well armedcadre of correctional officers and/or State Police.They move as a group, and carry mostly non-lethal weapons. It ishoped that such a show of force will compel inmates todiscontinue their riot. If not, then inmates will be divided, isolated,and restrained by force.
  23. 23. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Negotiation SolutionNegotiating with rioting inmates can be attempting as DIRECTNEGOTIATIONS by prison staff, or as THIRD-PARTY NEGOTIATIONSled by an objective negotiator that may even be requested bythe inmates. They may be religious leaders, media personnel, orlawyers/ advocates involved in prison reform efforts.This option should not begin until there is some semblance ofleadership among the inmates, either an individual or committee.It is important that negotiators not be prison staff in positions ofauthority, such as wardens, asst. wardens, or commanders.
  24. 24. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Negotiation SolutionThird-party negotiators can play several roles…• Initiators of conversation – When inmates refuse an dialoguewith prison staff, a third-party negotiator may be effective atinitiating real dialogue and moving it toward a resolution.• Guarantors to a Promise – They may serve as a witness tobolster the inmates’ trust in agreements reached with prison staff.• Mediators – They may take the lead role in negotiations.• Government bargaining chips – If the inmates demand a third-party negotiator, such an agreement may be used to bargain forthe release of hostages.
  25. 25. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Cycle of Negotiation• The inmates will typically begin with exaggerated demands.The more leverage they have by holding hostages or threateningto destroy property, the more exaggerated the demands will be.•During the initial phase negotiators will be careful not to give into demands, nor make counter-offers. Their goal will be to get theinmates to think in a realistic manner. Once they do, then theycan proceed in one of three directions.1. Bargaining: The give-and-take of demands and counter-demands to reachmutual agreements.2. Problem-solving: Working to resolve the inmates’ immediate problems toallow them an out to their predicament. Useful in a spontaneous riot whenhostages are taken for no apparent reason but panic.3. Situation Management: When the focus is to de-escalate an active and fluidcrisis to get to a point where negotiations can begin.
  26. 26. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Cycle of NegotiationOne of the tasks of the negotiator is know when an IMPASSE hasbeen reached, and effective negotiations are no longer possible.At this point the negotiator will likely issue an ULTIMATUM.• Use-of-force ultimatumRioters must surrender control immediately or else be subjected to anoverwhelming amount of force as riot squad members move in. Thisultimatum must be used with caution if hostages are being held.• Issue ultimatumWhen an impasse is reached on a particular issue, then the negotiatorswill announce that the issue is dead and no longer open to discussion. Itis hoped that such an ultimatum will cause the inmates to think morerationally.
  27. 27. 13.4 The Riot ResponseThe Waiting SolutionInvolves simply waiting out the inmates. One unavoidable realityis that they have no place to go. Best option when there are nohostages or danger to other inmates.• Passive Waiting: Prison officials make no effort to increase thediscomfort of the inmates. They provide ample food and water,and respond to inmate needs. Negotiators refuse to discussissues.• Active Waiting: Prison administrators do make an effort increasethe discomfort of the inmates. They may refuse food and water,cut off electricity, or pipe in loud continuous music in an effort tomake sleep difficult. They may do this in conjunction with limitednegotiations, or they may avoid any negotiations at all.
  28. 28. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedPrison riots can turn into very deadly events due to the chaotic nature ofthese crises. They can result in hostages being taken, inmates beingharmed or killed, and significant amounts of property damage.There are numerous types of riots, each with different motivations anddangers. They include the Grievance, Retaliation, Power, Symbolic, andSpontaneous riots.Prison staff can take one of three approaches to de-escalating a prisonriot; the “tactical” solution, the “negotiating” solution, and the “waiting”solution. Which one they take will depend on how much leverage theinmates have, especially in terms of hostages.CHAPTER SUMMARY13.113.213.4During a riot the phenomenon of “deindividuation” often occurs, andparticipants set aside their individual values and systems of control infavor the values and goals of the larger group.13.3
  29. 29. © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, IncUpper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights ReservedDISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Many prison riots take place because of the freedominmates are given to roam and congregate in places likethe prison yard and cafeteria. Should inmates be allowedsuch freedoms, or do you believe they should be isolatedfrom each other for the duration of their incarceration?2. Should gang affiliation be allowed inside a prison? Orshould members of the same gang be housed in separateareas of the prison and not be allowed to intermingle?3. Discuss ways in which you believe a prison could me maderiot-proof.