Rrv final neelima


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Rrv final neelima

  1. 1. A RESEARCH REPORT ONCustomer preference of Brand while buying shampoo in Durg & Bhilai Nagar Area. Submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Master of Business Administration Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University, Bhilai Submitted by, NEELIMA VERMA MBA – Semester -2nd (Session 2011-03-31) Approved By, Guided By, Dr. SUMITA DAVE Dr. A.V.RAO Head of the Department Professor Shri Shankaracharya Mahavidyalaya Junwani, Bhilai (C.G.) - 490020 1
  2. 2. DECLARATIONI the undersigned solemnly declare that the report of the research work entitled “Customerpreference of brand while buying shampoo in Bhilai Nagar and Durg” area is based on my ownwork carried out during the course of my study under the supervision of Dr.A.V.Rao. I assert that the statements made and conclusions drawn are an outcome of myresearch work. I further declare that to the best of my knowledge and belief the report does notcontain any part of any work which has been submitted for the award of MBA degree or anyother degree/diploma/certificate in this University or any other University of India or abroad. _________________ (Signature of the Candidate) NEELIMA VERMA Enrollment No:AG8609 2
  3. 3. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the work incorporated in the report “consumer preference of brand whilebuying shampoo in Bhilai Nagar and Durg Area” is a record of research work carried out byNEELIMA VERMA bearing Roll No.: 5373610106 under my/our guidance and supervision forthe part fulfillment for the award of MBA Degree of Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand TechnicalUniversity, Bhilai (C.G.), India.To the best of my knowledge and belief the thesis i) Embodies the work of the candidate herself, ii) Has duly been completed, iii) Is up to the desired standard both in respect of contents and language for external viva. ______ ___________ (Signature of the Supervisor) Dr. A.V.Rao Professor 3
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:-No task however small can be completed without proper encouragement. In this I am greatlyindebted to Dr. A.V.Rao, Professor for being of immense help to me and guiding me in theright track and giving constructive suggestions during the entire work. Mere words will neverbe able to express the feeling I feel towards him, who not stimulated the idea of undertakingthe project, but also interacted with me frequently giving valuable advice during critical stagesof work. I also owe a special depth of gratitude to my friends who created a motivatingenvironment to work on this project and also helped me in understanding and reviewing majorconcept from various point of views.Finally I would like to be grateful to all those who directly or indirectly have been of great helpand obliged me with their support and have helped me in converting my collection of data andinformation into a finely polished project.Place: Bhilai NEELIMA VERMADate: M.B.A. IInd Semester 4
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE NO.Declaration by the Student 2Certificate from the Supervisor 3Acknowledgments 4Table of Content 5Chapter 1. Introduction to the study 6 - 11 a. Research Background b. ContributionsChapter 2. Literature Review 12-16Chapter 3. Research Methodology 17-22 a. Objectives b. Data CollectionChapter 4. Data Analysis and Results 23-30 a. Type of Analysis used b. Results of the AnalysisChapter 5. Findings of the study 31-32Chapter 6. Recommendations 33-34Chapter 7. Limitations 35-36Chapter 8. Conclusions 37-39References 40-41Appendices 42-43 a. Research Progress Report b. Questionnaire used c. Any other appendix 5
  7. 7. INTRODUCTIONShampoo is a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff,environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. Thegoal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make hairunmanageable.Even though most modern shampoos include a conditioning component, shampooing isfrequently followed by the use of conditioners which ease combing and styling.HistoryThe word Shampoo in English is derived from Hindi chāmpo and dates to 1762. The Hindiword referred to head massage, usually with some form of hair oil. Similar words also occur inother North Indian languages. The word and the service of head massage were introduced toBritain by a Bengali entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomed. Dean Mahomed introduced thepractice to Basil Cochranes vapour baths while working there in London in the early 1800s, andlater, together with his Irish wife, opened "Mahomeds Steam and Vapour Sea Water MedicatedBaths" in Brighton, England. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indiantreatment of champi (shampooing), meaning therapeutic massage. He was appointed„Shampooing Surgeon‟ to both George IV and William IV.In the 1860s, the meaning of the word shifted from the sense of massage to that of applyingsoap to the hair. Earlier, ordinary soap had been used for washing hair. 7
