Problem Solving Courts

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Lecture on Problem Solving Courts

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Problem Solving Courts

  1. 1. PROBLEM SOLVING COURTS 2011 NEW JUDGE ORIENTATION ARIZONA SUPREME COURT Hon. Ronald A. Wilson South Tucson City Court
  2. 2. U.S. Supreme Court <ul><li>“ [Lawyers] must be legal architects, engineers, builders, and from time to time, inventors as well. We have served, and must continue to see our role, as problem solvers, harmonizers, and peacemakers, the healers – not the promoters – of conflict.” </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Justice Warren Burger, United States Supreme Court (1969-1986) </li></ul><ul><li>(On April 13, 1993, retired Chief Justice Warren E. Burger presented the 1993 Judge Robert L. Taylor Lecture on the campus of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. State Supreme Courts <ul><li>On August 3, 2000 at the Conference of Chief Justices, 50:0 State Chief Justices voted to support “Problem-Solving Courts” </li></ul><ul><li>(Resolution 22, adopted 8-3-2000). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Deferred Prosecution or Diversion <ul><li>Arizona Revised Statutes </li></ul><ul><li>Title 9: Cities and Towns </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4: General Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Article 8: Miscellaneous </li></ul><ul><li>9-500.22 (Diversion) </li></ul><ul><li>9-499.07 (Home Detention) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problem-Solving Courts <ul><li>Reduce, Restore, Root </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Recidivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore the victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address Root Causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can increase the likelihood of compliance with judicial orders by applying what we know about behavior to the way we do business in court. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Concepts <ul><li>Therapeutic Jurisprudence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do law and mental health interact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restorative Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair the harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change behavior of Defendant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore the victim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the Above </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Benefits <ul><li>Focus on the root causes of criminal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Court can address and resolve complex social issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution of old cases </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>Improve community safety </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce jail costs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Problem Solving Courts <ul><li>Community Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Veterans Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Homeless Courts </li></ul><ul><li>DUI Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Violence Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Teen Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Community Justice Boards </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role of the Court <ul><li>Problem-solving courts are those in which courts participate in resolving the underlying problems that lead defendants to commit crime. </li></ul><ul><li>The court response is a proactive approach to sentencing and sanctions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Role of the Judge <ul><li>Bridge builder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect the dots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change agent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible & respected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to span boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus builder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically astute </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rules to consider <ul><li>Arizona Rules of Criminal Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 8 – Speedy trial </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 9 – Presence of parties </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 11 – Incompetence to stand trial </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 14 - Arraignment </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 17 – Guilty and No Contest Pleas </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 32 – Post Conviction Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 33 – Criminal Contempt </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 39 – Victims Rights </li></ul>
  12. 12. Victims Rights <ul><li>The Arizona Constitution, Article 2, Section 2.1 </li></ul><ul><li>A.R.S. 13-4401 through 13-4440 (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>A.R.S. 13-804 through 13-809 </li></ul><ul><li>A.R.S. 13-603.C </li></ul><ul><li>A.R.S. 13-4201 </li></ul><ul><li>A.R.S. 13-105.29 </li></ul><ul><li>A.R.S. 13-105.16 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Incentives and Sanctions <ul><li>Evidence-based behavioral modification techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of incentives, sanctions and consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond the bond book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the statutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class 1,2,3 misdemeanors sentencing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Partnerships <ul><li>Ongoing dialogue with agencies within your sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Use experts to assist with solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge gaps between systems </li></ul>
  15. 15. Community Education <ul><li>Courtroom as classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with other judges </li></ul><ul><li>Courtroom belongs to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Professional organizations can sponsor educational programs </li></ul><ul><li>Law Day </li></ul><ul><li>Uses media </li></ul><ul><li>Use technology </li></ul>
  16. 16. Judicial Challenges <ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><li>Case management </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Crafting appropriate sanctions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Defendant Challenges <ul><li>Engagement and understanding the process </li></ul><ul><li>Candid about transgressions </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment more difficult than regular punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of participation in proportion to the crime </li></ul>
  18. 18. Defense Attorney Challenges <ul><li>Diminished the role of the attorney </li></ul><ul><li>BUT Model Rules of Professional Conduct, Rule 2.1 anticipates interdisciplinary behavior by lawyers. </li></ul><ul><li>“… [A] lawyer may refer not only to law but to other considerations such as moral, economic, social and political factors that may be relevant to the client’s situation.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Prosecution Challenges <ul><li>Fear – (politics, police and public) </li></ul><ul><li>I am not soft on crime (‘hug a thug’) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics “Gun notchers” </li></ul><ul><li>Trained to put people in jail? </li></ul><ul><li>Worldview? </li></ul><ul><li>Narcissistic? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Financial Challenges <ul><li>Reduction in revenue generated from fines!! </li></ul>
  21. 21. CONCLUSION
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Our society must come first. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial educators must teach problem-solving methods to more judges. </li></ul><ul><li>Law schools need to refocus their efforts. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion <ul><li>Problem Solving Courts are the wave of the future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing budgets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less resources for the courts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more creative thinking, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interaction/collaboration with treatment agencies, probation, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>community wants results </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. National Overview American Bar Association 2005 <ul><li>2,500+ problem solving courts </li></ul><ul><li>985 adult drug courts </li></ul><ul><li>386 juvenile drug courts </li></ul><ul><li>196 family drug courts </li></ul><ul><li>74 DUI courts </li></ul><ul><li>44 re-entry drug courts </li></ul><ul><li>65 Tribal Healing-to-Wellness courts </li></ul><ul><li>2 Campus drug courts </li></ul><ul><li>4 Federal District drug courts </li></ul><ul><li>16 re-entry courts </li></ul><ul><li>23 community courts </li></ul><ul><li>111 mental health courts </li></ul><ul><li>393 teen courts </li></ul><ul><li>141 domestic violence courts </li></ul>
  25. 25. Chief Justice Warren Burger <ul><li>“ [Lawyers] must be legal architects, engineers, builders, and from time to time, inventors as well. We have served, and must continue to see our role, as problem solvers, harmonizers, and peacemakers, the healers – not the promoters – of conflict.” </li></ul><ul><li>Chief Justice Warren Burger, United States Supreme Court (1969-1986) </li></ul><ul><li>(On April 13, 1993, retired Chief Justice Warren E. Burger presented the 1993 Judge Robert L. Taylor Lecture on the campus of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Resources <ul><li>American Bar Association </li></ul><ul><li>National Center for State Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Court Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Justice Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Justice Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Criminal Justice Reference Service </li></ul><ul><li>Council of State Governments Justice Center </li></ul>

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