  8. 8. However, the dull film soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthylooking.During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water andadded herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker ofshampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him. Commercially made shampoo wasavailable from the turn of the century. A 1914 ad for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazineshowed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine ads in1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo.Specialized shampoosDandruffCosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff.These contain fungicides such as ketoconazole, zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide whichreduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are oftenused as well.All-naturalSome companies use "all-natural," "organic," "botanical," or "plant-derived" ingredients (such asplant extracts or oils), combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants. Theeffectiveness of these organic ingredients is disputed.Alternative shampoos, sometimes marketed as SLS-free, claim to have fewer harsh chemicals -typically none from the sulfate family. They are sometimes claimed to be gentler on human hair.IndiaIn India, a variety of herbs and their extracts are used as shampoos. A very effectiveshampoo is made by boiling soapnuts with dried gooseberry (amla) and a few other herbs, 8
  9. 9. using the strained extract. This leaves the hair soft, shiny and manageable. Anotherproduct used is the mustard cakes left after extraction of mustard oil. SCENARIO OF THE INDIAN SHAMPOO MARKET“X” shampoo has keratin treatment, “Y” shampoo has total nourishment while “Z” shampoorebuilds your damaged hair and control dandruff. Aggressive marketing and media blitz hasmade it a frothy year for shampoo marketers. In one of the most remarkable demonstrations ofacceleration, the shampoo market, after creeping up at an average rate of 6 % per annumbetween 1992 and 1994 and, climbing to 9.55 % in 1995, suddenly raced up to 18.77 % in 1996.In 1997 it went up to 35 % Making the hair flow, and flow and flow, were the uniquestrategies for generating growth adopted by the three principal players in the shampoo market.A flurry of new launches which saw the introduction of 32 new brands, five brand extensions,100 new variants, and 122 new pack - sizes, adding up to an unparalleled excitement in whatwas till then a - one - kind - fits - all product category. So long as it was a generic, generalized -benefits product whose primary value, was that it cleaned hair, no shampoo brand had theloyal following. With a broad swath of appeal, brand USPs were not sufficiently differentiatedfrom one another for any of them to carve out a committed niche.Also, the limited repertoire of benefits acted as a deterrent to frequent usage and hencegrowth. The shampoo - marketers fragmented a once homogeneous market furiously, pegging aunique differentiated benefit to each brand and line - extension so as to build a clearly definedsegment of users for each. While this helped each brand build a franchise, it served the moreimportant function of giving every user a definite, focused reason to use a particular brand.The consumer has got used to the idea of using only that brand of shampoo that suits his orher hair the best. this was achieved by launching a series of new brands, as well asrepositioning old ones, to peg each to a distinctive benefits. So, Levers rolled out SunsilkNutracare (the proposition : hair root nourishment), Sunsilk Ceramides (the proposition : repair damagedhair), Organics (the proposition : hair root nourishment), Organics dandruff treatment (the proposition : hairroot nourishment with anti - dandruff treatment), Clinic active (the proposition : presence of pro - vitaminB5), Clinic All Clear with ZPTO (the proposition : control of dandruff - causing microbes, scalpmoisturizer, and reduced scalp itch ), and Lux Super Rich (the proposition : inclusion of hair moisturiser) to join Clinic Plus and Sun Silk. 9
  10. 10. P&G joined the fray with Pantene Pro - V (the proposition : nourishment of hair from root to tip),Pantene Pro-V Extra shampoo - and Oriflame‟s conditioning shampoo.. Through new brandlaunches companies generated constant excitement to keep interest in the product alive. Evenas segmentation offered new value propositions to shampoo users, the marketers baked upthat menu with multiple price points, creating several VFM equations. And because they weretargeting growth, they cannily priced every new product at a discount to a comparable onewhile holding out a promise of either matching or greater value. There was also a largesuccessive cut in the excise duty on shampoos : from 120 % in 1994 to 70% in 1995, 40 % in1996, and 30 % in 1997. Also in India customers are inordinately sensitive to price. There isalways a large number of potential customers waiting to buy your product as soon as itbecomes affordable.RESEARCH BACKGROUND The purpose of this report is to provide a background understanding of what factors areconsidered by the customers for purchasing shampoo. To prepare the report, an extensiveliterature review based on factors of customers preference for shampoo has been done.The content of a new research initiative is structured around the following areas: association of extrinsic cues (price, brand, advertisement) to outcomes information sources used and their perceived usefulness for information on desired outcomes additional information needs concerns regarding market conditions alternatives considered under different situations/conditions Knowledge levels regarding different brands of shampoo availability. the role of dealers push factor for selecting decisions situational factors that affect customers preference, such as availability 10
  11. 11. Analysis of the results of the research should go significantly beyond simple graphs,tables, and analysis of variance. The goal is to identify the choice of buyer and what factors isinfluence customer‟s decision to purchasing shampoo. CONTRIBUTION The topic chosen by me for my project research is “A study on consumer preference of brandwhile buying shampoo in Durg and Bhilai Nagar area”. Today there are various companies coming to the Indian market and they will certainlycreate a cutthroat competition in this field. I have chosen shampoo as the topic essence of myproject. Today shampoo customers due to new manufacturing entrants have started getting awide choice while buying one. This has given a consideration for the quality, price, variety,availability provided by the shampoo companies. A normal customer is quite puzzled and faces for huge problems in deciding what factorsone must consider for purchasing shampoo. I realized the problem and decided to take this upas a challenge and provide them their basic requirement of “factors of customer preferencewhile purchasing shampoo”. 11
  13. 13. Literature ReviewConsumer’s preference of brand:- Consumer preference of brand is dynamic. First of all, with the developing relationshipbetween consumer and company, his perceptions of the company and its products or serviceswill change. The more experience the customer accumulates, the more his preference will shiftfrom fact based judgments to a more general meaning the whole relationship gains for him.Overtime, he puts a stronger focus on the consequence of the product or service consumption.Moreover, if the consumer‟s circumstances change, their needs and preferences often changetoo. In the external environment, the offerings of shampoo, with which a consumer compares aproduct will change, thus altering his perception of the best offer around. Another point is thatthe public opinion towards certain issues can change. This effect can reach from the publicexpectation of good corporate citizenship. Research has been donning on the impact of brandname of shampoo on the consumer‟s choice. Many companies has make their name as abelievable name. Consumers think that shampoo of that name is good.Shampoo:-Now a days, shampoo has become a necessary product. It‟s care our hair. Customer usesdifferent brands of shampoo.There are many brand of shampoo:- 1. Head & Shoulder 2. Dove 3. Clinic Plus 4. Sunsilk 13
  14. 14. 5. Pantene 6. Chick 7. RejoiceIndian consumer uses shampoo regularly. Consumer select shampoo on the different basis,like- :- Brand name :- Quality :- Price :- Discount :- Offers :- Varieties :- Availability :- Packaging :- Advertisement :- IncomeConsumer prefer the shampoo on the basis of these factors. These factors impact on theconsumer‟s mind.Brand name:- Reputation is the brand value and respect a product earns in themarket. Re putation can be built on quality, durability, accuracy, reliability, price, availbility, etc.This is built over a period of time and customers are willing to pay a premium for a well known 14
  15. 15. or trusted brand name and often become loyalists to those brand. Reputation of a brand orproduct is built by the experiences of the consumer over a period of time the more theconsumers are satisfied with the productthe more the trust they place on the product.Quality:- One of the basic concepts of TQM philosophy is the continuous processimprovement. This concept implies that there will be no, constant acceptable quality levelbecause the consumers‟ need & wants, quality requirements, expectations are constantlychanging and becoming more demanding. An American Society for Quality (ASO) survey onend user perception of important factors that influenced the consumer preference showed thefactors.Price :- Every consumer react differently to the pricing strategies of the personal careproducts. Reaction to pricing is also different for different products. For certain products bothwill be willing to pay more and for certain other products it will be the opposite. But whatever itis today‟s consumers in general are willing to pay a higher price to obtain value. Any consumerwill be constantly evaluating the personal care products or service against the competitors todetermine who provides the greatest value. Thus an ongoing effort must be made by theorganisation to identify, verify and update the consumers‟ preference about the personal careproducts. 15
  16. 16. Discount:- discount is the factor which influence the consumers mind to select and switchthe particular product. It is a psychological factor, that consumer wants some gain. Consumerthink that, if any product is available in chip rate then why I buy another product.Offers:- offers provide some another things with product. This is also a psychologicalfactor.Packaging:- Packaging we define it as all the activity of design & producing thecontainer for the product. The container is called package. well designed packages can createconvenience & promotional value. Consumer affluence that means consumer are willing to paya little more for the convenience appearance, dependability & prestige of better packages.Innovative packaging can bring large benefits to consumers‟ and profit to product.Advertisement:- The role of advertisement is crucial in market. It should not onlycommunicate the product attributes but should also drive home that the products psychologicalattributes are better then those of other competing products. In other words advertising can helpdifferentiate the company‟s product from the other products. Television as on advertisingmedium is taken granted in India & the researchers think that TV. Advertisement is mostinfluential type of advertisement become most people watch TV & unlike other advertisement.TV ad has the ability to convey your message with sight, sound & nation. They make accurateto influence consumer because they can easily reach target audience.Needs & Wants:-The one theme of any marketing activity pertains to the satisfactionof the needs of customer. Needs are basis to human existence nut wants are not. Wants arebasically acquired needs. 16
  18. 18. Research Methodology:- Research Objectives:- 1-Customer awareness about different brand of shampoos. 2-To identify the customer mostly used brand of shampoo. 3-To study the opinion of customers about shampoo. Research Design:- RESEARCH PLAN Research Design: Exploratory/Descriptive Research Method Used Survey Research Technique Used Questionnaire Data Collection (location) From Durg and Bhilai Nagar Sampling Plan Convenience Sample Size 100 18
  19. 19. Demographic Characteristics Measure Item Number of Respondents <20 30 20-30 25 Age 30-40 25 >40 20 Total 100METHODOLOGY The study was conducted in the markets of Durg And Bhilai Nagar. For the study aquestionnaire was formulated and administered to the respondent. Questionnaire was openended with Likert‟s Scale. The medium of this questionnaire was English. The Questionnairewas administered face to face with respondents. Some of these were filled up after a smallconversation relevant to the subject of study.Research Design:-In my research I have applied the descriptive design. 19
  20. 20. Descriptive Research; In this research I have conducted Descriptive Research to study the „factors of customerspreference for shampoo in the area of Durg and Bhilai Nagar. Descriptive research includessurveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The method of research utilized indescriptive research is survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and co-relationalmethodsResearch Method;Survey Method : In this research, method utilized to conduct research is that “Survey Method”. Surveymethod is one of the method of descriptive research and very popular and widely used methodof gathering data. This method is particularly used with quantitative research. In this method,collection of data is done through questionnaire. Questionnaire is taken by the researcher to therespondents with invitation for filling the questionnaire. As I have conducted a research on the study on customers‟ preference of shampoo, Iused personal survey method to identify the preference level of customer towards it and factorswhich influence them. Because this method is most appropriate to identify various factors ofcustomers‟ preference for shampoo. This method is best because interviewer can make directinteraction with the respondent and they can observe something also that what “factors arepreferred by the customers for purchasing shampoo”. Even though this method has some 20
  21. 21. disadvantages, but it has more advantages also like economical method, no interviewer bias,large sample can be made use of and etc.DATA COLLECTION METHODAs a data collection method I have used the Questionnaire Method.Rationale for using questionnaire method Questionnaire had been prepared to get the response of the people as per guided by theorganizational guide. To provide the best end results without any kind of biasness, which cangive a brief idea about sampling and would be beneficial for making inferences for tabulationsand calculations with research instruments? I made a survey through questionnaire as preparedby me.Sources of Data The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and researchdesign checked out. While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study.The two type of data is.  PRIMARY DATA  SECONDARY DATAPrimary Data The primary data for the study was collected by personally administering thequestionnaire to respondent and observation.Secondary Data The secondary data for the study was collected for other information from booksMagazines and internet etc. 21
  22. 22. Questionnaire Design In questionnaire, I have used 6 questions. In the 1st , 2nd, and 3rd questions, there are 5 options for respondent. Respondent can choose any one of the option. In 4th question, I used Likert‟s measurement scale to identify “factors of customers‟preference for shampoo”. Here 1 to 5 scales are used to be marked their preference level,where „1 stands for strongly disagree‟, „2 disagree‟, „3 Neutral‟, „4 Agree‟ and „5 Strongly agree‟.This questionnaire includes 7 factors, which measures factors of customers‟ preference forshampoo.Sample Size Data have been collected through the survey method while survey has been conducted intwo areas:1). Bhilai Nagar2). Durg All the data are primary in the nature as they had been collected first hand and personally.All the area had segmented according to the population of this area. We have considered 100 assample size. we made a survey by questionnaire as prepared by me. Sample size has been kept to100-sample unit. 22
  24. 24. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT 1- In 1st question, I wanted to know the respondent‟s opinion as to that which brand of shampoo they‟d like to purchase? a. DOVE 36 b. Sunsilk 02 c. Head & Shoulders 32 d. Clinic plus 18 e. Others 12 DOVE SUNSILK H&S CLINIC + OTHERS 12% 36% 18% 32% 2%Interpretation:- most of the respondents liked to purchase the HEAD & SHOULDER andDOVE brand of shampoo. They said that these brands are better than others. 24
  25. 25. 2-In question 2nd , why you like this particular brand? a. Brand Name 10 b. Quality 34 c. Softness 18 d. Suits your hair 30 e. Others 08 BRAND QUALITY SOFTNESS SUIT YOUR HAIR OTHERS 8% 10% 30% 34% 18%Interpretation:- According to the respondents, quality and suitability to hair are the mainfactors to choose the particular brands. 25
  26. 26. 3-In the 3rd question, what reason influences you for your purchase? a. Anti Dandruff 24 b. Black Shine 20 c. Hair fall control 28 d. Hair clean 26 e. Others 02 ANTI DANDRUFF BLACK SHINE HAIR FALL CONTROL HAIR CLEAN OTHERS 2% 24% 26% 20% 28%INTERPRETATION:- 28% hair fall control and 24% cleaning the hair are the mainfactors to influence the customer to purchase the shampoo. 26
  27. 27. 4- In the 4th question, I wanted to know the factors that are considered while purchasing a particular brand of shampoo. :- there are 7 factors I. Price II. Quality III. Discount IV. Brand V. Offers VI. Varieties VII. Availabilities The Following are the responses:PRICE 12 16 22 36 14QULAITY 6 8 2 32 52DISCOUNT 10 20 54 16 0BRAND 4 10 16 50 20OFFER 10 16 40 32 2VARIETY 4 16 38 24 22AVAILABILITY 0 0 32 34 34 27
  28. 28. 120 100 80 Series5 60 Series4 40 Series3 20 Series2 0 Series1Weighted Averages of the responses work out to be as follows:PRICE 12*1 16*2 22*3 36*4 14*5 324/500*100 65QULAITY 6*1 8*2 2*3 32*4 52*5 416/500*100 83DISCOUNT 10*1 20*2 54*3 16*4 0 276/500*100 55BRAND 4*1 10*2 16*3 50*4 20*5 372/500*100 74OFFER 10*1 16*2 40*3 32*4 2*5 300/500*100 60VARIETY 4*1 16*2 38*3 24*4 22*5 356/500*100 71AVAILABILITY 0 0 32*3 34*4 34*5 402/500*100 80 28
  29. 29. 5. how many times you use shampoo in a week? a. One Time 24 b. Two Times 40 c. Three Times 24 d. More Then Three Times 08 Chart Title ONE TWO THREE MORE THAN THREE 8% 25% 25% 42% INTERPRETATION:- most of the respondents use shampoo 2 times in a week. 29
  30. 30. 6. from which source do you get information about shampoo? Chart Title ADV PAST USG FRNDS RELATIVS BUEATICIANS OTHERS 0% 6% 2% 8% 8% 76%INTERPRETATION:-Most of the customers get information from advertisements like-TVAd, Magazines, NEWS Papers etc. Many of the customers take knowledge from their past usage. 30
  32. 32. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY:-1- HEAD & SHOULDER and DOVE are the largest selling shampoo brands in the Durg and Bhilai Nagar area.2- Quality of the shampoo and its suitability for hair are the main factors that influence the customer‟s decision to purchase shampoo.3- Customers want to purchase particularly for hair fall control and hair cleaning.4- Price is a factor that influences the customers decisions .5- Discount and offers do not seem to have more impact on the customers decision.6- Customer has less interest in variety of shampoo .7- Advertisement influences the customers.8- Age is not a factor to use the shampoo. Every age group of persons use shampoo. 32
  34. 34. RecommendationsAccording to the present research following can be considered as conclusions andrecommendations:- 1. The company should emphasise more on “quality of shampoo” and should be suitable for hair because it is one of the most highly considered factors of customer‟s preference for shampoo. 2. Brand does not play a significant role as a factor of customers‟ preference; so the companies should put effort to increase their quality and pay attention towards the price aspect. 3. Companies should try to reduce the price, because this factor influences the customer‟s decision. 4. Companies should make more interactive advertisement, because it influences the customers to purchase the shampoo. 34
  35. 35. CHAPTER:- 7LIMITATION 35
  36. 36. Limitations:-Samples are collected from Bhilai Nagar and Durg only considering that they are therepresentatives of entire market that may not be universally true.The mental status of the respondents might have influenced the accuracy of the data at thetime of response.Further limitations to the study are as follow:  The sample size of 100 respondents for survey though is small had to be adhered to due to time and other constraints.  The time given for survey i.e. one month may be taken as one another constraing factor for the study  The study is limited to Durg and Bhilai nagar region and as such the conclusions may not be taken as representative of the larger regions like the state region or at national level. 36
  37. 37. CHAPTER:- 8CONCLUSION 37
  38. 38. Conclusion:- It is concluded that difference between the Parameters i.e. Brand, Quality, Price, Offers,Availability, Advertisement, Discounts, Dealers push appear to be significant. The customers of Bhilai Nagar and Durg area are not brand conscious customers. Theykeep quality and price factor in their mind when they purchase shampoo. Most of the customersuse Head & Shoulder shampoo. They think that this is more qualitative shampoo than others.Age is not a factor to use shampoo. Every age group person uses shampoo. 38
  39. 39. REFERENCES 39
  40. 40. REFERENCESCitation from Books:  Kothari, C.R "Research Methodology" New Delhi, Willy Eastern Ltd. 1990, Second Edition.  Harsh V Verma, ”Brand Management” Second Edition 2006.  ENCARTA ENCYLOPEDIA STANDARD 2004.Citation from Website:  www.viscocity.com  www.indiashampoo.com 40
  41. 41. APPENDICES 41
  42. 42. QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Which brand of shampoo you like to purchase? a. Dove b. Sunsilk c. Head & Shoulder d. Clinic plus e. Others ______________ 2. Why you like this particular brand? a. Brand name b. Quality c. Softness d. Suits your hair e. Others ________________ 3. What reason influences you for your purchase? a. Anti dandruff b. Black shine c. Hair fall control d. Hairs clean e. Others _______________ 4. What factors do you consider while purchasing a particular brand of shampoo?FACTORS 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly disagree agreePriceQualityDiscountBrandsOffersVarietiesAvailability 5. How many times you use shampoo in a week? a. One time b. Two times c. Three times d. More than three 42
  43. 43. 6. From which source do you get the information about shampoo? a. Advertisement b. Past Usage c. Friend d. Relatives e. Beautician f. Others _________Personal Information: 1. Name of Respondent: ___________________________________________ 2. Age: 1. <20 2. 20 to 30 3. 30 to 40 4. 40 and above 3. Gender: 1. Male 2. Female 4. Occupation: 1. Service 2. Business 3. Student 4. Other ______________ 43